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pretation be more rational than what has gone before, or that conclusion more logical, are questions whose decision must rest with my readers. If, however, my book has any peculiarity, it is its method. It is a comparative study. It is an attempt to apply the method, which has been found so productive in the domain of Natural Science, to Political Science and Jurisprudence. I do not claim to be the first author who has made this attempt. It is the method chiefly followed by the German publicists. In the French, English, and American literatures, it is, on the other hand, relatively new. Boutmy, Bryce, Dicey, Moses, and Wilson have, indeed, already broken the ground, but the field is capable of a much wider, and also a more minute, cultivation.

It is here that I have chosen to lay out my work, and I trust it will be found that some slight advance has been made in the development of the comparative method in the treatment of this domain of knowledge.

My most grateful acknowledgment for aid in the preparation of this work is due to my friend and colleague, Prof. Dr. Munroe Smith, who, in the midst of other arduous duties, has read the proof sheets of the entire text, and has made many most invaluable criticisms and suggestions upon it, which, almost without exception, have been accepted and incorporated in the work. My most sincere thanks are also due to my friend and former pupil, Dr. Robert Weil, who has, with great care and fidelity, verified all the references, and prepared the table of contents, the table of cases, and the index. His kindly aid has greatly lightened my labors, and his exactness has preserved me against many an error.



August, 1890.


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6. Of the Scandinavian Peninsula; 7. Of the Central District


8. Of the Danubian Territories; 9. Of the Eastern Division


The Ethnographic unities of the second, third and fifth geographic unities

of North America (the United States of America)


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Confusion in the minds of publicists between state and government
In the transition from one form of state to another, the point of sovereignty

moves from one body to another: the example of English history
The conditions in America more favorable; American publicists not suffi-

ciently independent

The organization of the state outside of the government is everywhere


The forms of state according to Aristotle: monarchy, aristocracy, democ-


Aristotle's proposition is true as to the forms of state


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