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PARAGRAPH 448_JEWELRY. 1. Did your factory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897, close for longer than normal periods of time? 'If for longer than normal periods of time, how much longer?-A. We did not operate over one-half time and failed in 1896.

2. Did your faetory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897, run on short time for longer periods of time than under normal conditions? If so, on how short time and for how much longer periods than normal?-A. Yes, 16 hours a week at times.

3. Did you discontinue the manufacture of any particular lines of goods while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897? If so, what were the lines discontinued, and were they discontinued because of low tariff??

4. What was the average number of your employees while the following tariff laws were in effect?

(a) McKinley law, 1890 to August 27, 1894?-A. Eighty. (6) Wilson-Gorman law, August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897?-A. Thirty-five. (c) Dingley law, July 24, 1897, to August 5, 1909?-A. One hundred and twenty.

(d) Payne-Aldrich law, August 5, 1909, to now?-A. Three hundred and fifty; at present 475, and more wanted.

WHITING & Davis Co.,

Plainville, Mass.

JANUARY 17, 1913. New ENGLAND MANUFACTURING JEWELERS' AssociATION.

GENTLEMEN: It would be impossible for us to answer your questions. The reason is when we moved five years ago we destroyed all old time books and anything that we did not need and thought that we would have no occasion to refer to later. All we can say is that the period from 1894 to 1897 was extremely bad. We distinctly remember one time of running for months on 15 hours a week instead of 60 that we were running before the dull period set in. We also run with a reduced number of hands.

We can not remember at the present time whether any lines were discontinued on account of the tariff law or not.

Every six months we make large changes in our line, as we manufacture about every povelty that comes out, and our line is constantly changing. We regret that we can not give you any more definite information. Yours, truly,

WILLIAMS & PAYTON.

PROVIDENCE, R. I., January 21, 1913. New England MANUFACTURING JEWELERS AND SILVERSMITHS' ASSOCIATION,

Providence, R. I. GENTLEMEN: We are in receipt of your inquiry in regard to the running time of our factory during the period from 1894 to 1897, and in answer would say that we ran our factory on an average of 40 hours a week during these years, which we call a very short time. Trusting this is the desired information, we are very truly, yours,

Ostby & BARTON Co., By HAROLD W. OSTBY.

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JANUARY 18, 1913. THE NEW ENGLAND MANUFACTURING JEWELERS AND SILVERSMITHS' ASSOCIATION,

42 Weybosset Street, City. GENTLEMEN: Answering your inquiry of January 15, we beg to say that during the period from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897, and which time the Wilson-Gorman tarifi saw was in effect, our production was very much reduced and the amount of labor employed much less than during a period previous to this time, or even after it. Very truly, yours,

N. BARSTOW Co.

PARAGRAPH 448/JEWELRY.

1. Did your factory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894 to July 24, 1897, close for longer than normal periods of time ? If for longer than normal periods of time, how much longer ?-A. Yes, we closed until further notice and stayed closed seven weeks.

2. Did your factory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894 to July 24, 1897, run on short time for longer periods of time than under normal conditions ? If so, on how short time, and for how much longer periods than normal ?-A. Yes, our working schedule was one and two days a week for months and even then many men were not given work.

3. Did you discontinue the manufacture of any particular lines of goods, while the the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894 to July 24, 1897? If so, what were the lines discontinued, and were they discontinued because of a low tariff ?-A. No. On the other hand we increased our line in an effort to keep our factory going.

4. What were the average number of your employees while tha following tariff laws were in effect ?

(a) McKinley law, 1890 to August 26, 1894 ?-A. Sixty.
(b) Wilson-Gorman law, August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897 ?-A. Thirty-three.

Dingley law, July 24, 1897, to August 5, 1909 ?-A. One hundred. (d) Payne-Aldrich Law, August 5, 1909, to now ?-A. One hundred.

E. I. FRANKLIN & Co.

1. Did your factory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894 to July 24, 1897, close for longer than normal periods of time? If for longer than normal periods of time, how much longer ?-A. Our factory was on short time for longer periods than usual during 1894-96 and we employed not more than three-quarters the normal help.

2. Did your factory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894 to July 24, 1897, run on short time for longer periods of time than under normal conditions ? If so, on how short time, and for how much longer periods than normal ?-A. Half time for months and much less number of help. Short time six months on a stretch.

3. Did you discontinue the manufacture of any particular lines of goods, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894 to July 24, 1897. If so, what were the lines discontinued, and were they discontinued because of a low tariff ?-A. Times were so dull nothing sold but cheap new novelties.

4. What were the average number of your employees while the following tariff laws were in effect ?

(a) McKinley law, 1890, to August 27, 1894 ?-A. Two hundred and fifty. fifty.

(c) Dingley law, July 24, 1897, to August 5, 1909 ?-A. Four hundred. (d) Payne-Aldrich Law, August 5, 1909, to now ?-A. Four hundred and fifty.

THEODORE W. Foster & Bro. Co.

; to and

1. Did your factory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897, close for longer than normal periods of time? If for longer than normal periods of time, how much longer? A. About an average of 65 days.

2. Þid your factory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897, run on short time for longer periods of time than under normal conditions? If so, on how short time, and for how much longer periods than normal?-A. Our factory was run on short time during the entire period from 1894 to 1897, but we can not give exact figures.

3. Did you discontinue the manufacture of any particular lines of goods, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i, e., from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897? If so, what were the lines discontinued, and were they discontinued because of a low tariff? A. We have suffered much from the encroachment of German trade on nickel chains. We did not discontinue the line, but foreign-made chains of class are sold now in this country for less than we can produce them.

4. What were the average number of your employees while the following tariff laws were in effect?

78959°-VOL 5--13- 48

PARAGRAPH 448-JEWELRY.

(a) McKinley law, 1890 to August 27, 1894?-A. Eighty.
(6) Wilson-Gorman law, August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897?-A. Sixty-one.
c) Dingley law, July 24, 1897, to August 5, 1909?-A. One hundred and one.
(d) Payne-Aldrich Law, August 5, 1909, to now?-A. Eighty.

THE O. M. DRAPER Co.,

North Attleboro.

1. Did your factory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897, close for longer than normal periods of time? If for longer than normal periods of time, how much longer?-A. Many months during that period, we were closed from 2 to 5 days weekly.

2. Did your factory, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897, run on short time for longer periods of time than under normal conditions? If so, on how short time, and for how much longer periods than normal?-A. Yes, from 1 to 4 days weekly many months during that time.

3. Did you discontinue the manufacture of any particular lines of goods, while the Wilson-Gorman tariff law was in effect, i. e., from August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897. If so, what were the lines discontinued, and were they discontinued because of a low tariff?-A. No.

4. What were the average number of your employees while the following tariff laws were in effect?

(a) McKinley law, 1890 to August 27, 1894?-A. Sixty-four.
(6) Wilson-Gorman law, August 27, 1894, to July 24, 1897?–A. Thirty.
(c) Dingley law, July 24, 1897, to August 5, 1909?-A. Sixty.
(d) Payne-Aldrich law, August 5, 1909, to now?-A. Sixty.

H, D. MERRITT & Co.,

North Attleboro.

EXHIBIT B.

(From the Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of Manufactures. (Special Agents Series No. 12,

“Industrial Conditions in Europe, Part 2. Austria-Hungary.")] In Vienna: Goldsmiths and silversmiths receive per 50-hour week...

$5. 50-$7.50 In Gablonz jewelry factories for a day of from 10 to 11 hours pay: Factory foremen.

80- 1.00 Skilled helpers.

60 70 Women...

40 .50 Young boys and girls....

.30 . 40 Much of this work is taken home and done by the piece, but it is claimed that only by working long hours and by special skill can better wages be secured through piecework.

The general factory workmen, wagon drivers, and other laborers in Gablonz do not earn over 60 cents daily.

The laboring classes in this section subsist principally on rye bread, potatoes, milk, and vegetables, with occasionally a bit of smoked meat or sausage, sour milk with potatoes, and some home-made cheese.

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PARAGRAPH 448_JEWELRY.

MARSEILLE, FRANCE, November 4, 1912. The PaYE & BAKER MANUFACTURING Co.,

North Attleboro, Mass. Sirs: Replying to your letter dated the 10th instant I have the honor to report that, the wages pa

to the wo ngmen per day in the Marseille jewelry factories range as follows:

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The wage scale (wage per hour) paid by a representative silver-plate novelty house in Massachusetts: Stampers. $0.35 Colorers..

$0.25 Pressmen.

. 20
Polishers..

. 25 Makers....

Toolmakers

.40 Engravers. . 35 Die cutters..

. 40 The scale of wages paid by a representative electroplate jewelry house in Massachusetts, showing the wage per hour for a 10-hour day: Stampers.. $0.221 Enamelers, men.

$0.30 Pressmen. . 174 Stone setters.

. 20 Makers..

.271
Colorers.

.30 Engravers.

.374
Polishers...

. 25 Chasers... . 35 Toolmakers

.40 Enamelers, girls... . 15 Die cutters...

. 45 The scale of wages paid by a representative miscellaneous line jewelry house in Providence, showing the wage per hour for a 10-hour day: Stampers.. $0.31 Stone setters..

$0.28 Pressmen. . 161 Colorers.

. 28 Makers.. . 35 Polishers.

.30 Engravers. .423 Toolmakers

.43 Chasers.. . 371 Die cutters.

. 45 Enamelers....

. 35 The scale of wages paid by a representative solid gold jewelry house in Providence, showing the wage per hour for a 10-hour day: Stampers. $0. 35 Stone setters.

$0.40 $0.50 Pressmen. $0.15.20 Colorers..

.35

.40 Makers.. 30 .35 Polishers..

.277 .35 Engravers.

Toolmakers

.40 The scale of wages paid by a representative solid gold chain jewelry house in dence, showing the wage per hour for a 10-hour day: Stampers... $0. 20-$0.35 Stone setters.

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$0.40 Pressmen. 15.25 Colorers..

$0. 254 .40 Makers. 20- 1. 25 Polishers.

25 .35 Engravers.

Toolmakers

30 .60 Chasers...

Die cutters.

.30 .60

. 40 . 40

PARAGRAPH 448 JEWELRY.

Scale of wages paid per hour for a 10-hour day by a representative plated gold chain

a house in Massachusetts: Stampers.

$0.30-$0.50 Stone setters, men.... $0. 35-$0.55 Pressmen. . 20 .30 Colorers..

.50 .60 Makers.. 25 .50 Polishers..

. 30 .35 Engravers. 60 Toolmakers

. 40_

.60 Chasers.. .30 .50 Die cutters.

. 40 75

.40

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EXHIBIT C.

(Extracts from report of Henry Studniczka, commercial agent, Department of Commerce and Labor

(Special Agents' Series No. 42.)]

[Page 45:) The leading industry in Gablonz is possibly the production of cheap jewelry. The factory foremen receive from 80 cents to $1 daily, skilled helpers 60 to 70 cents, women 40 to 50 cents, and young boys and girls 30 to 40 cents. Much of this work is taken home and done by the piece, but it is claimed that only by working long hours and by special skill can better wages be secured through piecework. The general factory workmen, wagon drivers, and other laborers in Gablonz do not earn over 60 cents daily.

[Page 47:] At present in Reichenberg each house has 17 occupants or tenants, and each separate habitation, room, or set of rooms is occupied by approximately 4 persons. It must not be overlooked that 1,078 of the separate habitations are occupied by the poorer classes, who subrent to lodgers, and that of this class each habitation had 8.5 occupants for 1900 and 11 occupants for 1909.

Of the occupied habitations in 1909, 309 were in basements, 2,791 on the first floor, 2,823 on the second floor, 933 on the third floor, 184 on the fourth floor, and 2,182 in attics. The 1-room habitations, numbering 3,326, were occupied by 8,994 people; 2,068 of 1 room and kitchen were occupied by 7,524 people; 485 of 2 rooms and kitchen by 1,875 people; 1,483 of 3 rooms and kitchen by 5,957 people; 1,018 of 4 rooms and kitchen by 4,339 people: 843 of 5 rooms or more by 4,238 people.

The rents in Reichenberg may be safely placed at the following figures: One room, according to section and location, with kitchen, $57 to $72 per year; 2 rooms, $100 to $120; 3 rooms, $150 to $200; 4 rooms, $200 to $260; 5 rooms, $300 to $360. The rental values have doubled since 1900.

FEBRUARY 28, 1913. The WAYS AND MEANS COMMITTEE,

Washington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: In connection with our brief filed relative to the jewelry covered by paragraph 448, Schedule N, we beg to call your attention to the following extract from the report of Vice Consul General Lucien Memminger, Paris, dated February 4, 1913.

“The quantity of jewelry, real and imitation, exported from Paris to the United States during 1912 was $842,934, of which less than $10,000 was imitation. These figures do not of course include the large quantities bought in Paris by Americans visiting Paris and which are taken back to America among their personal effects."

This statement shows that the exports of jewelry from Paris alone, not including the large quantities bought there by visiting Americans, are largely in excess of the Treasury Department's report of the exports from the whole of France for 1911, which are given as $562,340 and indicates how the importations are increasing. Respectfully,

NEW ENGLAND MANUFACTURING JEWELERS

AND SILVERSMITHS' ASSOCIATION.

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