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ones as well, and our experience is that he is as careful to provide himself with all American books of value as he is with foreign; secondly, foreign books act as a stimulus to the production of independent work in this country.

It has been a matter of congratulation to observe the increasing number of American publications in educational and scientific subjects that have been issuing from the American press in recent years. It is strictly within the limits of accuracy to affirm that the authors of the vast majority of these have had to take account of the recent work done in foreign lands in their subjects. To render it difficult to become familiar with the work of foreign scholars, as the proposed tariff on foreign books would do, is to restrict American production, and thus go contrary to the very principle of protection which the tariff is intended to foster.

Secondly, the importation of old books is a matter of the utmost importance and deserves every possible encouragement. There are gradually growing up in this country libraries, both public and private, of considerable size and value. These collections of books will in time become such as to make us relatively independent of European libraries, and their increase deserves to be furthered in every possible way. All the private collections will in time be scattered to form new private libraries or will be absorbed into the larger public libraries. No such collection can be sold for anything like the cost of making it, so that these private libraries are practically never a source of profit to their owners. The proposed tariff on books, old and new, will make the expense of extending these collections greater than most owners can bear.

We therefore respectfully but urgently ask that no such restrictions upon the usefulness of our colleges and universities and upon the full development of American scholarship may be imposed by your honorable body. Signed on behalf of the faculty of Bryn Mawr College:

JOSEPH W. WARREN,
THEODORE DE LAGUNA,
WM. B. HUFF,

Committee of the Faculty. In accordance with the instructions of the faculty:

M. CAREY THOMAS, President of Bryn Mawr College.

HON. J. VAN VECHTEN OLCOTT, M. C., FILES LETTER OF C. R. CORNING, NEW YORK, ADVOCATING FREE BOOKS.

NEW YORK, December 8, 1908. Hon. J. V. V. OLCOTT, M. C.,

Washington, D. C. MY DEAR MR. OLCOTT: I find on my desk a memorandum calling for a letter to you concerning the tariff on books which we discussed at the l'nion League Club a short time since.

The United States is one of the very few civilized countries in which a protective tariff on books is maintained. I view this tariff as affecting principally three classes in the community-the author, the

printer, and the consumer. Provided the author's copyrights are protected, to which there is no objection in the world, the other two alone remain for consideration.

The printer is not dependent on the work of publishing books in this country for his livelihood. The consumers may be divided into those to whom a rise in the price of the books does not make any material difference, but there is a very large intellectual class which, as a rule, is not wealthy and which needs a great many books, which are now burdened with a heavy duty for its work. This class is composed of college professors, college students, professional men of all kinds, such as engineers, architects, lawyers, chemists, physicists, and others. While it may be said that professors and students can avail themselves of the libraries of the institutions which they are frequenting, I know from personal experience how difficult it was when I was a student to at times secure the very books I needed most, because some one else needed them at the same time and they were not in the library. Reference to books of this nature in the library of an institution is often not at all the equivalent of a private ownership, as you will readily understand.

At the present all non-English books are free and all English books more than 21 years old are also free. All other English books pay 25 per cent duty, and not only is this duty payable, but the customs administration of the law in this matter is often of the most unfair. I have come across this matter personally as chairman of the library committee of the Union League Club. When I ordered Stieler's Atlas, a German publication with all its descriptive wording in German, for the use of the library, although it is printed, published, and essentially German, the New York custom-house classed it as an English book because certain geographical names were English. They were English simply þecause there are no German equivalents and they are, so far as all intents and purposes are served, used in German as German words.

It would be an immense boon to a very large class in this country if all books and all bindings on such books, if of plain character, were made free of duty. I speak particularly of bindings because a great many books published in English are published without bindings; they are simply bound when they come from the press in plain linen or similar material instead of a paper cover, which is the method prevailing on the Continent. Hoping that something may be possible in this matter, I remain, Yours, very truly,

C. R. CORNING.

JEROME D. GREENE, SECRETARY OF FACULTY OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY, WRITES IN ADVOCACY OF FREE BOOKS.

WASHINGTON, D. C., December 19, 1908. Hon. S. E. PAYNE, M. C.,

Chairman Committee on Ways and Means. MY DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: I am inclosing herewith letter from Mr. Jerome D. Green, who is secretary of the faculty of Harvard University. Sincerely, yours,

H. S. BOUTELL.

CAMBRIDGE, December 17, 1908. Hon. H. S. BOUTELL, M. C., Washington, D. C.

DEAR SIR: I hope that the cause of education and of the diffusion of culture throughout this country will not suffer longer the handicap which purely mercantile interests are imposing by their support of the present duty on books printed in England. Whatever may be said about the interests of the consumer as compared with those of the protected manufacturer or artisan in other industries, it seems perfectly clear that the interests of the consumer are paramount where culture is concerned. It would be no more unjust or inexpedient, though doubtless more difficult, to impose a tariff on the importation of ideas than to put an obstructive tax on books and works of art. When one considers the large sacrifices which the people of Illinois and Wisconsin, for example, make to support their educational system-and those States are merely leaders in a movement which characterizes the entire country-it seems inconceivable that the commercial interests of an insignificant number of men should be allowed to stand in the way of what is really one and the same cause, namely, that of popular education and enlightenment. Sincerely, yours,

JEROME D. GREENE.

TRUSTEES OF NEW YORK LIBRARY, ASTOR, LENOX, AND TILDEN

FOUNDATIONS, OPPOSE INCREASE OF BOOK DUTY.

St. Louis, Mo., December 17, 1908. COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,

Washington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: At a meeting of the board of directors of the St Louis Public Library on Thursday, December 17, 1908, the following resolutions were adopted:

"The board of directors of the St. Louis Public Library have learned with much regret that an effort is making to increase the duty now levied on books and other printed matter imported into the United States, and to remove from the free list all classes of books now included therein.

“The existing tariff imposes a duty of 25 per cent ad valorem on books, excepting, however, first, books printed wholly in foreign languages; second, books in English which have been printed more than twenty years; third, books imported for the use of the United States or the Library of Congress, or for the use of libraries, educational institutions, or societies of a literary or scientific character.

“An import duty on books differs entirely in its effect upon the manufacturer from other duties, in that the copyright laws afford protection to authors and publishers quite apart from the tariff.

“The protection afforded, moreover, is extremely limited, affecting only such imported modern books and periodicals as are printed in English. So far as it goes, however, the duty is a tax on knowledge and education; an unwise tax in a republic, the existence of which must always depend on the intelligence of its citizens.

"The removal of books for public libraries from the free list will be distinctly a backward step, as the exemption as now existing

has been the law for many years, and the result will be the imposition of a serious tax upon a class of institutions which have always been favored or supported by all enlightened governments.

“This board therefore respectfully protests against any diminution of the privileges that libraries now possess, and further expresses the opinion that all import duties upon books and other printed matter should be entirely abolished.

"Resolved, That an attested copy of the foregoing minute be sent to each member of the Committee on Ways and Means of the present House of Representatives and to each member of the House and of the Senate representing the State of Missouri."

PAUL BLACKWELDER, Acting Librarian, St. Louis Public Library.

TRUSTEES OF NEW YORK LIBRARY, ASTOR, LENOX, AND TILDEN

FOUNDATIONS OPPOSE INCREASE OF BOOK DUTY.

NEW YORK, December 21, 1908. Hon. SERENO E. PAYNE, Ways and Means Committee, Washington, D. C.

, DEAR SIR: By direction of the trustees of the New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden foundations, I have the honor to transmit to you herewith an attested copy of a minute and resolutions adopted by the trustees on December 9, 1908, upon the subject of an effort which, as they are informed, is now being made to increase the duty now levied on books and other printed matter imported into the United States, and to remove from the free list all classes of books now included therein. Yours, respectfully,

C. H. RUSSELL, Secretary.

New YORK CITY, December 21, 1908. COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,

Vashington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: At a meeting of the trustees of the New York Public Library, held in the city of New York, on Wednesday, December 9, 1908, the following minute and resolutions were adopted:

The trustees of the New York Public Library have learned with deep regret that an effort is making to increase the duty now levied on books and other printed matter imported into the United States, and to remove from the free list all classes of books now included therein.

The existing tariff imposes a duty of 25 per cent ad valorem on books, excepting, however, first, books printed wholly in foreign languages; second, books in English which have been printed more than twenty years; third, books imported for the use of the United States or the Library of Congress, or for the use of libraries, educational institutions, or societies of a literary or scientific character.

An import duty on books differs entirely in its effect upon the manufacturer from other duties, in that the copyright laws afford protection to authors and publishers quite apart from the tariff.

The protection afforded, moreover, is extremely limited, affecting only such imported modern books and periodicals as are printed in English. So far as it goes, however, the duty is a tax on knowledge and education; an unwise tax in a republic, the existence of which must always depend on the intelligence of its citizens.

The removal of books for public libraries from the free list will be distinctly a backward step, as the exemption as now existing has been the law for many years, and the result will be the imposition of a serious tax upon a class of institutions which have always been favored or supported by all enlightened governments.

This board, therefore, respectfully protests against any diminution of the privileges that libraries now possess; and further expresses the opinion that all import duties upon books and other printed matter should be entirely abolished.

Resolved, That an attested copy of the foregoing minute be sent to each member of the Committee on Ways and Means of the present House of Representatives and to each Member of the House representing the State of New York.

Resolved, That the executive committee be and it is hereby authorized to take such measures as it may think proper to have the views expressed in the foregoing minute presented to the committees of the present and the next Congress, either orally or otherwise as may be thought most expedient.

A true copy from the minutes.
Attest:

C. H. RUSSELL, Secretary of the Trustees of the New York Public Library. (The above resolution was concurred in by the trustees of the Brooklyn Public Library, December 15, 1908. Similar resolutions were adopted by the Free Public Library of Newark, N. J., John Cotton Dana, librarian.)

THE TRUSTEES OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY OF CINCINNATI, OHIO, ADOPT RESOLUTIONS FAVORING FREE BOOKS.

CINCINNATI, Ohio, December 22, 1908. Hon. SERENO E. PAYNE, Committee on Ways and Means,

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIR: At a meeting of the trustees of the Public Library of Cincinnati, on Thursday, December 17, 1908, the following resolutions were adopted :

The trustees of the Public Library of Cincinnati have learned with deep regret that an effort is making to increase the duty now levied on books and other printed matter imported into the United States, and to remove from the free list all classes of books now included therein.

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