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into certain acids which combine with and fix large growth and coat of manure is a protection the ammonia."
to the soil and roots of the wheat-while in reShould the plain practical farmer want any gard to grass that has not been fed down in the further-proof that there is no loss by fermenta- fall, it is found to start earlier, so as to give tion of any of the valuable constituents—what quite a growth if not fed off, as it never should be considers the strength of the manure—the be, in the spring, to turn under for corn. This vastly greater effect of, and benefits received from new growth, by making sod green and sucrotted manure, ought to be more than enough for culent, and starting it to rotting immediately, is his satisfaction.
a great help to the corn, so that in reality surBut it is true, that while there is very little face manuring in the fall has the threefold effect loss from evaporation or exhalation of ammonia, of enriching the land, mulching and protecting or other valuable volátile substances from the the soil and wheat and clover and grass roots, manure heap, there may be some loss from wash- and producing something of a crop for green ing by beavy rains; and there seems to be the manuring. more reason for this objection, as it is shown that There is another important point in the confermentation renders the most valuable constitu- sideration of this subject, that it is very probable ents of manure soluble, and hence liable to be the great mass of American farmers, like the washed away. But it is shown in practice that writer, bave never given much attention, which this may be mostly prevented by making the bas been somewhat strongly brought to mind piles large and high, the sides square or perpen- while investigating this subject. This is the very dicular, the top dishing, so they will hold and general practice in England of spreading manure take up all the water that passes on to them, and on clover stubbles after haying, to be plowed making them in places where no running water under in the fall for wheat, baying being rather can reach the sides or bottom, thus giving very earlier and wheat secding considerably later there little chance for the rains to wash them away. than here. Mr. Luther U. Tucker, in referring
It is also found that when manure is well to this practice states that "there are many in spread that all fermentation is at an end ; so England who constantly practice this way to adthere is no setting free of ammonia or other val- vantage, and consider that in no other, can uable matters, the most of the fuul odors arising greater benefit be obtained. It helps to some exfrom the manure when spread, as well as in the tent to bring forward the 'seeds,' (of clover, pile, being due to the escape of carbonic acid, &c.,) so that when they are ready to plow a few carburetted hydrogen, and other foul gases, that months later, there is a closer and thicker sward are not of much value in manure-while in well to turn over, which will, of course, yield the fermented and rotted manure, the most important greater nourishment it has thus been accumulatand valuable ingredients, instead of being in a ing, to the coming crop of grain." There is condition to be dried up and carried off by the also mnch other testimony to the same effect, it sun and air, are in precisely the best possible being shown that English farmers when questioncondition to be dissolved and carried into the ed on this point, state that after trying various soil by the fall rains. So that if manure is other ways of applying manure, it was found finely spread early in the fall, these ingredients that in no other way could they apply it to so will be washed into and well diffused through good adva:itage, or with as much benefit to their the soil before winter, where, according to Liebig, wheat. Yet, in following this course, the manure Voelcker and Cameron, they will be retained has to be exposed, as it is finely spread on the until wanted by the growing plants.
surface, to the sun and air during the warmest It is also claimed that manure applied to the season of the year. Thus showing that with surface is valuable as a mulch--that when spread well fermented and rotted manure, which is alearly in the fall so as to give the clover and ways used, there can be but very little if any grass a good start, and they are not fed down too loss by the escape of ammonia or drying of the close, it is found that the coat of manure and growth of grass is a considerable benefit as a There is another way of surface manuring, exmulch and protection of the land, and roots of tensively practiced in England, which should not the grass. It is also fonnd that when manure is be forgotten,—that is, by feeding off turnips, on applied to wheat, whether put on before sowing the land where they are grown, with sheep. and worked into the surface, or finely spread This is a favorite practice with English farmers, afterwards, that it anywers the same purpose, wbo claim that it is one of the best ways they giving the plant a better and stronger growth have for manuring and enriching their land. and making it less liable to freeze out, while the 'The usual course is to put the sheep on to the
turnips in October, and keep them folded on a
Flax Culture, Emall piece until it is eaten off, and then move We remeniber a time when Flax growing was them on to another, generally following this common in Maryland. It was before the days of course until it is time to clear the land to be cheap cotton, when it was thought good economy, plowed for barley in the spring. To make the on large farms, to grow and to manufacture, as sheep gain faster, and the manure richer, but far as possible, all that was necessary for home mainly the latter, they are often fed oilcake, and consumption. There was a regular allotment of sometimes clover hay, but both fed in the fold on ground for the small crop of flax; which was the turnip field ; so the manure is left as it is broken on the flax-break, hackled, spun, and wodropped on the land by the sheep, and thus it re ven at home, for the use of the negroes. Of late mains all winter. So that instead of apprehend- years, attention has been directed to its cuiture ing any loss by the washing away of the manure, again, owing to the high price of cotton. It has one it is generally if not universally considered and advantage over that crop--that it needs little of conceded to be the best way the turnip crop can
the laborious field culture which it demands; be fed to sheep, to manure and enrich the land. being sown broadcast and needing no further Clover is also sometimes fed off in this way, oil care till harvest. The following, from a German cake being also fed, mainly to make richer ma flax-grower, we take from Country Gentleman : pure.
Messrs. Editors : In No. 683 of the Cult. $ Now the point of most importance to the Ame Co. Gent., I find an article on flax culture, rican farmer, is that in neither of these ways, in written by Mr. W. H. White, of South Windsor, which the principal part of the manure made by Conn., in which the cultivation of flax is highly English farmers is applied to the land—whether recommended to the attention of American exposed to a summer sun or winter washing, is farmers. Some assertions in suid article I would there found to be any serious loss of the fertiliz- heartily subscribe to, but others I consider erroing proper:ies or matters of manure-thus fur. neons, and, as I have been raised and am living nishing the best possible proof of the correctness in a country where, for centuries, flax culture bas of the conclusions of some of the best agricultu. been an important and lucrative branch of agriral chemists, that when manure is spread on the culture, and am myself engaged in raising this land, there can be but little, if any, loss by evap- product of the farm, perhaps you will grant to oration or escape of volatile substances, as there my remarks on this subject a page of your interis no fermentation ; nor much loss by washing, esting paper. as the soil immediately absorbs all important First, let me speak of the proper place of flax matters held in solution by the water passing in the rotation of crops. Your correspondent, in over or through it. And this point is the more No. 683, says: "The soil should have been prenotewortlıy, because large quantities of oilcake viously made rich by a high manuring.” We and grain are fed with the especial view of mak never manure for flax. The fibre is injured by ing rich manure, such as there would certainly manuring; fresh manure is neither liked nor rebe a loss on, if on any—while not only are Eng- quired by the flax plant. It is one of the greatest lish farmers working hard and looking sharp to advantages for the farmers that the flax plant find every chance for making and saving manure, will thrive better without manure than with it, but some of the best scientific men are giving and that even the crop following flax on the same their attention to the same subject.
field requires less manure than if the same had There is one other point that has been dwelt been sown a year sooner in the place of the flax. on to some extent, and that is, that surface ma For instance: Oats is here always sown at the nuring is nature's mode—that by the decay of end of the rotation, and after the oats are releaves and the various other vegetable substances moved, the field has to be manured for the next deposited on the surface, the soil has been gra- crop. Now, after such oats, we sow flax without dually growing richer for an indefinite period. manure, and, after the flax, rye or wheat, with In proof, the prairies are referred to as notable but a half allowance of manure, and raise a sure instances. It is also shown that the valleys of crop, and, after such winter grain, we have an rivers are kept very rich, by the deposit of en
excellent chance for red clover. Clover, indeed, riching substances by overflowing water. The valley of tlie Nile, which has been under con
is never better than in the second year after flax, stant cultivation without any other manure, for As we raise no Indian corn, our rotation, being thousands of years, is referred to as a prominent confined to small grain, must of course vary from instauce of this kind. The Ganges and other rivers, are also referred to as examples of this yours. But making this allowance, the following kind of manuring.
rotation is an excellent one for our regions, on Orleans Co., N. Y.
F. soil adapted to wheat and clover :
1st year-Beans; manured.
not throw the seed on until the plowed ground 2d-Wheat.
has gone through such a state of fermentation, 3d-Oats. 41h-Flax.
which makes it more mellow, softer for the haud, 5th-Rye or Wheat, with clover sown, is half more elastic for the foot, darker of color, richer a manuring.
of nutritious substances. For these two reasons, 6th-Clover. 7th-Whtat-half a manuring.
our mode of preparing the land for a flax crop is 8th-Oats.
as follows: Early in the fall the field is plowed
shallow ; it is important to plow immediately Here you have the proper plan for flax in a ro- after the crop has been removed. Three or four tation, as proved by experience, as well as from weeks thereafter, when the field begins to cover scientific reasons. In the above rotation every itself with weeds, it is thoroughly harrowed and crop has a fair chance, and the periods of ma
plowed shallow again. The second plowing is nuring are well distributed. Take out the flax, not necessary where the field remains clear of and you can put in its place nothing but fallow
weeds. Very early in the spring, as soon as the ing, thus losing a year's crop and having no better land has sufficiently dried off, a deeper furrow results thereafter. However, if part of the land
(the last before seeding) is given. This last has become weedy or foul from unfavorable
plowi can also be done in the fall, and free weather, or other causes, such part then receives suently such plowing before winter gives better the benefit of a fallowing, instead of sowing it results than if done early in the spring. with flax.
The land now is left rough. The harrow is not Of course, the land, to produce flax in the applied until a growth of plants, (weeds,) begins above order, must be in a high state of cultiva
to spring up. Then, however, the field receives tion. It will not do to sow flax on worn-out a thorough harrowing, aided by rolling. The land. But good farming, with a rational rota harrow not only passes twice over the land, as tion of crops, never takes the least strength out
your correspondent thinks necessary, but freof the land. The reason why flax is not benefitted
quently four or five times; the barrowing is conby fresh manuring, is partly this; The fibre re tinued until the whole field is like a garden bed, quires an early growth; all extremes, every ex- perfectly pulverized, and all hollows, every trace cess of beat or cold, drouth or moisture, are in- of the furrows destroyed. A sharp stick thrust jurious; every part of the plant, as much as pos
into the ground must everywhere meet a solid sible, must grow under the same influences.
mass; the heel must not sink in deeply. This is Therefore flax likes so much the sea coast and
the work assigned to the harrow; I know that hates the inland, where heat and cold, wet and in America much less attention is given to hardry spells, will come on abruptly and in excessive
rowing than here. The field now is again left; manner. Fresh manure also disturbs such equal the geed of weeds still left in the surface will now growth; it works different in dry or wet spells of germinute, and two weeks after this, such new the season, different in cold or warm weather.
crop of weeds is again destroyed by a thorough It is a well-known fact that barley from fresh
harrowing. Then after the next shower of rain manured land, (especially sheep manure,) is not the flas seed is sown, covered by a light harrowgood for the brewer; that seed wheat must not ing, and the ground rolled, for which purpose a be taken from fresh manured land, nor after ringled roller is preferred. The best sowing time clover; and in similar manner flax is injured by here is between the 20th and 25th of May; in fresh manuring
America perhaps earlier sowing may be preferable. Your correspondent, in No. 683, advises The amount of seed required, where fine fibre further, to sow the flax-seed on fresh-plowed is desired, is 180 Prussian pounds to the acre, land. We never do so here-at least no ex which is equal to about 200 American pounds, or perieoced farmer does so in those sections of our 33 bushels. The cost of seed per acre thus country, wbere good flax is raised. We pre averages 18 Prussian tbalers, or $13 in gold. fer an old furrow for two reasons. 1st. Because We are obliged to buy our seed either from old-plowed ground keeps moist longer, while Russia or Zealand, and can use hoine-raised fresh-plowed land will in a dry spell soon guffer seed only once, so that every other year we bave from drouth. 2d. Because all land, with the ex to buy imported seed. ception of sandy soils, needs exposure to the We have an excellent flax market here, as there influences of the atmosphere for four or five weeks are large spinning factories, and alone for those before the seed can be sown. All loamy soils— in the province of Westfalia nearly a million and which are those best adapted to flas culture—are a half worth of flax has to be bought abroad, highly benefitted by such exposure, and we do I mostly in Russia.
Our object, as farmers, is to get rid of the flax than any other crop, I should, on the contrary, at as early a period as possible, and it is of great say, “it requires more skill and attention than advantage that, for the last five years, we can sell almost any other crop of the farm." Besides, the flax in its raw state. The farmer now merely the farmer must be sure of a market. pulls up the flax, rots and dries it, and then finds
WM. LAER. ready sale for the straw. For this state, the price Munster, Prussia, March 8, 1866. has been 28 pounds of straw-fax for one thaler,
Cruelty to Animals. or about 2 cents, gold, per pound, these two
John T. Hoffman, Henry Grinnell, J. J. Astor, years; at present it sells even higher, to wit., 26
and other prominent citizens of New York, have pounds for one thaler. One acre will, on an
got from the Legislature of that State an act of average, produce from 2,500 to 3,000 German pounds of dry flax straw—though, in 1863, i incorporation under the title: "The American Soharvested myself from one acre 4,800 pounds. ciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals."
In accordance with the general idea of the At 3,000 pounds, and a price of 28 pounds, as above stated, the fibre is worth 107 Prussian Association, several laws have been passed, thalers per acre, while the whole cost of raising sion of cruelty to dumb beasts. The following
making provision for the more effectual suppresis about 30 thalers, including the seed; so the
are some of the provisions of the law : net profits are about $48, gold, per acre. These figures are not imaginary, but, on numerous farms, Railroad Company in this State, in the carrying
Transportation of Animols by Railroads.- No such profits have been made for many years here.
and transportation of cattle, sheep, or swine, Flax raising, however, is a trade, and wants to
shall confine the same in cars for a longer period be learned. I cannot here enter into its details, than twenty-four consecutive hours, unless delayed but your correspondent, in No. 683, commits two
by storms, or other causes, without unloading for farther mistakes, which I will mention, and hope
rest, water and feeding, for at least ten consecuhe will pardon me for this, as my sole object is to
tive hours; and shall not receive nor re-load promote exact knowledge of an important branch cattle, sheep, or swine, from other railroads, of agriculture.
which have not been rested at least ten consecu1st. The steeping of the fibre in water is really tive hours immediately preceding such loading a "rotting;" its object is not only to soften the and re-loading, and have been watered and fed filaments. The flax in the water must ferment, within said ten hours. and this fermentation must have its full process. The end of the same is indicated by a sinking of shall, by his act or neglect, maliciously kill, maim,
Cruel Treatment of Animals.--Every person who the steeped fax; as soon as the fermentation is over, the immerged bundles will sink several wound, injure, torture, or cruelly treat, any horse, inches in the water, and then it is time to take mule, ox, cattle, sheep, or other animal, belong
ing to bimself or another, shall, upon conviction, them out of the water. Fermentation being the be adjudged guilty of a misdemeanor ; and every object, warm water will attain the same much quicker than cold water; in fact, the water must diseased horse, or mule, turned loose, or left dis
owner, driver, or possessor of an old, maimed have a certain temperature, and also a quick- abled in any street, lane, or place, in any city in running stream is unfit for this purpose.
the State, who shall allow such borse, or mule, 2d. The spinning factories cannot buy flax in
to lie in any street, lane, or public place, for more its green state, nor even in its raw state, but
than three hours after knowing of such disability, only after the rotting and after the breaking of
on conviction, shall be adjudged guilty of a misthe woody rot which surrounds the fibre.
demeanor. Therefore there must be men that make a business
Among other items of cruelty to animals, proof buying and preparing the flax for the spinning hibited and punishable by the same law, are factories, or else the farmer has to take care of
“premeditated fights between persons with their these operations himself. Greer flax can bear
fists,” fights between game birds, or game cocks, neither transportation to any distance nor delay;
or dogs, or bulls, or bears, or between dogs and and, even after the rotting and drying, the flax
rats, or dogs and badgers, &c. is too bulky, and, in consequence, requires too much cost for transportation, as well as storeage, REMEDY FOR THE Scour in Lambs.-Take the to be saleable to the factories in this state ; be- seed of the common dock, make a strong decocsides, it cannot be estimated right in this state.. tion, sweeten with loaf sugar, add half a tea
Finally, I consider flax a highly recommendable spoonful cayenne pepper to the quart. Give to crop; but if your correspondent, in No. 683, each lamb a wine-glassful three or four times a. says that it requires “less skill and attention" day until a cure is effected.
conclusions, ring the bell twenty minutes before If the politicians would allow the farmers of day for all hands to rise, the women go to cookthe land to take charge of the work of recon- ing for breakfast and dinner; get off to work bestruction, we might hope for a speedy return to fore sunrise; every set of hands have their work peace and prosperity. They would bring to bear for the day told them. I have quite early breakupon the subject a quiet, practical, common sense fast, saddle and mount my little mule and I am treatment, before which, all the difficulties con with the hands or going from one set to another. jured up by the former would speedily vanish. until the middle of the day, come home, get din
The idea is suggested as we read the letters ner and am off again frequently in less than one which we here extract from the Southern Cultiva- hour. The hards have good pay for the year, tor, and admire the cheerful, hearty submission they board and clothe themselves, everything to circumstances, and sound, good sense they they need is furnished them on the place at a less evince. One is from a Georgia man, who would price than the nearest market; they seem to en: be classed, we suppose, with what the vulgar joy themselves highly, it does them good to educated call “poor whites ;' the other from an think what they want their credit is good for. I educated gentleman, a native of Maryland, who treat them kindly, talk with them freely on mathaving farmed before the war in Illinois, had re ters pertaining to their interest, wink at small turned to the South where he acted as a Confed- errors, but reprove any neglect on their part. If erate surgeon. He now makes the field of his things go exceedingly wrong with any one of operations, an Alabama plantation :
them, come down as it were like a clap of thunA VETERAN'S EXPERIENCE-GOOD ADVICE.- der, whatever the difficulty may be settle it right John Farrar, of Georgia, says: I have concluded then, and never bint the thing again. I hardly to inform the readers of the Cultivator, how I ever enjoyed myself more than I do when going am getting along in the managernent of plac ta- from one set of hands to another, and find all tion affairs, and how I manage the freedmen and things going to my satisfaction. women of which I have the control. In the first Dr. H. Hinkley, of Alabama, says : place let me say that I am in my 78th year, was Though fond of my profession, yet I am more raised to hard work, my mother and father had fond of agriculture, and see a vast mine open in seven hearty boys, each of whom lived to weigh the prosecution of Southern Agriculture, to wilmore than 200 pounds, I being the eldest had the ling hands and stout hearts. I have "pitched brunt of work to bear, consequently, out little in" to hard work, and intend to "run the conschooling fell to my share.
cern” as I did in Illinois, by being my own overI am now attending to the business part of a seer, and doing whatever my hands find to farm for another man, the late war having left do. If every negro were in Guinea, Southerners me with but little in this troublesome world. I would be better off; but as they are not, we bave 21 bands all tuld, viz. : 9 men, 8' women, must use them, and teach them how they should and the rest boys. I have had more than 4,000 work. panels of fence made or reset, about 20 acres Having perfect confidence in my ability to cieared, I am planting about 190 acres in corn, make free niggers do much or more than slaves about 180 in cotton, say 25 in sorgo or syrup did, I leased a prairie farm in Alabaina for sercorn, as the negroes here call it, shall put 5 acres eral years, and on the first day of January (ult.) in sweet potatoes, have 1 in Irish potatoes, have my contract was signed, and my hands at work 10 good plow stocks. My bands are easy con -before my neighbors. I send copy of my con. trolled and work freely, I encourage them to do tract, which is simple, and embraces an that I wo, I am nearly all my day time with them, tell deem requisite. I work about twenty-five bands, them that if they will work, so as to deserve it, and they are good ones. They rise before day, it affords me pleasure to give them a holiday. and are at work till dark. They fiddle and They have pushed ahead to my gatisfaction with dance at night, and get their lessons in the spellbut little exception so that I have given them ing book; and they grin with delight at the one-half of more than half the Saturdays of this beautiful bright steel mold board, clipper plowa, year so far. Some old fogy may think I am which I have received from the North; and do fooled in this, to think that a half day with with three furrows what the old wooden mold twenty hands makes over a week for one, but I board and slaves did with four-or rather they know that I gain by it, I am a judge of a day or more than do it—as they not only list a bed with a week's work. I get up at three o'clock, make three furrows, but they bring up soil that never my own fire having the wood at hand, sit by it saw daylight before. My idea of pur native innnad think over my day's business, come to my plements is not favorable-especially after farm