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ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE The Bonanza Harvester . . . . . . . .,. . Frontispiece Development of Wheat Plant . . . . . . . . . , ;3 Distribution of Wheat Varieties . . . . . . . . . . # 9 Root System of Wheat Plant . . . . . . . .,. . 12 Organs of Wheat Reproduction . . . . . . .,!. ...;14 Coats of a Wheat Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . .7 15 Cross Section of Wheat Grain : ........... A Stool of Wheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening of Wheat Flowers . . . . . . . .'. Ilarvesting Minnesota Blue Stem Wheat . ... Crossing as a Cause of Variation . . . . ... . Diagram of Pedigree of Hybrid . ...... Durum Wheat Districts . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheat Plants from Good and Poor Seed ... Combined Steam Plow, Harrow and Seeder Typical Farm Wheat Drill ........ A Modern Press and Disc Drill , ... Typical Force Feed Broadcast Seeder . . . . . . . . Forms of Early Sickles and Scythes : ......... Early and Modern Cradles . . . . . . . . . . . . Gallic Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheat Header in Operation ... An Early English Reaper . . . . . . . . . . . . A Modern Self-Rake Reaper . . . . . . . . . . .. A Modern Self-Binding Harvester ....... Section of a Modern Threshing Machine ...... Combined Harvester and Thresher ......... Typical Wheat Field Where Rotation is followed ... 112 l'urrow Method of Irrigation . . . . . . . . . . .

120 Twenty Self-Binding Harvesters at Work . ..... 128 Combined Grain and Fertilizer Drill ........ 135 Three Threshing Outfits at Work . ....... . 156

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PAGE Sections of Smutted Wheat Straw ........ 158 Stinking and Loose Smut . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Aecidia on Barberry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

162 Two Forms of Rust Spores . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Black and Red Rust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Hessian Fly . . . . . . . . .

171 Hessian Fly on Wheat . . . . . . . . . . . . .

172 Chinch Bug . . . . . . . . . . .

174 Wheat Midge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Wheat Plant Louse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Rocky Mountain Grasshopper . ..

178 Grain Aphis or Green Bug . .

180 Granary Weevil .. .. .. .

182 Grain Moth

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Flour Moth . . . . . . . . .

184
Transportation of Wheat on Water ...
Typical Small Storage Elevators . ...
Storage in Open on a Farm ........
Wheat Awaiting Shipment by River ........ 216
Storage at Primary Market . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Mexican Hand Stone

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: · · · · · . . . . . 262
American Indian Foreign Mortar . . . . . . . . . 263
The Quern Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Details of a Dutch Windmill . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Section of Large Modern Flour Mill. ..
New Buffalo Flour Mill ............. 278
Field of Durum Wheat . ............ 292
American Reaper in Russian Wheat ........ 306

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THE BOOK OF WHEAT

CHAPTER I.
WHEAT GRAIN AND PLANT

ORIGIN. . The Word Wheat can be traced back through the Middle English whete to Old English hwaete, which is allied to hwit, white. The German Weizen is related to weisz, which also means white. The French blé suggests blêmir, to grow pale. Perhaps wheat was called white, to distinguish it from rye, and other dark colored grains. Triticum, the botanical and classical name, doubtless comes from tritus, which is a participle from the Latin terere, to grind. The Italian frumento, and the similar French froment, are descended from the Latin word for corn or grain, frumentum, which originated in frux, fruit. The Spanish trigo has evolved through French and Latin from the Greek trigonon, which has for its roots tri, three, and gonia, a corner or angle. Thus the most widely used names of the wheat plant were determined by the characteristics of the seed, as color, shape, the property of having to be ground for food, and the natural relation of the seed to the plant.

The Geographical Origin of wheat has never been certainly determined. Such evidence as exists seems to point to Mesopotamia, but this is largely a matter of opinion. While wheat has been found growing apparently wild, the doubt always seems to remain that it may have simply escaped from cultivation. However, the belief that wheat once grew wild in the Euphrates and Tigris valleys, and spread from these to the rest of the world, has wider acceptance than any other. De Candolle's conviction rests largely on the evidence of Berosus and Strabo, while Lippert, in addition to the former, also cites Olivier and Andre Michaux. Darwin appears to have favored the same theory. From this center wheat is supposed to have spread to Phænicia and Egypt. The Chinese considered it a gift from heaven. Homer and Diodorus Siculus say that it grew wild in Sicily. Humboldt denies

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