The Vibrational Spectroscopy of Polymers

Portada
Cambridge University Press, 1992 M07 16 - 326 páginas
Describes the theory and practice of infrared and Raman spectroscopy as applied to the study of the physical and chemical characteristics of polymers. Its purpose is to give the beginning researcher in the field a firm foundation and a starting point for the study of more advanced literature. To this end the book concentrates on the fundamentals of the theory and nomenclature, and on the discussion of well-documented illustrations of these fundamental principles, including many now-classic studies in the subject. No previous knowledge of either polymers or vibrational spectroscopy is assumed.
 

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Contenido

Introduction
1
12 Fundamentals of polymers
2
121 Addition polymers
3
122 Step growth polymers
4
123 Regular chains and defect structures
7
124 Polymer morphology and crystallization
12
13 The infrared and Raman spectra of polymers
14
14 The electromagnetic spectrum symbols and units
17
447 Application to polymers
150
45 Finite chains
156
46 Overtone and combination frequencies Fermi resonance
158
47 Further reading
161
The characterization of polymers
162
factor group analysis
163
522 Polyvinyl chloride
173
523 Polyvinylidene chloride
180

15 Spectrometers and experimental methods in infrared spectroscopy
18
152 The dispersive infrared spectrometer
21
153 The Fourier transform spectrometer
24
154 Sources detectors and polarizers
27
155 The preparation of samples for transmission spectroscopy
28
156 Reflection spectroscopy
30
16 Spectrometers and experimental methods in Raman spectroscopy
31
162 Sources and optical systems
33
163 Monochromators and detectors
34
164 Sample preparation and mounting
36
17 Mathematical techniques for processing spectra
38
18 Further reading
41
Symmetry and normal modes of vibration
42
212 Normal modes of vibration
44
22 Symmetry and small molecules
47
222 Point groups
53
23 Group representations
57
232 Reducible irreducible and equivalent representations
60
233 Symmetry species and character tables
63
234 Notation for symmetry species
65
24 The number of normal modes of each symmetry species
66
241 A reducible 3Ndimensional representation of the point group
67
242 Reduction of the 3Ndimensional representation by the use
69
243 The number of normal modes of each symmetry species
70
25 Symmetry coordinates and internal coordinates
74
26 Further reading
78
The vibrational modes of polymers
80
polyethylene
81
descent in symmetry
89
314 Helical molecules
93
32 The vibrations of polymer crystals
97
321 The nature of the factor group modes
98
322 Factor group modes for crystalline PVC and polyethylene
100
33 Further reading
106
Infrared and Raman spectra
107
412 Infrared absorption mechanism and selection rule
109
413 The origin of Raman scattering
111
414 Raman scattering and the rule of mutual exclusion
113
Raman tensors
117
42 Polarization effects
120
422 Polarized Raman spectroscopy depolarization ratios
122
43 Vibrational assignments
125
432 Factor group analysis chain or local symmetry
126
433 Group vibrations
131
434 Model compounds
134
44 Force fields and vibrational calculations
137
441 The vibrational problem in Cartesian coordinates
138
442 Generalized coordinates the Wilson G and F matrices
139
443 Massweighted Cartesian coordinates and normal coordinates
141
potential energy distributions
143
445 Symmetry coordinates and internal symmetry coordinates
145
446 Force fields and force constants
146
524 Polytetrafluoroethylene
185
525 Polystyrene
194
526 Polyethylene terephthalate
200
group frequencies
203
polypropylene polyisobutene
206
acetates acrylates methacrylates
208
phenolic resins
210
amides polyurethanes
212
54 Quantitative analysis
215
542 Copolymers of vinyl chloride or ethylene with vinyl acetate
217
543 Styreneacrylonitrile copolymers and crosslinking in polystyrene
218
55 Monomers and additives
219
551 Caproclactam in Nylon 6 monomer and water in polymethyl methacrylate
220
552 Additives in polyethylene and polypropylene
222
56 The characterization of oxidation and degradation
223
562 Resonance Raman studies of degradation in PVC
224
57 Further reading
226
The microstructure of polymers
227
612 The determination of overall copolymer composition
228
613 The characterization of sequence lengths
231
62 Configurational and conformational isomerism
234
623 Conformational isomerism
238
63 Chain branching
246
633 Polyvinyl chloride
250
65 End groups
251
651 Polyethylene
252
652 Vinyl polymers
254
653 Other polymers
255
66 Hydrogen bonding
256
662 Polyamides
257
663 Polyurethanes
258
664 Biopolymers
262
67 Chain order and crystallinity
264
672 Polyethylene
265
673 Polyoxymethylene
271
674 Polyvinyl chloride
274
675 Lattice modes in polyethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene
276
676 Differentiation between crystallinity and chain order
278
68 Chain folding in polyethylene
280
69 Longitudinal acoustic modes
286
610 Molecular orientation
292
6102 Theoretical background
293
6103 Orientation in polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate
298
611 Further reading
301
References for chapters 5 and 6
303
A note on the use of the indexes
307
Index of spectra illustrated
308
Index of point groups
309
Index of polymers
311
Main index
313
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