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PARAGRAPH 432-ARTIFICIAL ABRASIVES.
CRUDE ARTIFICIAL ABRASIVES.
WASHINGTON, January 31, 1913. Hon. J. D. Post, Washington, D. C.
DEAR SIR: The Safety Emery Wheel Co., Springfield, Ohio, who are the third largest manufacturers of grinding wheels in this country, also the Dayton Grinding Wheel Co., Dayton, Ohio; Detroit Emery Wheel Co., of Detroit, Mich., and a number of other smaller concerns, some of whom have already written the Ways and Means Committee requesting the above paragraph No. 432, crude artificial abrasives, be placed on the free list for the following reasons:
First. Canadian corundum is becoming scarce.
Second. We must depend upon imported crystals to replace the Canadian corumdum we have been using.
Third. Our competitors here who manufacture electrical crystals made of clay only do so for their own use.
Fourth. Even with the crude artificial crystals being on the free list we realize their cost to us is still more than their cost to our competitors who manufacture these crystals.
Fifth. All manufacturers of abrasives for wheels, cloth, paper, and grains should be benefited by the free entry of crude electrical abrasives.
Sixth. Artificial crystals during the last revision in 1909 were placed on the free list at the same time with corundum. One of the large manufacturers of these crystals had Senator Root make an amendment, the result being 10 per cent duty was allowed. This interest now, as well as all other interests, are favorable toward having the crude artificial crystals on the free list, as they have since equipped a factory in France and are to-day importing crude artificial crystals.
There are 24 manufacturers of grinding wheels in the United States, and from the evidence we have been able to gather, there are no opposing factors to placing this schedule on the free list. Very truly, yours,
ADAMITE ABRASIVE Co.,
22 EXCHANGE PLACE,
New York, January 27, 1913. The COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. SIRs: The undersigned respectfully urges upon your committee and Congress that a provision be made in the list of the new tariff for the free entry of crude artificial crystals imported into this country for the use of grinding wheel and surface abrasive manufactures.
There are 24 grinding-wheel manufacturers in this country. Of this number two of the largest manufacture crude artificial crystals for their own use. The other smaller companies depend upon purchasing their material in the open market, which means that
even by placing crude artificial abrasives on the free list the cost to them is greater than to the two large competitors who manufacture their own crystals.
The writer does not believe there will be any opposition in placing the crystals on the free list from the fact that he is in receipt of a letter from one of the large manufacturers stating that they are not opposed to placing these crystals on the free list. The other large company who manufactures its own crystals has factories both in America and France, and is now receiving crude artificial crystals from their French factory. Therefore there should be no opposition to the question of changing paragraph 432 and placing crude artificial abrasives on the free list.
The writer will be pleased to submit letters of approval received from the different manufacturers, and to answer any further inquiries relative to this subject. Yours, very truly,
ADAMITE ABRASIVE Co.,
JANUARY 22, 1913. Hon. NICHOLAS LONGWORTH,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIR: Understanding that you are a member of Ways and Means Committee, we take this opportunity of writing you concerning electrical or artificial abrasives, which, in our opinion, should be on free list of the new tariff for the following reasons:
First. Canadian corundum is becoming more scarce and harder to secure each year. Second. We must depend upon imported artificial abrasives to replace the Canadian corundum.
PARAGRAPH 432-ARTIFICIAL ABRASIVES. Third. Our competitors in this country who manufacture electrical or artificial abrasives from various clays, etc., only do so for their own use.
Fourth. Even with crude electrical abrasives on the free list the cost is still more than their cost to our competitors who manufacture their own artificial abrasives.
Fifth. All manufacturers of abrasive wheels-cloth, paper, and grain-should be benefited by free entry of crude electrical abrasives.
In conclusion it might be said that if one or two American abrasive-wheel concerns can produce their own artificial abrasives why can not all other American concerns do likewise?
In making answer to this query would say to construct a plant for producing artificial abrasives requires a large investment which many of the small concerns are unable to undertake. Again if the many small abrasive wheel manufacturers should attempt to join hands and build a plant they are up against the veiled threat of many patent suits being brought against them on account of various patents, etc.
In view of the above, we again state that we believe crude artificial abrasives should be admitted free of duty for the benefit of the many small abrasive-wheel manufacturers of this country, especially when the only artificial abrasives produced in this country are not for sale, but consumed almost exclusively by the makers themselves. Also when an attempt is made to purchase artificial abrasives manufactured in this country in required quantities restrictions are applied as to make the arrangement very objectionable. We submit all of the above for due consideration, and beg to remain, Yours, very respectfully,
THE SAFETY EMERY WHEEL Co.,
Vice President and General Manager.
DETROIT, MICH., January 21, 1913. The COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: The undersigned company respectfully urges upon your committee and Congress that a provision be made in the free list of the new tariff, for the free entry of crude electrical crystals, imported for the use of grinding wheels and surface abrasive manufacturers, etc. We respectfully request this for the following reasons:
First. One of the principal abrasives in use by the different wheel makers in the United States, is Canadian corundum. This is becoming very scarce, and it is going to be absolutely necessary that we have some other abrasive to take its place.
Second. We must depend upon imported crystals of artificial corundum to replace the Canadian corundum that we have been using.
Third. Two of our largest competitors in the United States, who manufacture electrical crystals made from clay, do so for their own use only, and they refuse to sell any of the other wheel makers. This will practically place the grinding wheel situation in their hands and create a monopoly, as Turkish emery is in no sense a competitor with either artificial or natural corundum for a great many kinds of work, and as this is the only abrasive that we are sure of, we will be placed at a great disadvantage, unless we can secure an electrical abrasive at a reasonable cost.
Fourth. Even with the crude electrical crystals on the free list, the cost to us will be more than the cost to our competitors who manufacture their own crystals.
Fifth. All manufacturers of abrasives for wheels, cloth, paper, and grain, will be benefited by the free entry of crude electrical abrasives.
This is a great industry, and is entitled to this concession because the only concerns that are making crystals in this country, are making them for their own use, and they are not being sold on the open market. Trusting that you will give this thorough and careful investigation, we remain, Yours, very truly,
DETROIT EMERY WHEEL Co.
EMERY AND CORUNDUM WHEELS.
PENINSULAR EMERY WHEEL Co.,
Detroit, Mich., January 25, 1913. The COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: We are among the long-established grinding-wheel makers, this company having been on the market with its products about 25 years, and we respectfully PARAGRAPH 432-ARTIFICIAL ABRASIVES. represent to you that we, like many others in our line of business, are greatly concerned about a future supply of abrasive materials.
Recently there has commenced coming foreign offerings of artificial abrasives, prin. cipally crude electrical crystals, similar to so-called "carborundum," and for the following reasons we respectfully ask and request you to see that these products be placed upon the free list of the new tariff:
First. Corundum as formerly mined in the United States and for recent years has been supplied from Canada is now practically exhausted, both in the States and Canada, and corundum having been used to make the highest grade grinding wheels, some other high-grade abrasive must be found to take its place.
Second. The two largest grinding-wheel and abrasive-material users, the two concerns who practically monopolize the trade of the United States to-day in so-called emery and grinding wheels, manufacture solely for their own use from electrical crystals made from clay. Their ability to inake this material, which they refuse to sell to other wheel makers, gives them a complete monopoly to-day, as Turkish and other emeries are in no sense equal to this material for many kinds of work, and unless we and other wheel makers can get some of these foreign electrical abrasives at a reasonable cost the monopoly will remain where it is today.
Third. If this product comes in free of duty the cost to us will be much more than the cost to our competitors who manufacture their own crystals.
Fourth. All manufactures of abrasives for all purposes, not only for wheels, but for cloth, paper, and the glass trade, will be benefited correspondingly by the free entry of the crude electrical abrasives--the goods can not be made in this country under present conditions without the investment of an enormous amount of money, and we feel that our industry is a useful one, growing in importance and volume, and that we are now up against what amounts to a combine because of the exclusiveness maintained by the makers of the goods in this country.
Trusting, gentlemen, that you will give this matter very thorough investigation and that you can see your way clear to comply with our request, we beg to remain, Yours, very truly,
PEN SULAR EMERY WHEEL Co., Per B. E, HAMLIN.
New YORK, January 28, 1918. The WAYS AND MEANS COMMITTEE,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: We wish to respectfully advise you of our desire to have placed upon the free list crude artificial abrasives. We are now the importers of crude artificial abrasives in large quantities, and as such, sell to the so-called grinding wheel trade or manufacturers of abrasive wheels large quantities thereof.
We have, as customers who rely upon imported abrasives to be able to compete with certain large wheel manufacturers, who themselves manufacture their own artificial abrasives in this country, the following: Safety Emery Wheel Co., Springfield, Ohio; Dayton Grinding Wheel Co., Dayton, Ohio; Detroit Emery Wheel Co., Detroit, Mich.; Waltham Emery Wheel Co., Waltham, Mass.; Vitrified Wheel Co., Westfield, Mass., and many others.
All of the above manufacturers of abrasive wheels and grinding and polishing material must rely upon European artificial abrasives to compete with such concerns as the Carborundum Co., of Niagara Falls, and the Norton Co., of Worcester, Mass., neither of which companies will sell to their competitors their own manufactured product, excepting one abrasive, manufactured by the Carborundum Co., which is sold by them to the grinding-wheel trade in smaller quantities for special purposes.
Heretofore these independent grinding-wheel companies were able to rely considerably upon Canadian corundum for the purposes for which they are now more and more relying upon artificial imported abrasives. Due to the increasing scarcity of the Canadian corundum, it is now becoming a live situation to be met by the so-called grinding-wheel trade in this country.
We believe it to be to the best interests of American manufacturers that the tariff on crude artificial abrasives be removed, but we do not think it wise to remove the tariff on graded material. Yours, very truly,
HERMAN BEHR & Co. (Inc.).
DAYTON, OHIO, January 27, 1913. The COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,
Washington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: As manufacturers of abrasive wheels, we are vitally interested in the use of artificial abrasives, a part of which enter into the manufacture of our product.
Since the question of tariff on the above crude materials is to be considered by you, we beg respectfully to request that, if at all possible, this material be admitted duty free.
There are some twenty-five manufacturers of abrasive wheels in this country, all representing active industry, and who are almost wholly dependent upon outside sources of supply for any of the artificial abrasives they may use, so that it seems only fair that their interests in this connection should be given what advantage might accrue from placing crude abrasives on the duty-free list.
We trust your honorable committee may give this matter your careful consideration, and for which we want to thank you in advance. Yours, very truly,
THE DAYTON GRINDING WHEEL Co.,
Firecrackers of all kinds, eight cents per pound; bombs, rockets, Roman candles, and fireworks of all descriptions, not specially provided for in this section, twelve cents per pound; the weight on all the foregoing to include all coverings, wrappings, and packing material.
STATEMENT OF EDWARD H. WAGNER, OF NEW YORK CITY.
Mr. WAGNER. I would like to call the attention of the honorable chairman and the gentlemen of the committee to the duty on fireworks. I have asked for permission to be heard in the matter of the duty on fireworks, and I want particularly to speak about the duty on fireworks imported from Europe, which duty at present is 12 cents per pound gross weight. This item is covered in paragraph 433.
My justification to appear before the committee in this matter I derive from the fact that there does not exist any association or combination of importers in this line.
The previous tariff bills do not make any provision at all for fireworks, as formerly, and until I started the importation there were practically no fireworks imported other than Chinese goods, which, if not exclusively, then mainly, consisted of firecrackers for which provision was made, and therefore they were entered as articles not enumerated, bearing a duty of 20 per cent ad valorem. In the 18 years since I started this importation I have at all times been the largest importer in that line.
The duty of 12 cents per pound gross weight on fireworks is equivalent to an increase of duty from 400 per cent to 1,200 per cent of the former duty, and on my whole line of fireworks it runs from about 73 per cent to 200 per cent ad valorem. It is needless for me to tell you that this is prohibitive.
Permit me to illustrate this with some figures: For instance, I formerly imported a line of so-called fireworks sticks. This is an article which the European railroads shipped as play matches, and can therefore be shipped in larger cases. In Europe it is not permitted to ship fireworks in large cases. The case can not be heavier than 75 kilos, which is about 165 pounds. They are bound, by the regula
tions, both the European regulations and the steamship companies' regulations, to be shipped in heavy zinc-lined cases; therefore, the packing is comparatively heavier than most of the goods, particularly taking into consideration that the cases must be so small.
These sticks (indicating] come from Germany, and are not shipped there as fireworks. The railroads take them as matches. It is more like a play match. They could, therefore, be sent in larger cases. They come in boxes, and two-gross boxes, with a gross of sticks in each box of the so-called Bengal sticks, cost net in Germany, 232.75 marks, equal to $55.86. They weigh about 500 pounds or somewhat over, and the duty is at least $60.
The cost price in Germany on each box of Bengal sticks is 19.4 cents and the duty 21 cents, the duty being considerably over 100 per cent ad valorem. That makes the cost price 40.4 cents, to which is to be added 8 cents per gross for transportation and other expenses.
This article is sold here, American manufacture, at 33 to 35 cents per gross. It is therefore obvious that the duty that formerly was a little less than 4 cents per gross is now 21 cents, a raise in duty of 425 per cent, is absolutely prohibitive, even if some few cents more can be had per gross for the European sticks, as they are somewhat better in quality than the American goods.
I was just able to import this article with the old duty of about 33 cents per gross, and the revenue the country has lost by prohibiting the importation of this article is quite considerable. I formerly imported up to 45,000 or 50,000 gross colored sticks a year, and from August 5, 1909, I have not imported a single gross.
Bengal matches come in cases of 25 gross, weighing 175 pounds. They cost, net, $16.08 per case and the duty is $22.20. The duty per gross is 85 cents, equal to 183 per cent ad valorem, or a raise in duty over the old tariff of 667 per cent.
Permit me to submit a couple more examples. An article called special grasshopper, which I show you here [indicating) comes 75 gross in a case, weighing 170 pounds, with a duty of $20.40. The cost price in Germany is 23 cents per gross. The duty is 27 cents per gross, equal to 117.5 per cent ad valorem, a raise in duty of 587 per cent over the former duty.
I name all these small articles, of which I used to import a lot, but of these articles, since the new tariff went into effect, not a single gross has been imported by me, nor to the best of my knowledge by anybody in the United States.
No. 5 grasshopper comes 18 gross in a case, weighing 170 pounds, or a little more. Their price is 2 marks per gross. The value of a case, 36 marks, equal to $8.64, carries a duty of $20.40, equal to $1.13} duty for each gross. The cost price in Germany is 43 cents. This is a duty of 250 per cent ad valorem, or a raise of 1,250 per cent over the former duty.
As a last example I will call attention to garden assortment No. 5. A case containing 10 pieces of fireworks costs 40 marks,
equal to $9.60. The duty was formerly about $1.92 for such a case. The net weight of the goods is 40 pounds. They are comparatively large, bulky goods, and the packing cases weigh 72 pounds each. For the case alone I have got to pay $8.64 in duty, the value of the case being