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We beg, therefore, of you to consider the matter most carefully and -adjust the tariff with a view to properly protecting the American workmen and the American employers in the lithographic line. Yours, very truly,
THE GRAY LITHOGRAPH COMPANY,
THE FORBES LITHOGRAPH MANUFACTURING COMPANY, BOS
TON, MASS., SUBMITS SUPPLEMENTAL BRIEF RELATIVE TO LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTS.
Boston, Mass., December 2, 1908. Hon. SERENO E. PAYNE,
Chairman Ways and Means Committee,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. Sir: The Forbes Lithograph Manufacturing Company, of Boston, begs to file this brief as an addition to the brief submitted by it at the hearing held before the Ways and Means Committee November 21, 1908..
WAGES IN GERMANY.
The chairman asked that any information as to wages in Germany be filed with the committee. The following is a copy of letter from Mr. Gustav Herrmann, dated Nürnberg, June 30, 1908. Mr. Herrmann is a manufacturer of bronze powder at Nürnberg and comes in contact with the lithographic industry in that country. Copy of his letter follows:
NÜRNBERG, June 30, 1908. Messrs. The Forbes LITHOGRAPH MANUFACTURING COMPANY,
Boston. GENTLEMEN: Your favor of the 13th instant to hand. I beg to say I tried with various firms here like E. Nister, Mayer's Kunstanstalt, like the largest transfer picture manufacturer C. A. Pocher, to get the information you want.
I am very sorry to say every one of them refused to give such information, although I am on friendly terms with them. All the German lithographic firms came to a mutual understanding to inform nobody any more about the details of their business.
As I saw there was no use to push that side any more, I went to the headquarters of the social-democratic party here, trusting that the employees would give me the information which was refused by the employers. I am pleased to say that I can serve you with the following details received quite openly by the president of the social-democratic workmen's department for wages, who happens to have been a working lithographer himself before he took that position of national economy (Nationalökonomie).
Lithograph stipple artists, lithograph crayon artists, lithograph engravers, transferrers, lithograph pressmen, zinc or aluminum pressmen on rotary presses are all simply classed as lithographers without any distinction as to their specialty of work.
The minimum wages for them after they have served their apprenticeship (which lasts four years) is 18 marks per week all over Germany. There is a supplementary allowance from 1 to 5 marks, depending upon how a German town is rated for itsexpenses of living (Teuerungszulage). For example: The minimum wage in Nürnberg is 18 marks plus 1 mark--19 marks in all-as living is cheaper than in Berlin, where the minimum wages are 18 marks plus 6 marks-24 marks in all.
The average wages for å lithographer are about 30 marks per week. Some highly skilled lithographers earn as much as 45 marks per week.
The arrangement with foremen in the lithographic department varies. As a rule lithographic foremen are paid from 60 marks to 80 marks per week.
There is no standard in wages for foremen. You may julge yourselves, if I tell you, for instance, that Nister has a superintendent in the lithographic department whose name is Prof. Ludwig Kühn, a man who is practically a well-known portrait
painter of a fairly great reputation for painting other subjects, too. Professor Kühn is not limited at all to any number of hours of working in the factory. He may come and go as it pleases him, and I believe he is paid about 8,000 marks a year simply for supervising the artistic part of lithography.
All over Germany the lithographers work eight hours a day; the printers nine hours a day.
Stone polishers, stone grinders or polishers, zinc or aluminum-plate polishers are not considered as skilled laborers. Therefore they are paid by special agreement varying in each town and often in each workshop.
The minimum wage for those is in Nürnberg 3.10 marks a day; that means 18.60 marks per week (girls get 1.70 marks a day in Nürnberg; that means 10.20 marks a week).
The social-democratic party issues every year a book showing the details of wages. The last information concerning lithographic work did appear in 1905 edition. The things have changed since.
If there will be another book issued this year showing anything about your trade, I shall be pleased to send you one, as you understand the German language.
If I can serve you with any more information or in any other way, please dispose of my service. Yours, most respectfully,
Gustav HERRMANN. P. S.-Nearly 90 per cent of the lithographers in Germany belong to an organized union. While serving four years' apprenticeship the apprentice may get a few marks a week as pocket money during the first year. That pocket money may rise to 8 or 10 marks per week during the third or fourth year. Nothing definite is settled about that. A smart, intelligent apprentice may earn at the finish 10 marks, whereas a less pushing fellow may not get 8 marks a week.
The original of this letter we have attached to this brief. In connection with obtaining this information, we attach hereto a clipping from the Boston Daily Advertiser, November 30, 1908, which is dated Berlin, November 29, and explains the difficulty of obtaining from manufacturers in Germany the wages paid in that country. We. however, vouch entirely for Mr. Herrmann, and are confident that the information contained in his letter attached hereto is correct. This shows, as you will note, the average wages for lithographers to be about 30 marks per week, or $7.13, whereas in our own establishment the average wages of sketch artists, lithographic artists drawing on stone, transferrers, and printers is at least four times this amount. This letter of Mr. Herrmann's was sent to us in response to one we wrote him asking that he secure information as to the prevailing rates of wages in Germany.
It will also be seen by reference to Mr. Herrmann's letter that the apprentice serves four years, receiving, possibly, a few marks per week as pocket money during the first year and getting 8 to 10 marks, or $1.90 to $2.38, per week during the third or fourth year. Apprentices would get in this country as an average for the four years' service at least ten times this amount.
We also give below copy of letter received from Mr. Charles Hellmuth, dated New York City, July 27:
Charles Hellmuth, lithozta phs, printing inks, and dry goods, New York office and factory, 154-158 West
NEW YORK, July 27, 1908. THE FORBES LITHOGRAPH MANUFACTURING COMPANY,
Boston, Mass. GENTLEMEN: Referring to your favor of June 13, we have obtained the scale of wages and time of working in Germany, and submit same as follows:
Lithograph stipple artist..
month. 8-hour day.. 100-170 ...do.... 100-170
week. .9-hour day.. 25-30
...do... 33-36 ..do.... 33
36-40 .do.... 16-18
week. Lithograph stipple artist
14 Lithograph crayon artist.
30 Lithograph engraver.
.9-hour day.. 28 Stone polisher of aluminum or zinc..
..do.... 21 Pressmen on stone or zinc and aluminum, rotary
...do.... 30 Nine hours appears to be the prevailing working time except for artists. Hoping this information will be of use to you, we remain, Yours, very truly,
CHARLES HELLMUTH. This corroborates in all essential details Mr. Hermann's letter, referred to. Original letter is attached.
The German lithographer also has the advantage of cheaper rents and nearness to the source of supply for various raw material, such as lithographic stones (all of which come from Bavaria), colors, bronze, and metal leaf.
The German lithographer also has an important advantage owing to the facilities, supported by the various state and municipal governments, of technical and trade schools, which serve constantly to supply a large source from which to secure employees in the lithographic trade.
The statement was made at the hearing on November 21 that the printing presses abroad run 4,000 sheets of paper per day, as against 6,000 to 7,000 sheets of paper per day in the United States. This is not a fact at the present time. The foreign lithographers get practically the same product as a lithographer in this country. The American lithographer also has an important item of expense owing to the dampness of the atmosphere in this country, with which the German lithographer does not have to contend. The dampness causes variation in the paper from day to day while the work is in progress of printing, causing misregister of the colors, and is an item of large expense to the American lithographer by reason of the loss in product.
Whether a piece of paper imported is entirely covered by lithographic matter or part of same is blank makes practically no difference in the cost of production. Any statement made to the contrary is made with the full knowledge that it is misleading and intended to mislead the committee. A sheet of paper a certain size goes through the press, and whether it be covered in part or entirely with lithographic matter makes practically no difference as regards the cost of production, except the small additional cost of ink used.
In reply to the question of why Germans do not come to this country to secure the higher wages, would state that a large number of employees in American lithograph establishments are Germans. There would be a large increase in this number were it not for the fact that the alien labor contract law prevents any contract or promise of a
position to be made while the laborer is abroad. The uncertainty of conditions here prevents many foreign workmen taking the chances of securing quick employment on their arrival. Also, the cost of living is much higher in this country, and it is to protect the American workingman and to enable him to continue his present standard of living that it is necessary to have the increased rates of duty asked for, and which will amount to only the difference in cost of labor here and abroad plus a reasonable profit for the manufacturer.
WHO WOULD SUFFER BY AN INCREASE IN RATES?
At the hearing on the 21st of November the question was asked, "What effect would the increased rates asked for have on the American manufacturer who uses lithograph products?"
The matter of decalcomania transfers will be covered, we believe, by the tariff committee of the National Association of Employing Lithographers, and with the exception of decalcomania transfers practically all the lithographic material imported is used as pictures or postcards or as advertising material. Much the larger proportion imported is used for advertising purposes. The increase in rates asked for will have practically no effect on the cost of the material to the buyer of same. The number of establishments in this country engaged in the manufacture of lithographic prints (nearly 350), and all under separate and distinct management, will serve to prevent any undue raising of prices. The principal reason that there would be no material increase in cost to the user is that at present the foreign lithographer does not ship and invoice the material to the American purchaser direct, except in comparatively rare cases. Foreign lithographs are imported by the branch houses of foreign manufacturers maintained in this country, or importing houses dealing in this class of work almost entirely, and it is the foreign manufacturer or his branch house that now obtains the benefit-not the American user or buyer-for the foreign lithographs are sold to the American buyer at å price only slightly less than American lithographs. On account of the time necessary to get foreign goods, the American manufacturer imports but very little in the way of labels, wrappers, tickets, or other lithographed material entering directly into the manufacturing cost of his product.
THIE MATTER OF CIGAR BANDS AND SMALL LABELS.
In re statement of Mr. John G. Duffy, appearing for Louis C. Wagner & Co., of New York, and Charles Stutz Company, of New York.
The matter of cigar bands, we think, will be taken up in detail by the tariff committee of the National Association of Employing Lithographers, and we, therefore, shall refer only to the small labels not exceeding 10 square inches, referred to in our brief filed with the committee on November 21. In our brief we asked for a duty on labels, flaps, bands, and small labels, as follows:
colors (bronze printing to be counted as 3 colors), but not including
Lithographic labels, flaps, and bands, etc.-Continued.
Per pound. Small labels and bands, less than 10 square inches, printed in less than 8
colors (bronze printing to be counted as 3 colors), but not including
$0.60 Labels or flaps, exceeding 10 square inches, printed in 8 or more colors
(bronze printing to be counted as 3 colors), but not including metal-leaf
colors (bronze printing to be counted as 3 colors), but not including metal-
.80 Labels and flaps, exceeding 10 square inches, printed in whole or in part in metal leaf and not over 5 additional printings.
.50 Labels and flaps, exceeding 10 square inches, printed in whole or in part in metal leaf and over 5 additional printings..
.75 Small labels and bands, less than 10 square inches, printed in whole or in part in metal leaf and not over 5 additional printings.
1.00 Small labels and bands, less than 10 square inches, printed in whole or in part in metal leaf and over 5 additional printings..
1. 50 For any embossed label, flap or band, add......
.10 Mr. Duffy suggested a rate of 15 cents per pound for cigar bands printed in colors and bronze.
This would be wholly inadequate for the reason that the label or band is so small and so many are required to make the weight of 1 pound. The label we referred to in our brief, size 21 by 4, would weigh, for 100,000, about 185 pounds, if printed on stock 22 by 28, 50 pounds, the heaviest paper used for the purpose of labels for perfumery and other articles." At the rate recommended by Mr. Duffy, 15 cents per pound, this would give a duty on 100,000 labels of $27.75. One hundred thousand labels made in this country would cost, approximately, $350. If made in Germany, the same label would cost laid down in New York, including freight and duty paid, not exceeding $200.
Most of these labels, instead of being printed on paper basis 22 by 28, 50 pounds, are, however, printed on paper basis 22 by 28, 35 pounds to the ream of 500 sheets. This would make the weight of 100,000 labels about 130 pounds, and at 15 cents per pound the duty would be only $19.50.
It is, therefore, absolutely essential in order to give the American lithographer a fair chance in the home market that rates not less than we have recommended shall be adopted.
We beg that no provision shall be made that will provide for reciprocity in lithograph products between the United States and any European country, for there is no opportunity of exporting to England, France, Italy, or Germany lithographic products in amount of any consequence.
SCHEDULE. It was asked at the hearing of November 21 that in view of the many court decisions that had been secured as to the interpretation of section 400, as applied to lithographic prints, "Would it not be better, if Congress decided to increase the rate of tariff, to simply increase the rates provided in the Dingley law than to enact a lot of new provisions?”
In reply we beg to state that the schedule we have proposed is entirely on a specific basis, and the same is the case on the schedule