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occasion, "attended church regularly. He was devoutly attentive to the prayers, and also to the sermons, if the preachers kept within their sphere of moral and religious instruction ; but when they departed from their official business, he could not always refrain from testifying his disapprobation. At this time there happened to be at Margate a popular preacher from the vicinity of London. That gentleman, like the Grecian declaimer who undertook to lecture before Hannibal on the art of war, delivered, in the presence of Burke, in Margate church, a long political sermon. Burke manifested an im, patience which was observed by the whole congregation. He several times stood up, and took his hat, as if he expected that the discourse was about to end, and afterwards sat down with visible marks of disappointment and dissatisfaction.

This probably arose from his dislike to political sermons, as that one was not worse than discourses in general are by persons of common abilities, who speak flippantly on subjects beyond their reach. His disapprobation of

such sermons he strongly testified in the following passage in his REFLEXIONS:• POLITICS AND THE PULPIT are terms that have little agreement. No sound ought to be heard in the church but the healing voice of Christian charity. The cause of liberty and civil government gains as little as that of religion by this confusion of duties. Those who quit their proper cha- . racter, to assume what does not belong to them, are, for the greater part, ignorant both of the character they leave, and of the character they assume. Wholly unacquainted with the world in which they are so fond of meddling, and inexperienced in all its affairs, on which they pronounce with so much confidence, they have nothing of politics but the passions they excite. Surely the church is a place where one day's TRUCE ought to be allowed to the dissensions and animosities of mankind.'

Although the • Appeal very ably contrasted the doctrines of the old Whigs with those of Paine and other writers, supported

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and disseminated by the new; and the work
was distinguished for closeness of reasoning
and regularity of method, as well as for
energy and depth of observation; it was
not equally read with his preceding perform-
ances on the subject.

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At the time that Burke was adding a strong redoubt to the fortress which he had raised, the fabric underwent an attack so vigorous and so ably conducted as must have overthrown it, had not the foundation been laid very deep, and the superstructure consisted of the most massy and well disposed materials. In summer, 1791, Mackintosh's VINDICIÆ GALLICÆ was published. Other writers, in attacking Burke's REFLEXIONS, had mixed subjects foreign to that work; had charged the author with a dereliction of former opinions, and some of them had imputed either unworthy or frivolous motives. Mr. Mackintosh, rejecting every irrelative question, proceeds to the main object. Having studied Burke's writings and conduct, and investigated their principlese

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VOL. II,

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he had discovered the charge of INCONSIS-
TENCY to be unfounded ; and had seen that
if the matter in consideration had been his
general conduct, instead of a particular
work, dereliction of a former system,
opinions, and action could not be a subject
of just accusation. The VINDICIÆ GAL.
LIÆ is evidently the result of very great
and very variegated powers and attain-
ments. Taste, learning, invention, judg-
ment, eloquence, acute reasoning, pro-
found philosophy, and habits of correct and
elegant composition are most fully and hap-
pily displayed. His illustrations and al-
lusions manifest great extent and multipli-
city of knowledge; the luminous arrange-
ment, a comprehensiveness of understand-
,ing that examines every relation of its sub-
ject; fertility of invention and correctness
of judgment are shewn in framing his theory,
and giving it consistency; strong and ani-
mated eloquence is exhibited in various
parts of the work, especially in describing
the miseries of the despotism, the progress
and completion of its overthrow, and the joy
of its subjects on emancipation; close and per-

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spicuous statement and vigorous argumentation form the prominent character of his discussion ; profound philosophy, of his exhibitions of mind. The obvious purpose

of the learned and able author is the melioration of the condition of man. Knowledge, science, and genius, prompted by philanthropy, do not always discover the most effectual means for the attainment of their ends. The perfection of reason consists in giving every object a consideration propora tioned to its relative importance. This philosopher, turning his mind chiefly to possibility of happiness, rather overlooks

capas bility of attainment.

Convinced that men, habitually guided by reason, and determined by virtue, would be happier under small than considerable restraints, he proposes à controul too feeble for the actual state of mankind; for the actual state of any men now existing ; much more of a people whose national character, from the old despotism, and other causes, required a greater degree of controul than some of their neighbours. Arguing from untried theory, instead of

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