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CLASSIFICATION OF WHEAT Following the classifications of Carleton,' of Haeckel, and of Kornicke and Werner, and perfecting them by adding new data, by extending to smaller subdivisions, by giving world distribution, and, for the sake of unity and completeness, by giving the essential characteristics of each division, there is given below a descriptive and distributive outline of the division Hordeve given on Page 2.
1.1 Hordeæ (Sub-tribe).
1.2 Agropyrum (Genus) (Quack. G
4.2 Triticum. .* 1.3 Aegilops (section). Species ovata taken as type. Found in southern
Europe to Turkestan in Asia. Twelve species in all are recognized. do 2.3 Sitopyrus.
1.4 Triticum monococcum. ... 1.5 Name: None in English. German Einkorn preferred. French
non-shattering: short, thin narrow-leaved plant, seldom over 3 feet
America except to experimenters.
for fodder. 2.4 Triticum Polonicum. 1.5 Name: Polish wheat a misnomer; Giant or Jerusalem rye, Perhaps
native in Mediterranean region 2.5 Characteristics: Only species in which lowest flower has palea as long
as its glume, outer glumes at least as long as flowering glumes; two to three seeded; tall; stems pithy within; heads and kernels extremely
large; macaroni gluten; drought and rust resistant; resembles rye.
stan. Brazil; Northwestern United States.
5.5 Use: Principally for macaroni.
3.4 Triticum sativum dicoccum. .... 15. Name: None in English, often erroneously called spelt; German
emmer preferred. 1 U.S. Dept. Agr., Div, Veg. Phys. and Path., Bul. 24, p. 6. ? Minn, Bul. 62, p. 392.
2.5 Characteristics: Probably derived from Einkorn; leaves usually
velvety hairy; plants pithy or hollow; heads very compact and flat
crushed emmer; grist; “pot barley;" bread; also used for feed. 4.4 Triticum sat. spelta.
1.5 Name: English, spelt; German, spelz or dinkel; French epeautre.
rather long, bearded or bald; very brittle rachis; spikelets two to
stock. 5.4 Triticum sat. compactum. 1.5 Name: Club or square head wheats; also “hedgehog wheat,"
"dwarf wheat." 2.5 Characteristics: Little more than two feet high, being a dwarf; heads
very short, often squarely formed; commonly white, at times red; bearded or bald; spikelts very close, three or four-grained; grain short and small, red or white; great yielding power; stiff straw;
non-shattering; eary maturity; drought resistant. 3.5 Distribution: Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain states of the
United States; Chile; Turkestan; Abyssinia; to slight extent in
Switzerland, Russia, and a few other districts of Europe, * 4.5 Varieties: Generally known as “club" or "square head”; dwarf;
hedgehog · 5.5 Use: Yield the flour desired in certain localities; crackers; breakfast
foods. 6.4. Triticum sat. turgidum. 1.5 Name: Poulard or pollard wheats; English (a misnomer), rivet;
German, bauchiger Weizen; French, ble petanielle; also known as
English wheat; Egyptian wheat. 2.5 Characteristics: Rather tall; broad velvety leaves; stems thick and
stiff; heads long, often square; bearded; spikelets compact, two to four-grained; grains hard and light color; resistant to rust and
drought. 3.5 Distribution: France, Egypt, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Southern Rus
sia, other Mediterranean and Black Sea districts, and experimentally
in the United States. 4.5 Varieties: Poulard; composite wheats (T. compositum), known as
Miracle, Egyptian or Mummy wheats, having branched or compound
heads whose grains develop unequally. 5.5 Use: Macaroni and other pastes; bread; mixed with bread wheats
to produce flour desired by certain French markets. 7.4 Triticum sat. durum.
1.5 Name: Durum, macaroni, or flint wheats. 2.5 Characteristics: Hardest grain and longest beard known among wheats;
plants tall; leaves smooth with hard cuticle; heads slender, compact, at times very short; always bearded; grains glassy, sometimes rather transparent, yellowish, long; very sensitive to changes of environ. ment: high gluten content; drought and rust resistant: spikelets two to four-grained.
3.5 Distribution: Practically the only wheat of Algeria, Spain, Greece,
Mexico, and Central America; extensively raised in south and east
Chile, Argentina, United States, and Canada. 4.5 Varieties: . 1.6 Gharnovka, Velvet Don, and Arnautka (Azov Sea region, Russia)
3.6 Saragolla (southeast Italy). ...
7.6 There are perhaps several dozen other varieties. · 5.5 Uses: Macaroni; semolina; 'noodles; all kinds of pastries; bread; it is
coming to be used for all purposes, in some regions, as ordinary
wheat flour. 3.4 Triticum vulgare. 1.5 Name: This is the common bread wheat.
• heads rather loosely formed; bearded or bald; chaff usually smooth but may be velvety; spikelets generally three-grained, but may be two, and rarely four; stem usually
hollow, all the characteristics vary widely (see varieties). 3.5 Distribution: Practically over the whole globe, within the limits
already given (see varieties). . 4.5 Varieties: (Carleton's division, based not on botanical but on environ
mental characteristics). 1.6 Soft winter wheats: Grain amber to white; produced by moist
mild climate of even temperature; found in eastern United States, western and northern Europe, "Japan, and in portions of China
India, Australia, and Argentina. . " 2.6 Hard winter wheats: Usually red-grained; usually bearded; rela
tively high gluten content; grown on black soils in climate characterized by extremes of temperature and moisture. Found chiefly in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and Oklahoma in the United States (the wheat of Crimean origin known as "Turkey red"), in Argentina (the Italian wheat, Barletta), in Hungary and Roumania, in southern and southwestern Russia, and to some extent in
Canada, northern India, Asiatic Turkey, and Persia. 3.6 Hard spring wheats: What has been said of the hard winter wheats
also applies to this group, the difference being that the growing
Turkestan, and the Caucasus.. 5.6 Early wheats: Grain soft or semi-hard, amber to red; main charac
teristic is that they ripen early. Found in Australia and India, have a slight representation in California, and include some of the
dwarf wheats of Japan.'
1.6 Soft wheat.
5.8 Jones' Winter Fife.
6.8 Red Wonder. 3.8 Early Red Clawson.
7.8 Gold Coin. 4.8 Longberry.
" 8.8 Blue Stem.
1.8 Harder-grained, more glutinous varieties.
2.6 Semi-hard winter wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 14 bushels.
6.8 Nigger. 3.8 Rudy.
7.8 Dawson's Golden Chaff 4.8 Mediterranean.
8.8 Early Red Clawson. 3.7 Needs of the grower,
1.8 Hardness of grain.
3.8 Hardy winter varieties, 3.6 Southern wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 91 bushels.
8.8 Purple Straw.
1.8 Rust resistance.
4.8 Stiffness of straw. 2.6 Hard spring wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 13 bushels.
1.8 Saskatchewan Fife.
7.8 Minnesota 163.
1.8 Early maturity.
4.8 Hardy winter varieties. 5.6 Hard winter wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 124 bushals.
3.8 Big Frame.
1.8 Drouth resistance.
3.8 Early maturity. 6.6 Durum wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, 11} bushels
1.8 Durum varieties.
4.8 Early maturity. 7.6 Irrigated wheat.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 21 bushols. 2.7 Chief varieties.
1.8 Increase of gluten content.
2.8 Early maturity.
1.7 Present average yield per acre, about 14f bushels.
9.8 Little Club.
1.8 Early maturity.
3.8 Hardy winter varieties in the colder portions. The distribution of these wheatg in the United States in 1900 is shown in Map on page 9.