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For a new enterprise, our catholic title, “The From “The World," New York, February, 1862. American Farmer," would be presumptuous.
The American Farmer. But it is ours of right, and by prescription. It |
The times——these awful times--chargeable with was assumed when there was no other such "Farmer' in America, and all the land lay open
80 many shortcomings—have caused frightful in
roads upon the press, in several departments.before us, when :'
Some of the journals have avoided the fatal ef"The whole boundless Continent was ours."
fects of the storm by shortening sail-reducing
their dimensions and curtailing their expenses, "The American Farmer” was first issued on while increasing their industry. Others have anthe 1st of April, 1819, by its åble and well known chored for a more propitious season, while others editor, John S. Skinner, Esq. It assumed its again have literally swamped. peculiar character of an exclusively agricultural Among the casualties we name with regret the journal on the suggestion, as we have understood, suspension of "The American Farmer.” We of the late Dr. Joseph E. Muse, of Cambridge, I trust it is merely a "suspension." That journal Md. Mr. Skinner's first design was to publish a has become historical, and should not be disconpolitical paper, with an agricultural departinent, tinued permanently. It was the first agricultural but advising with some of the prominent agricul- publication issued in America, commencing more turists of the State, he was urged, by Dr. Muse than forty years ago. Its founder and original especially, to undertake what was considered a editor, John S. Skinner, afterward Assistant somewhat hazardons enterprise. Dr. Muse was Postmaster General of the United States, was one well known for his devotion to science and ex. of those enthusiasts to whom human progress is perimental agriculture, and from the first number largely indebted. A copy of his first volume has of "The American Farmer," through a period of been deposited by us with the New York Historithirty years, was a frequent contributor to its cal Society, as a memento alike of his character pag :8. Mr. Skinper's editorial charge of “The and of social progress in the first art of life-the • Farmer'' continged through some sixteen years, cultivation of the earth. and he made its character as national as its name. The present publishers, Messrs. Worthington &
As in the course of years, able and numerous Lewis, of Baltimore, announce that the pressure competitors in the same field of labor, sprung up of the times the difficulty of circulation and colat different points, especially in New York and lection in these days of turmoil-compel them to the Eastern States, "The Farmer' became, more suspend the publication, though they hope to reexclusively, a Middle and Southern State Journal. sume on the the 1st of July-trusting that before While it bas had many friends in all the States, that period "the storm of civil discord shall have it bas, of late years, circulated mainly in Maryland spent itself, and that happier days will dawn upon and the States immediately around, and in all the us all;" to all which hopes we freely say, Amen! Soutbern States.
While speaking thus chronologically of “The In 1855 the present editor became, by purchase,
American Farmer" as the "first" agricultural joint proprietor, and editor of "The Farmer," and
print established in America, (1819,) we do not
withdraw anything we have said about the first in 1858, sole proprietor. A year later, his asso-|| ciate, Mr. Lewis, purchased the interest in it he
journalist, Luther Tucker, who, about ten years now holds. When the war made it impossible to
afterward, (1829,) introduced in his own paper communicate with Southern subscribers, and all
that popular mode of treating rural questions, in the business relations were broken op, which were
which "The American Farmer" was originally so essential to the interests of the publication, its
deficient, and the adoption of which by the agriissue was reluctantly suspended. It is resumed
cultural press generally in this country, has made now, with po change of proprietors, editor, printer,
indelible marks in the agricultural literature of
the world, or even of type, paper, or general appearance.It is, what it was well called, “The Old Pioneer," who having gone before, and prepared the way
TO KEEP MILK SWEET.--Mr. Kuvanah, in reply for others, is content now to work in good fel
to a question by a correspondent, said that milk
may ke kept sweet by keeping it in a clean room lowship with the many, who have taken the field
in company with fresh water. In some places it at a later day. We invoke the good offices of old, is customary to set tubs of water along the midapd new friends, and hope, by their help, as con- í dle of the cellar, cave, or milk bouse, with an tributors to its pages, and in extending its circu
arrangement of pipes by which the water can be
readily changed twice a day. It is found that lation, to increase its value, and widen the range this arrangement prevents tbe milk from being of its influence.
poured even by lightning.
the market. The despatch which they enable us
to make, takes away much of the risk of damage "Too long, at clash of arms amid her bowers,
by exposure, while they economise greatly the And pools of blood, the earth has stood aghast,
cost of labour. The grass can be cut down rapThe fair earth that should only blush with flowers And ruddy fruits, but not for aye can last
idly when the weather is fit for curing; the heaThe storm, and sweet the sunshine when 'tis past; vy labor of the harvest is borne by horses and Lo, the clouds roll away--they break--they ,
mules instead of men, and a careful estimate will And like the glorious light of Summer, cast
show at least half of the cost saved. No one, O'er the wide landscape from the embracing sky,
therefore, who has any considerable crop of hay On all the peaceful world, the smile of Heaven shall lie."
to secure, can afford to be without a mower.
A few simple rules are all that is necessary to Farm Work for the Month.
be suggested, and the utmost watchfulness and
care must be used in applying them. In order However bot the weather, the farmer must to get the sweetest and best bay, the grass, timbrace himself to the appropriate work of the othy excepted, perhaps, should be cut very soon season. Grain harvest, hay harvest, corn and after the bloom first appears. It should not be tobacco cultivation, buckwheat sowing, ruta- allowed to remain long spread, out in a hot sun, baga sowing, and other minor works, all press but when fairly wilted, so that, upon pressing it upon him now. There is much to be done that in the hand, the driest portions break a little, it must be done quickly, and done well.
should be thrown into cocks as high as they can WREAT HARVEST.
be made to stand well, without being made
very large. In this condition, they may stand The experienced farmer understands the ne
for two days, when they may be thrown open cessity of being well supplied in advance, with
for a few hours, and taken to the stack or barn, all the ways and means for carrying forward,
Cured in this way, it will look green and bright, promptly, the saving of his wheat crop. Its
and retain the fragrance which is so grateful to preparation is so costly, and its value so great,
our sense of smell, and which makes it very acthat any unnecessary delay in securing it would
ceptable, we presume, to the cattle. It cannot be but the grossest inismanagement. All the
be doubted that it retains its nutritious qualities necessary labor will be engaged, and all imple
entirely beyond that which is exposed on the ments put in good order, or new ones supplied.
ground through the hot sun of two or three In a climate where the fiercer heats of summer
summer days. ripen off the crop very suddenly, he must be
CORN. watchful, and begin his harvest work at the
There should be little work to do in the corn earliest possible time; remembering that he is
field this month, under ordinary circumstances. more apt to err in putting off too long, than in be
If planted in due time and well cultivated, keepginning too soon.
ing the grass thoroughly subdued, there should The same remarks are applicable to the Rye
be no occasion for further work. Should it be and Oat harvests, except that there is not the
necessary, however, it must be got entirely clear same pressing necessity in the care of the latter,
of grass, and laid by as early as that work can as they are not liable to damage from a little ex- |
be accomplished. posure on the ground after being cut. But the
тоВАСco. hest rule for all, is promptness and despatch in
It is to be hoped that the planting, and replantfinishing up whatever work may be on hand.
ing, are now coinpleted. The first hoeing, which HAY HARVEST.
sbould be begun as soon as their is any appearThe hay crop is growing yearly in value, in ance of the plants beginning to grow, should the Middle and Southern States, and it is neces- now be got through with, early. The dryness of sary that especial attention be given to the the ground, and the necessity of working very method of curing it. It must be borne in mind close up to the plant, prove very often fatal, and that a great deal of the value of the crop depends great care therefore is necessary in this operation, mpon its treatment within the few days in which Either before, or immediately after this boeing, it is submitted to the manipulations of harvest the plough or shovel should be run with the bar ing. The most successful culture, and the most close to the plant, and throwing the earth from luxuriant growth, will avail little, it skill and due them. The second ploughing will throw the attention in curing be wanting.
earth back, and the second hoeing draw it modThere is great and most valuable help for us erately around the plants, and destroy every in the excellent mowers which now abound in vestige of remaining grass.
Keep the flock of turkies in the tobacco, morn- | have soon another ploughing, which, with the neing and afternoon, that the early glut of worms cessary hoe work in preparing drills, will give it a may be promptly destroyed. The turkies will be very sufficient working. It must be well manured very effective, if kept well to their work, as long with some good super-phosphate, unless it have as the tobacco is small.
been otherwise fertilized, and the seed sown at
any time, after the middle of the month, that the POTATOES.
ground may be moist. Potatoes may be planted as late as July. To insure quick growth, open a good furrow, and
The Vegetable Garden. plant while the ground is yet fresh, covering lightly with soil, and then filling the furrow with
Prepared for The American Farmer, by DANIEL BARKER, a mulch of any kind of strawy manure, or even
Maryland Agricultural College. straw itself, or leaves. This will protect the crop from the severe beat of the sun, prevents
JULY. rapid evaporation, and thus secures, what the potato especially needs, a cool and moist soil. Be
ASPARAGUS. fore putting in the litter, a dressing of super-phos Any more cutting of this crop will injure the phate, or other good fertilizer, should be thrown plantations. To many it may seem needless to in the drill. A mixture of four bushels of leached make this remark; but there are somewho cut ashes, one of plaster, and one gallon of salt, | asparagus as long as a new bead is to be found. makes a good dressing in the absence of other
We must advise them to desist, unless they have fertilizers; put in the drill, at the rate of about made up their minds to the policy of killing the ten bushels to the acre.
goose, &c. Let the beds be pointed up with a fork,
all weeds taken off, and the surface covered with MILLET.
a mulch of half-rotted cow dung. If there be occasion to add to the winter's store
BROCCOLI, of good hay, it may be done by sowing the com
Where grown, should now be got out to furmon millet, or that variety of it called Hunga- nish a supply during the fall and early winter. rian grass. If there be moisture enough to make
Manure very liberally, and if planted in dry weait germinate quickly, it makes a rapid growth,
ther, water very freely with weak manure water; and will come off the ground by the örst of Oc
better, however, to have the ground ready, and tober. It must be well manured, and on tho
plant immediately after a shower. This will save roughly prepared ground, to make a good crop.
labor, and give the plants a better start. A free A light, rich loam suits it best.
natural growth is especially requisite for broccoli, cabbage, &c.
CAULIFLOWER, This is a crop not grown largely anywhere;
This most delicious vegetable is not cultivated but deserving, perhaps, more attention than it
near as much as it deserves. Now is the time to usually gets in the Middle and Southern States.
plant out for a late supply. Remember that for No family should be without a supply of buck
this crop the soil cannot be too rich; they will wheat flour among their winter stores, for no
grow well in dung, only if well decomposed.bread compares with good buckwheat cakes for
Cultivate and hoe between those coming forward, a winter's breakfast. It is equal, if not superior,
but do not draw any soil around the stems except to oats, in feeding qualities for stock; it is grown
any one be loose at the roots. easily, and at little cost for manure, on ordinary
CELERY land; and has the advantage that a crop may be
Should now be planted for the late main crop. made very late in the season, interfering very lit
This will require a heavy watering where the tle with the busier times of the farm.
ground is dry. Whenever the fly attacks the It should not be sown earlier than the middle
leaves, pick them off, and burn them. Dustings of the month, and a half bushel of seed to the
of coal or soot, we have found very useful, in proacre is enough.
tecting celery against the ravages of the fly. It is said to be good for soiling milch cows in the month of August, when in bloom.
This useful plant is too much neglected after RUTA BAGA.
the early spring months, through the tendency of Thorough preparation should be made as early running to seed in bot weather. This may in as possible now, for this valuable root crop. If some measure be prevented, by sowing in a rich sod ground have already been turned, it should I moist soil, in a partial sbade.
stances to be the cause of mildew. Grapes ripenWhere not too far advanced, should be fre- ing should not be syringed, but have a moderately quently cultivated and hoed between. To those moist atmosphere and plenty of air. who have not tried it, we would advise to give a Hardy Grape Vines.-Keep the young shoots top-dressing of wood ashes and guano, between tied up, and pinch them off from two to three the rows of the main crops. Upon sandy soils joints above the fruits Frequent applications of we have found such a dressing to considerably soapsuds and manure water to the roots will be increase the produce. As fast as the early crops of invaluable benefit to them. are taken off, plough and manure for broccoli, caulitio wers, cabbage, turnips and winter greens.
The Flower Garden.
From seed this season, continue to cultivate,
“To deck the shapely knoll, and hoe between the rows, and thin to about
That, softly swelled, and gaily dressed, appears three inches apart.
A flowery island, from the dark green lawn
Emerying, must be deemned a labor due Plant, for succession and late crops, pees, dwarf
To no mean hand, and ask the touch of taste." beans, fournips, radishes, lettuce, endive, cucumbers
It is difficult to conceive of either an elegant for pickles, sweet corn for last crop. Beets may
or happy home, which has not a flower garden still be sewn for winter use.
attached; and it is certain, the more we cultivate Continue to use the cultivator and hoe between
flowers, the more we are incited to observation of the rows of all growing crops.
all things which grow, and the more do our minds Cucumbers, melons of all kinds, squashes, egg
expand in all that is true, and good, and beautiful. plants, peppers, with many other similar plants,
ROSES. will be greatly benefitted at this season of the
That class known as “perpetuals” will now be year, by a mulching of partly decayed manure.
benefitted by pruning back the shoots which have
produced flowers, and have a mulching of short The Fruit Garden.
manure, with a good supply of manure water in
dry weather, to assist the autumn bloom. Buds STRAWBERRIES,
to be put on the Manetti or other stocks, must be Where any are required for forcing, should be done with discretion. If either the buds, or stocks potted as soon as rooted, as they make roots to be budded, are in a soft state, they will not take. faster in pots than in the open ground. Our plan Twelve hours rain will do more to perfect the is to lay the best runners in pots, (two-inch,) and stocks and buds, than twelve days of artificial when rooted transfer into four-inch, wherein they watering. fruit. Cut away all runners not wanted for young
RHODODENDRONS AND AZALIAS. plantations, and supply manure-water liberally 10 Whenever these beautiful shrubs are grown, old plants and runuers intended for new planta- | unless seed is wanted, the dead heads of flowers tions.
should be entirely removed, being careful to do FIGS.
it without injury to the young shoots. If seeds Feed liberally with manure water and give a are allowed to ripen, there will be much less good top-dressing of quite rotten cow manure. bloom next season. There is no shrub more orThe young growth should be pinched back. derly in its habit of growth than the rhododenPEACHES AND NECTARINES
dron, and generally speaking it is the better way In pots or tubs, should be fully exposed to the
to let it grow in its own way. Planted in proper atmosphere, the pots or tubs to be sunk about soil below the level, (they should never be planted one-third of their depth in the soil. Keep well
above the level,) they will seldom require any arwatered with manure-water, and give a top-dress
tificial watering. As a rule, the removal of dead ing of good rotten manure. These trees are, not
blossoms is about all the attention rhododendrons unfrequently, loaded with superfluous wood. The and azalias require. We are supposing them to idea appears to be to have plenty to choose from be planted in good beds of peat-loam, and well at the winter pruning. Choose now all that will decomposed cow dung, mixed up well together. be wanted, which will have the advantage of ripen
CHRYSANTHEMUMS ing properly.
Will be benefitted by frequent applications of GRAPE VIXES
liquid manure, and sprinkling overhead in the In cold graperies, will now require air, night evening. Now is a good time to strike cuttings and day. The admission of a through draft, is of the pompones to flower in the greenhouse durto be avoided, as we have found it in many in- ling the fall.
Cineraria, calcularia, primula sinensis, mimu- "an ounce of prerention is better than a pound lus, mignonette, &c., may now be sown in a light of cure." I could produce many witnesses that, rich compost, and placed in a moist, cool, sharly in the way I mention, I made a thorough cure. place, which will bring them out much better I Now every man can cure his sheep in the same than a more exposed place. When the plants are way, it he will only try and persevere. It appears well up, they must then have more light and air. to me there are but few flocks of Merino sheep in FLOWER BEDS.
Western New York but what have foot-rot. It Stir the surface soil before the plants meet, and
is almost impossible to get one hundred wethers all that need pegging down should be kept regu
to fatten but wbat have it. When I get such, I Jar betimes, and especial care taken to get plenty
give them three or four thorough dressings, and of shoots on the north side-the south side is
I see no more of it; and I dress the lame every pretty sure to take care of itself.
three days, the two first times, and the sound
ones about a week apart as above described. WINTER FLOWERS
Sheep will never fatten if foot-rot is among Must be cared for now. Propagate erephorbia
them; you may as well think of fattening a sick splendens and jacquiniæflora, poinsettia pulcher
horse or cow. I have two neighbors who have rima, salvia splendens, callicarpia purpurea, fc. Put all potted shrubs for winter blooming, in a
foot-rot badly, and who have gone on dressing
the lame ones only for a year or more. I gave cool, moist bottom, until the end of August, when
one of them a talking to, the other day, that he they may be removed to a more sunny position.
appears to take heed to, and seems to go at it as
if he would do something. He says he has lost. Foot Rot in Sheep---Cure.
five bundred dollars by the disease this winter. There is, we believe, very little of the disease
1 I told him if he did as I directed, every sheep called " foot-rot" in this and the more Southern
would walk without being lame in four days, States; but, as many sheep are being brought
but to go on and dress as often as I told him, into the State from sections where it is very
and perhaps more, and if he tbought he could not prevalent, it is well to put on record, what, we
do as I directed, I would come and stand or sit. have the high authority of Mr. John Johnston,
on, | by him until I saw he was master of it—and now of Geneva, for saying, is a sure remedy. He says
I expect he will make a cure, there are few flocks of sheep in Western New York that are free from the disease, and that they
| Sheep ought to be thoroughly cured before will never fatten if " foot-rot" is among them :
| turned to their summer pasture, and not make it
| foul with diseased feet, else it may take more Near GENEVA, April 6, 1866.
dressings than I state to make a cure. It is Messrs. Tuckers :- I notice in yonr issue of better to give one or two more than enough, than April 5, page 224, a Subscriber inquires about to give too few. A man can dress about fifty in a curing foot-rot in sheep. I have often given, 1 day at the first dressing, and he may do nearly through the agricultural papers, a never-failing double that number the other dressings. But cure, if properly applied - that is, a salve made don't hurry; do your work right, and you will of finely pulverized blue vitriol, together with find it most profitable in the end. thorough paring of the diseased feet. Rub on
John JOHNSTON. the galve, and in about four days every sheep will walk sound if the paring has been thorough. VANILLA.-A successful effort, it is said, has The lame must be separated from the sound, but been made to raise this plant in France. The the sound ones must have the salve rubbed in between experiment was made in the public gardens of the hoofs also, else there will be no cure. Those the St. Bruno, and the quality is affirmed to be that were lame must be dressed again in about four equal to the best imported from the West Indies. days, examining closely that no boof has been The seed of the vanilla is remarkable for its fraleft on with a sore under it. The sound ones grant odor, and yields an oil which is much used must have salve thoroughly rubbed in again in
in coin in as a flavor. It is also employed in medicine in
place of valerian, all the virtues of which it is about a week. Let the lame ones, or those that supposed to possess, while it is at the same time were lame, be dressed three or four times as I far more grateful to the taste.-Er. have directed, and the sound ones at least three times, and I can warrant a cure. I fooled away
GENERALLY speaking, the smaller the quantity my time for two years, when I kept about
of fruit on a tree, the higher the flavor; there1,000 sheep, in dressing only the lame ones, some
fore, thin all fruits in moderation, but avoid
excess ; a single gooseberry on a tree, or a single twenty-six years ago, and would never have bunch of grapes on a vine-no matter how fine it cured them, had not the thought struck me that may be-is a disgrace to good gardening.-Ex.