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him the supreme value of moments ; and if this book should prove a time-saving and useful manual to his countrymen, his highest ambition will be gratified. The work is the fruit of many evening hours, laborious, but welcomed as a relief from severer cares.

In a volume einbracing nearly half a million of figures to be veri. fied, errors are unavoidable, but it is hoped that they have been reduced to a minimum. Defects of arrangement will be observed, due mainly to the exigencies of fitting large matter into small space, and the continuity of related subjects is thus broken, though all will be readily found by the index.

The commanding importance of questions of economic science has led to the devotion of much space to financial topics, including coinage, currency, revenue, expenditure, public debts, taxation, etc., which it is thought will prove of more value and interest than nearly obsolete questions of party politics, or tedious lists of minor officials. The editor has no ambition to be ranked among statisticians, and distinctly disclaims responsibility in the tabular information presented for any thing beyond the accuracy of his compilations from other sources. In most cases the authorities are given, and the reader is left to his own judgment. For matters outside of the tables, the editor is wholly responsible. He here expresses his thanks to the officers of the National and State governments who have supplied him with information, and to the members of his family who have cheered and aided him in his labors.

105 C STREET, SOUTH-EAST, WASHINGTON, December 25, 1877.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

... 114

PAGE

PREFACE.

3

Eclipses, Festivals, etc., in 1878...

7

Calendar of the Months...

8

Rulers of the World in 1878.....

20

A Brief History of Almanacs..

21

How Interest Eats...

27

Age of Notable Persons..

29

The Capital of the United States.....

The Electoral System of choosing the

President..

60

The History of the Income Tax.... 67

Free Homesteads on the Public Lands.. 70

Centennial International Exhibition of

1876..

72

How many Books are there in the World? 76

Compound Interest Table..

77

Statutes of Limitations...

78

Government. Management of Railways.. 79

American Libraries containing 10,000

Volumes.......

83

Libraries of the World...

87

Curiosities of Statistics..

89

German Imperial Bank....

99

Strikes, Past and Present..

100

Where England buys her Breadstuffs.... 113

Table for Investors.

Gold and Currency Tables..

116

Prices of British Consols, 1789-1876...... 115

Merchant Shipping of the World in 1876. 118

Summary of Popular and Electoral Votes 119

Electoral and Popular Vote for Presi-

dent, 1789-1876..

122

Brief History of National Political Con-

ventions..

Population of States according to State

Censuses since 1870....

146

Total Popular Vote at Presidential Elec-

tions......

147

Percentage of Total Vote cast for Presi-

dents from 1804 to 1876....

147

Presidential Elections, by States, 1789–

1876...

148

Number of Successful and Unsuccessful

Candidates chosen by each State...... 169

Number of Electoral Votes to which cach

State has been entitled, 1789–1876... 170

Ratio of Representation in the House of

Representatives..

Customs Revenue of the United States.. 171

Alphabetical List of Senators of the 45th

Congress..

172

Principal Officers of the Senate.......... 172

List of Senators by States, with their

Term of Office..

173

Committees of the Senate..

175

Alphabetical List of Representatives,

45th Congress...

177

PAGE

Principal Officers of the House...

179

Members of the House of Representa-

tives, by States...

180

Delegates from Territories.

182

Committees of the House of Representa-

tives...

183

Constitution of the United States, with

Amendments....

186

Amount of Revenue from Income Tax

during each Year...

198

Summary of Internal Revenue Receipts,

from all Sources, 1863-77..

200

Amount of Revenue collected, and Cost

of Collection....

200

Aggregate Receipts from Internal Rev-

enue (by States), 1863-77.

201

Bank of England Rates of Discount,

1694-1877.

204

Population of all Cities in the United

States having over 10,000 Inhabitants... 205

Classification of the Landholders of Great

Britain...

206

Occupations of the People of the United

States

207

Occupations of the People in Great Britain 210

Statistics of Churches in the U.S...... 212

Imports into the United States (last two

years).

214

Exports from the United States (last two

years)

218

Savings Banks and Postal Savings Insti-

tutions ...

223

Principal Imports into the United States,

with Rates of Duty thereon...

Transactions of the New York Clearing.

house....

234

Dividends of New England Manufactur-

ing Companies, 1870-76..

235

United States Public Lands_where they

236

Statistics of Land Grants...

237

Assessed and Estimated Value of Property

in the United States in 1870..

240

Public Indebtedness of the States in 1870. 241 ·

Receipts of the United States, 1789–1877.. 242

Expenditures of the United States, 1789-

1877..

244

Fire-Insurance Companies of other States

doing Business in New York, 1877.... 249

Fire Insurance Companies of New York

State in 1877.

250

American Business of Foreign Insurance

Companies, 1877...

254

Cost of Collection of the Revenue of Great

Britain, 1861-1877..

254

Newspapers and Periodicals in the United

States, 1850-1877....

203

PAGE

Population of the United States at cach

Census, 1790-1870....

256

Population of the United States in 1870.. 258

Population of the United States, as Na.

tive or Foreign......

259

Militia of the United States, with the

Total Male Population, 1870...

260

Citizenship, with the Total Male Popula-

tion, 1870......

Illiteracy, by States and Territories ... 262

Table of the Insane, Idiotic, Deaf and

Dumb, and Blind, in the U, S. in 1870. 263

The Army of the United States. 264

Pay of the Army.....

United States Internal Revenue Taxes... 266

Manufactures in the United States in 1870 269

Principal Cereal Productions of the Unit-

ed States, 1870....

270

Principal Fibrous Productions of the

United States, 1870....

271

Hay, Hops, Rice, and Tobacco Crops in

1870..

272

United States Pension Statistics.. 273

Pension Agency Districts and Pension

Agents.

275

Revenue of Great Britain, 1861-1877....., 276

Expenditure of Great Britain, 1861-1877.. 277

Prices of Commodities for 53 years, 1825-

1877.

273

Families, Dwellings, and Population in

Fifty Cities of the United States..... 250

Arca, Density of Population, Families

and Dwellings in the United States.... 281

Nativity of the Foreign-born Population

of the United States...

282

The Bank of France..

284

Distilleries in the United States, 1877 286

Interest Laws in the United States ...... 297

Customs Tariff of Great Britain.

288

Population of Great Britain, 1801-1871.... 288

Commercial Crises in England.... 289

The National Debt of Great Britain..... 293

Foreign Trade of Great Britain..

Where England buys her Cotton... 300

How the French paid the Thousand Mil-

301

The Latin Union and the Silver Question 304

Value of Foreign Coins in U. S. Money. 305

Coinage of the United States, 1793-1877.. 306

Coins of the United States............... 511

Estimate of the World's Production of

Gold and Silver..

315

Amount of Precious Metals produced in

the United States and Territories...... 317

Estimate of Gold and Silver produced in

the United States....

318

Production of Gold and Silver in the

United States..........

319

Where our Gold and Silver come from... 320

How much Gold and Silver Money have

we?

321

Specie in Banks.

323

Amount of Paper Money in the United

States, 1877.

324

Aggregate Paper Circulation of the

United States, 1511-1876...

PAGE

Paper Money and Coin of Great Britain.. 326

National Bank Circulation, Nov., 1877.... 327

National Banks of the U.S. in 1877........ 328

The Silver Money Question...

330

Diplomatic Service of the United States.. 348

United States Consular Service...

349

Foreign Legations in the United States.. 354

Summary of Electors in Great Britain.... 351

Miles of Railroad in each State, 1867-1877 955

Earnings and Dividends of Railroads,

1873-1876....

356

Miles of Railroad Constructed, 1872-1876, 357

Railroads of the World..

358

Railway Dividends and Interest in 1876.. 360

Progress of Railroads in the United

States, 1830-1876...

361

Law Schools in the United States...... 361

School Statistics of the U. S. in 1876.... 562

Universities and Colleges in the United

States..

363

Expenditure for Public Schools in 1876.. 364

Theological Seminaries in the United

States.....

864

Schools of Medicine in the United States. 365

Gifts for Education in 1876...

365

Schools for the Unfortunate Classes in the

United States, 1876...

366

Balance of Trade for Twenty-two Years,

1856-1877...

366

Vital Statistics-Rate of Mortality

Presidents and their Cabinets..

868

Immigration into the U.S., 1820-1877.... 371

Succession of Justices of the Supreme

Court......

372

Judiciary of the United States...

373

Speakers of the House of Representatives 376

Executive Officers of the United States... 377

Reduction of the National Debt..

380

Municipal Debts in the United States.... 382

Banks in the United States other than

National.

384

Submarine Telegraph Cables in 1877..... 383

Telegraphs of the World in 1877.

356

Public Debt of the United States, 1789-1877 386

Sessions of Congress, 1789–1877.

287

Tables of Temperature in America........ 388

Rainfall in the United States, etc... 392

Tonnage and Shipbuilding of the U.S.. 393

Navy of the United States....

397

Navies of the World...

399

Post-Office Statistics...

400

Patent-Office Business.

403

Copyrights in the United States... 404

Armies of the World...

405

Debts, Revenues, Expenditures, and Com.

merce of Nations....

406

Prices of Government Loans in London.. 407

Prices of Stocks in New York, 1860-1877. 408

Prices of United States Bonds, 1860–1877. 410

Price of Gold and of United States Cur-

rency, 1860-1877.

411

State Capitals and Governors in 1878..... 413

State Legislatures and Elections.. 413

State Debts and Taxation in 1877.

414

Admission and Area of States...

415

Population and Area of Various Nations. 416

ECLIPSES, FESTIVALS, ETC., IN 1878.

MOVABLE FESTIVALS, ETC.
Septuagesima Sunday, February 17.

Sexagesima Sunday, February 24. Quinquagesima Sunday, March 3. Ash Wednesday, March 6. Quadragesima Sunday, March 10. Mid-Lent, March 31. Palm Sunday, April 14. Good Friday, April 19. Easter Sunday, April 21. Low Sunday, April 28. Rogation Sunday, May 26. Ascension Day, May 30. Whit Sunday, June 9. Trinity Sunday, June 16. Corpus Christi, June 20.

Advent Sunday, December 1.

CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. Dominical Letter, F. Epact, 26. Lunar Cycle, or Golden Num. ber, 17. Solar Cycle, 11. Roman Indiction, 6. Julian Period, 6591. Dionysian Period, 207. Jewish Lunar Cycle, 14.

H.M.

H. M.

H. M.

ECLIPSES IN 1878. There will be four Eclipses this year, two of the Sun, two of the Moon, and a transit of Mercury over the Sun's disc.

I. An annular Eclipse of the Sun, February 2, invisible in America.

II. A partial Eclipse of the Moon, February 17, in the morning, partly visible at Washington.

BEGINS.
MIDDLE.

END. Washington...... ..4 35 morn. 6 3 morn. 7 35 morn.

III. A total Eclipse of the Sun, July 29, in the afternoon. Visible at Washington, and generally in the United States as a partial eclipse. The total will be visible at Galveston, the middle being at about h. 28 m. P.M. The Eclipse will be nearly total at New Orleans, Austin, Santa Fé, and Denver, Col.

BEGINS.
MIDDLE.

END.
Washington.....

..4 36 eve.

5 30 eve. 6 25 eve.
IV. A partial Eclipse of the Moon, August 12, in the evening:
Size, 7.15 digits. The Moon will rise more or less eclipsed east of
Kansas, west of which no Eclipse will be visible.

BEGINS.
MIDDLE.

END.
Washington. ..... ...5 34 eve. 70 eve.

8 26 eve. V. A transit of Mercury, May 6, visible at Washington,

BEGINS.
MIDDLE.

END.
Washington....... ..10 4 morn. 1 53 eve.

5 40 eve.

H. M.

H. M.

H. M.

H. M.

H. M.

H. M.

H. M.

H. M.

H. M.

MORNING STARS.
VENUS from Feb. 20 to Dec. 5.
MARS after Sept. 18.
JUPITER from Jan. 5 to April 25.
SATURN from March 13 to June 23.

EVENING STARS.
VENUS until Feb, 20, and after Dec. 5,
MARS from Jan. 1 until Sept. 18.
JUPITER until Jan. 5, and after April 25.
SATURN until Mar. 13, and after June 23.

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Tues. 1863 Lincoln's Emancipation Pro-| 7 19 4 49 5 48

clamation.
Wed. ||1788 Georgia ratified the Constitu- 7 19 4 50 6 47

tion.
Thur.||1777 Battle of Princeton.

1 19 4 51 sets. Fri. 1858 Death of Rachel.

7 19 4 521 6 1 Sat. 1781 Richmond, Va., burned byl 7 19 4 52 7 4

Arnold.
Sun. 1844 First telegraph between Balti-| 77 19 4 53 8 6

more and Washington.
Mon. 1718 General Putnam born.

7 19 4 54 9 4 Tues. ||1815 Defeat of the British at New ng 19 4 5510 3

Orleans.
Wed. 1788 Connecticut ratified the Con. ng 19 4 56 10 59

stitution.
Thur.(1840 Penny Postage established in 7 19 4 57 11 57

England.
Fri. 1757 Alexander Hamilton born. ng 19 4 58 morn.
Sat. 1808 Salmon P. Chase born.

ng 18 4 59 57 Sun. 1825 Slavery abolished in Mexico. n 18 5 0 2 0 Mon. 374 St. Chrysostom born.

181 5 1 3 4 Tues. |1759 British Museum opened. my 18 5 2 4 3 Wed. ||1841 Banks resumed specie paym'ts. 7 17 5 3 5 16 Thur. ||1600 Calderon de la Barca born. ng 17 5 5 6 12 Fri. 1782 Daniel Webster born.

16 5 6 rises. Sat. 1848 Gold discovered in California. 77 16 5 7 6 12 Sun.l|1779 David Garrick died.

no 15 5 81 7 28 Mon. ||1793 Louis XVI. beheaded.

n 15 5 9 8 41 Tues. ||1783 Byron born.

7 14 5 10 9 53 Wed. 1806 William Pitt died.

7 14 5 11 11 4 Thur.||1712 Frederick the Great born.

13 5 12 morn. Fri. 1759 Robert Burns born.

ny 12 5 13
Sat. 1837 Michigan admitted into the 7 12 5 15 1 18

Union.
Sun.J 1756 Mozart born

ng 11 5 16 2 37 Mon. 11859 William H. Prescott died.

10 5 17 3 42 Tues. ||1861 Kansas admitted to the Union. I ny 9 5 18 4 41 Wed. ||1649 King Charles I. beheaded. 7 8 5 19 5 32 Thur.||1849 Abolition of the Corn Laws. 1 8 5 2016 25

17

18 19 20 21 22 23

24

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