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1st year-Beans; manured.
not throw the seed on until the plowed ground 2d-Wheat.
has gone through such a state of fermentation, 3d-Qats. 4111-Flax.
which makes it more mellow, softer for the haud, 5th-Rye or Wheat, with clover sown, is half more elastic for the foot, darker of color, richer a manuring.
of nutritious substances. For these two reasons, 6th-Clover. 7th-Wheat-half a manuring.
our mode of preparing the land for a flax crop is 8th-Oats.
as follows: Early in the fall the field is plowed
shallow ; it is important to plow immediately Here you have the proper plan for flax in a ro
after the crop has been removed. Three or four tation, as proved by experience, as well as from
weeks thereafter, when the field begins to cover scientific reasons. In the above rotation every
itself with weeds, it is thoroughly harrowed and crop has a fair chance, and the periods of ma
plowed shallow again. The second plowing is nuring are well distributed. Take out the flax,
18, not necessary where the field remains clear of and you can put in its place nothing but fallow
weeds. Very early in the spring, as soon as the ing, thus losing a year's crop and baving no better
land has sufficiently dried off, a deeper furrow results thereafter. However, if part of the land
(the last before seeding) is given. This last has become weedy or foul from unfavorable
| plowing can also be done in the fall, and freweather, or other causes, such part then receives
uently such plowing before winter gives better tbe benefit of a fallowing, instead of sowing it
results than if done early in the spring. with flax.
The land now is left rough. The harrow is not Of course, the land, to produce flax in the applied until a growth of plants, (weeds,) begins above order, must be in a bigh state of cultiva- to spring up. Then, however, the field receives tion. It will not do to sow flax on worn-out a thorough harrowing, aided by rolling. The land. But good farming; with a rational rota- barrow not only passes twice over the land, as tion of crops, never takes the least strength out
your correspondent thinks necessary, but freof the land. The reason why flax is not benefitted quently four or five times; the harrowing is conby fresh manuring, is partly this; The fibre re- tinued until the whole field is like a garden bed, quires an early growth; all extremes, every ex- perfectly pulverized, and all hollows, every trace cess of heat or cold, drouth or moisture, are in- l of the furrows destroyed. A sharp stick thrust jurious; every part of the plant, as much as pos into the ground must ererywhere meet a solid sible, must grow under the same influences.
mass; the heel must not sink in deeply. This is erefore flax likes so much the sea coast and the work assigned to the harrow; I know that bates the inland, where heat and cold, wet and
in America much less attention is given to hardry spells, will come on abruptly and in excessive rowing than here. The field now is again left; manner. Fresh manure also disturbs such equal | the seed of weeds still left in the surface will now growth; it works different in dry or wet spells of germinate, and two weeks after this, such new the season, different in cold or warm weather.
crop of weeds is again destroyed by a thorough It is a well-known fact that barley from fresh harrowing. Then after the next shower of rain manured land, (especially sheep manure,) is not the flax seed is sown, covered by a light harrowgood for the brewer; that seed wheat must noting, and the ground rolled, for which purpose a be taken from fresh manured land, nor after ripgled roller is preferred. The best sowing time clover; and in similar manner flax is injured by here is between the 20th and 25th of May; in fresh manuring
America perhaps earlier sowing may be preferable. Your correspondent, in No. 683, advises The amount of seed required, where fine fibre further, to sow the flax-seed on fresh-plowed is desired, is 180 Prussian pounds to the acre, land. We never do so here-at least no ex which is equal to about 200 American pounds, or perienced farmer does so in those sections of our 33 bushels. The cost of seed per acre thus country, where good flax is raised. We pre averages 18 Prussian thalers, or $13 in gold. fer an old furrow for two reasons. lst. Because we are obliged to buy our seed either from old-plowed ground keeps moist longer, while Russia or Ztaland, and can use boine-raised fresh-plowed land will in a dry spell soon suffer seed only once, so that every other year we bave from drouth. 2d. Because all land, with the ex- to buy imported seed. ception of sandy soils, needs exposure to the We have an excellent flax market here, as there influences of the atmosphere for four or five weeks are large spinning factories, and alone for those before the seed can be sown. All loamy soils— in the province of Westfalia nearly a million and which are those best adapted to flax culture-are a half worth of flax has to be bought abroad, highly benefitted by such exposure, and we do I mostly in Russia.
Our object, as farmers, is to get rid of the flax than any other crop, I should, on the contrary, at as early a period as possible, and it is of great say, “it requires more skill and attention than advantage that, for the last five years, we can sell almost any other crop of the farm."? Besides, the flax in its raw state. The farmer now merely the farmer must be sure of a market. pulls up the flax, rots and dries it, and then finds
Wm. LAER. ready sale for the straw. For this state, the price | Munster, Prussia, March 8, 1866. has been 28 pounds of straw-flax for one thaler,
Cruelty to Animals. or about 2 cents, gold, per pound, these two
John T. Hoffman, Henry Grindell, J. J. Astor, years; at present it sells even higher, to wit., 26
and other prominent citizens of New York, have pounds for one thaler. One acre will, on an
got from the Legislature of that State an act of average, produce from 2,500 to 3,000 German
incorporation under the title: “The American Sopounds of dry flax straw—though, in 1863, I
ciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals." harvested myself from one acre 4,800 pounds.
In accordance with the general idea of the At 3,000 pounds, and a price of 28 pounds, as
Association, several laws have been passed, above stated, the fibre is worth 107 Prussian
making provision for the more effectual suppresthalers per acre, while the whole cost of raising
sion of cruelty to dumb beasts. The following is about 30 thalers, including the seed; so the
are some of the provisions of the law : net profits are about $48, gold, per acre. These
Transportation of Animols by Railroads.- No figures are not imaginary, but, on numerous farms,
Railroad Company in this State, in the carrying such profits have been made for many years here.
and transportation of cattle, sheep, or swine, Flax raising, however, is a trade, and wants to
, shall confine the same in cars for a longer period be learned. I cannot here enter into its details,
than twenty-four consecutive hours, unless delayed but your correspondent, in No.683, commits two
by storms, or other causes, without unloading for farther mistakes, which I will mention, and hope
rest, water and feeding, for at least ten consecuhe will pardon me for this, as my sole object is to
tive hours; and shall not receive nor re-load promote exact knowledge of an important branch
cattle, sheep, or swine, from other railroads, of Agriculture.
which have not been rested at least ten consecuIst. Tbe steeping of the fibre in water is really
tive hours immediately preceding such loading a "rotting ;' its object is not only to soften the
and re-loading, and have been watered and fed filaments. The flax in the water must ferment,
within said ten hours. and this fermentation must have its full process.
Cruel Treatment of Animals. Every person who The end of the same is indicated by a sinking of
shall, by his act or neglect, maliciously kill, maim, the steeped flax; as soon as the fermentation is
wound, injure, torture, or cruelly treat, any horse, over, the immerged bundles will sink several
mule, ox, cattle, sheep, or other animal, belonginches in the water, and then it is time to take
| ing to bimself or another, shall, upon conviction, them out of the water. Fermentation being the
be adjudged guilty of a misdemeanor ; and every object, warm water will attain the same much
owner, driver, or possessor of an old, maimed quicker than cold water; in fact, the water must
diseased horse, or mule, turned loose, or left dishave a certain temperature, and also a quick
abled in any street, lane, or place, in any city in running stream is unfit for this purpose.
the State, who shall allow such horse, or mule, 2d. The spinning factories cannot buy flax in
to lie in any street, lane, or public place, for more its green state, nor even in its raw state, but
than three hours after knowing of such disability, only after the rotting and after the breaking of
on conviction, shall be adjudged guilty of a misthe woody rot which surrounds the fibre.
demeanor. Therefore there must be men that make a business
Among other items of cruelty to animals, proof buying and preparing the flax for the spinning
hibited and punishable by the same law, are factories, or else the farmer has to take care of
"premeditated fights between persons with their these operations himself. Green flax can bear
fists," fights between game birds, or game cocks, neither transportation to any distance nor delay;
or dogs, or bulls, or bears, or between dogs and and, even after the rotting and drying, the flax
rats, or dogs and badgers, &c. is too bulky, and, in consequence, requires too much cost for transportation, as well as storeage, REMEDY FOR THE SCOUR IN LAMBS.—Take the to be saleable to the factories in this state ; be seed of the common dock, make a strong decocsides, it cannot be estimated right in this state. | tion, sweeten with loaf sugar, add half a tea
Finally, I consider fax a highly recommendable spoonful cayenne pepper to the quart. Give to crop; but if your correspondent, in No. 683, each lamb a wine-glassful three or four times a. says that it requires “less skill and attention" day until a cure is effected.
conclusions, ring the bell twenty minutes before If the politicians would allow the farmers of day for all hands to rise, the women go to cookthe land to take charge of the work of recon- ing for breakfast and dinner; get off to work bestruction, we might hope for a speedy return to fore sunrise; every set of hands have their work peace and prosperity. They would bring to bear for the day told them. I have quite early breakupon the subject a quiet, practical, common sense fast, saddle and mount my little mule and I am treatment, before which, all the difficulties con with the hands or going from one set to another. jured up by the former would speedily vanish. until the middle of the day, come home, get din
The idea is suggested as we read the letters ner and am off again frequently in less than one which we here extract from the Southern Cultiva | hour. The hards have good pay for the year, tor, and admire the cheerful, hearty submission they board and clothe themselves, everything to circumstances, and sound, good sense they they need is furnished them on the place at a less evince. One is from a Georgia man, who would price than the nearest market; they seem to en. be classed, we suppose, with what the vulgar joy themselves highly, it does them good to educated call “poor whites ;'' the other from an think what they want their credit is good for. I educated gentleman, a native of Maryland, who treat them kindly, talk with them freely on mathaving farmed before the war in Illinois, had re ters pertaining to their interest, wink at small turned to the South where he acted as a Confed- errors, but reprove any neglect on their part. If erate surgeon. He now makes the field of his ihings go exceedingly wrong with any one of operations, an Alabama plantation :
them, come down as it were like a clap of thunA VETERAN'S EXPERIENCE-GOOD ADVICE.- der, whatever the difficulty may be settle it right John Farrar, of Georgia, says: I have concluded then, and never bint the thing again. I hardly to inform the readers of the Cultivator, how I ever enjoyed myself more than I do when going am getting along in the management of planta- from one set of hands to another, and find all tion affairs, and how I manage the freedmen and things going to my satisfaction. women of which I have the control. In the first Dr. H. Hinkley, of Alabama, says: place let me say that I am in my 78th year, was Though fond of my profession, yet I am more raised to hard work, my mother and father had fond of agriculture, and see a vast mine open in seven hearty boys, each of whom lived to weigh the prosccution of Southern agriculture, to wilmore than 200 pounds, I being the eldest had the ling hands and stout hearts. I have "pitched brunt of work to bear, consequently, but little in" to hard work, and intend to run the conschooling fell to my share.
cern” as I did in Illinois, by being my own overI am now attending to the business part of a seer, and doing whatever my hands find to farm for another man, the late war having left do. If every negro were in Guinea, Southerners me with but little in this troublesome world. I would be better off; but as they are not, we have 21 bands all told, viz. : 9 men, 8 women, must use them, and leach them how they should and the rest boys. I have had more than 4,000 work. panels of fence made or reset, about 20 acres | Having perfect confidence in my ability to cieared, I am planting about 190 acres in corn, make free niggers do as much or more than slaves about 180 in cotton, say 25 in sorgo or syrup did, I leased a prairie farm in Alabaina for sercorn, as the negroes here call it, shall put 5 acres eral years, and on the first day of January (ult.) in sweet. potatoes, have 1 in Irish potatoes, have my contract was signed, and my hands at work 10 good plow stocks. My bands are easy con--before my neighbors. I send copy of my controlled and work freely, I encourage them to do tract, wbich is simple, and embraces an that I so, I am nearly all my day time with them, tell deem requisite. I work about twenty-five bands, them that if they will work, so as to deserve it, and they are good ones. They rise before day, it affords me pleasure to give them a holiday. and are at work till dark. They fiddle and They have pushed ahead to my gatisfaction with dance at night, and get their lessons in the spullbut little exception so that I have given them ing book; and they grin with delight at the one-half of more than half the Saturdays of this beautiful bright steel mold board, clipper plows, year so far. Some old fogy may think I am which I have received from the North; and do fooled in this, to think that a half day with with three furrows what the old wooden mold twenty hands makes over a week for one, but I board and slaves did with four-or rather they know that I gain by it, I am a judge of a day or more than do it—as they not only list a bed with a week's work. I get up at three o'clock, make three furrows, but they bring up soil that never my own fire having the wood at hand, sit by it saw daylight before. My idea of pur native imnad tbiok over my day's business, come to my plements is not favorable-especially after farm
ing in Hinois four years, where the most beauti- Top-Dressing Lawns and Meadows. ful, useful and excellent labor-saring agricultural Top-dressing lawns and medows in spring, implements in the world are made.
seems still to be in vogue, when, to any thinking My desire is to help the agriculture of my mind, it must be obvious. that they lose three native South as much as possible; and help make parts of the strength of it by strong sun and it wbat its destiny now points—a white man's March wind3. When top-dressing is to be done, country. We want all the good white men we fall is the proper time to do it. At that time all can get.
the strength of the manure (liquid) is washed We want smaller farms, more villages, less into the ground It also serves as a protection to pride, more industry, fewer stores and clerks, the grass, and the sun will not burn it up, as is and more laborers. We need not be any less the case in spring; but in either case it is gentlemen, any less hospitable, intelligent, re- generally a waste of manure, in the manner that fined or chivalrous. The almighty dollar is a it is applied. When top-dressing is necessary, stigma against the Yankees; but I think the it should be done from the compost heap. This everlasting nigger and cotton was just as engross-compost heap retains all the ammonia from the ing an idea with us. Agriculture is a peaceful | decomposed vegetable matter, and dung fresh from occupation; it leads to wealth now just as certain the stables. All this ammonia evaporates. When as any other business or pursuit. Energetic men, we use manure to plow in, we only spread as the who know what negroes are and were, can use plow proceeds. This in a great measure saves freedmen's labor and get rich. There is a way the ammonia. Those to whom manure is an obto work these people which is easily acquired, ject, (it should be to all,) should sprinkle it as and it consists in decision and kindness. Treat they make it with charcoal dust. If they have them well, but make them all toe the mark, and not that, use ground plaster, which will absorb never look over their faults, but correct them. / all the ammonia, Strict obedience to all orders is enforced on ship- Those who use manure for top-dressing, should board at sea. Were it not so, many would be have a tank to receive all the water closets and the losses sustained by our marine-which åtten- suds. In the spring, have a hogshead, and pump tion to duty prevents. On a farm or plantation, this into it, and have a box of tin, three or four all orders should be as strictly followed, and feet long, and six inches wide at the end, and go losses will be rare.
over the lawns and meadows. This is much There are a great many bad negroes in the better than any barn-yard manure, and no exSouth-lazy, wortbless wretches—but there are pense. If they had to pay from two and a half also many good ones. The bad ones will all die, / to three and a half dollars a load for manure, from causes following their own worthlessness. they would adopt it; but, in nine cases out of ten, The goods one will improve, and, by the force this valuable manure is allowed to run into the of circumstances, even these will become scarce. coinmon sewers—in fact, it is generally only White labor will gradually take their place, but thought of as getting rid of it in the easiest way. it must be on smaller farms. Scientific agricul Try half an acre with this liquid, and half an ture will gradually come into our midst, and the acre with stable manure, and you will find the use of labor-saving machines make some amends credit side to the tank manure. for the paucity of labor.
Another good top-dressing is this : Flour of
bone-that is, bones ground as fine as plaster. LICS ON CATTLE.-A correspondent of the This, on lawn, is a fine fertilizer, and bone dust in American Agriculturalist says that "knowing nuy shape is one of our best manures for grasslarkspur seed would destroy licnon human beings, four of hone for lawns, as it will not interfere he collected & quart of seed, ground it fine, with the scythe or mowing machine. I speak of soaked it a week in one gallon of strong vinegar, it as a top-dressing for immediate effect. Coar89 and then applied it with a sponge to all parts of bones are better when you are laying down your the animals; has never seen louse or nit since." lawns or meadows, and it will pay to use either, On the same subject, T. F. Haynes, Hartford co., as they last much longer in their effect. When Conn., writes to the Agriculturalist: "I keep applied, they should be lightly harrowed in. lice off my cattle by keeping sulphur and salt in The great drawback I foresee to this flour of bone winter where they can lick it when they choose; is, that it is so easily adulterated, which will be my cattle have had none since I practiced this," done, the temptation being so strong. There is no
fertilizer that I should use so much (except guSHENGEL mentions a rose tree, still living, 1 ano) if it was not for that reason. To get it which is upwards of one thousand years old. 'genuine will be the main object, and how long that will be is a question ; even what is now Mulching Fruit and Ornamental called fine bone dust, it is impossible to get una
Trees. dulterated. For that reason I always use the The past season has afforded a fine opportunity coarsest that I can get, as I can then see what I of testing the merits of the mulching of fruit and get, and if I want it fine, I break it. They cannot ornamental trees, and more especially of newly adulterate coarse bone, and to prove it you will planted ones. Of its utility there can be no doubt. always have to pay more for coarse bone dust than The excessive drought which prevailed during you will for fine. I would advise some manu the hottest months, over nearly the whole counfacturer to make pure flour of bone, and charge try, proved very destructive to newly planted according to its worth, and not adulterate, and trees, and to many that had had the advantage he will find that it will pay him, and the con of a years setting out. Where they were not sumer. Genuine will pay to use; adulterated, at killed outright, many were badly damaged and no price.
received a back set, from which it will take them I have tried all the specialities of the day in years to fully recover. On the other hand, we shape of manure, and proved nine-lenths of them have seen young evergreens as flourishing and humbugs, which will be seen by referring to Co. healthy during the severest prevalence of the Gent. Peruvian guano, when properly applied, drought as though the season had been the most is the only fertilizer that can be depended on. favorable. The same may be said of fruit and The others are generally what I term, cheat the deciduous ornamental trees. public and enrich the manufacturers.-G. How But a mulch is not merely useful in summer. ATT.-Co. Gentleman.
| Newly planted trees, if set out in the fall, should
always be mulched, and to a good thickness at Habits of Sheep.
that. The mulch not merely protects the young They perseveringly follow their leader wherever
roots from the injurious effects of alternate freezhe goes; but if, in case of sudden alarm, any one
ing and thawing, but it encourages them to shoot of the flock runs forward to escape, and thus takes
regularly in the spring. Those who have young the lend, the rest generally follow him, regardless
| orchards will do well to profit by these suggesof any obstruction. Of this singular disposition, / tions. The results will amply reward the labor Dr. Anderson once witnessed an instance in the
and expense required.-Ex. town of Liverpool. A butcher's boy was driving about twenty fat wethers through the town; but Chloride of Lime for Vermin. they ran down a street through which he did not Some years ago I read in a French scientific wish them to go. He observed a scavenger at periodical, that chloride of lime would rid a work with his broom, a little way before them, house of all these nuisances. I treasured up the and called out loudly for him to stop them. The information until opportunity offered for testing man accordingly did wbat he could to turn them its value, and this occurred some four years since. back, running from side to side, always opposing I took an old country house infested with rats, himself to their passage, and brandishing his mice and flies. I stuffed every rat and mousebroom with great dexterity ; but the sheep, much hole with the chloride. I threw it on the quarry. agitated, pressed forward, and, at last, one of foors of the dairy and cellars. I kept saucers of them came right up to the man, and fearing it it under the chests of drawers, or some other was about to jump over bis head while he was convenient piece of furniture; in every nursery, stopping, grasped the short broom-stick in both bed-room, or drawing-room. An ornamental hands, and held it over his head. He stood for a glass vase held a quantity at the foot of each few seconds in this position, when the sheep staircase. Stables, cow-sheds, pig-sties, all had made a spring and jumped fairly over him with their dose, and the result was glorious. I out touching the broom. The first had no sooner thoroughly routed my enemies, and if the rats, cleared this impediment, than another, in such more impudent than all the rest, did make requick succession, that the man, perfectly con
newed attacks upon the dairy, in about twelve founded, seemed to lose all recollection, and stood months, when, probably, from repeated cleansing in the same attitude till the whole had jumped and flushing, all traces of the chloride had over him, not one of them attempting to pass on
vanished, a handful of fresh again routed them
and left me master of my own premises. Last year either side, though the street was perfectly clear. I was a great one for wasps; they wouldn't face As this took place during wet weather, the man the chloride; though in the dining-room, in was entirely bespattered with dirt before they had which we had none-as its smell, to me most reall passed ; and it is impossible to conceive a freshing and wholesome, is not approved by all more ludicrous appearance than the poor fellow persons—we had a perpetual warfare. And all made on this occasion.
Tibe comfort for eightpence.-Cor. Lond. Builder: