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Sandy Lands and their Improvement. be done by willing man in wresting fertility from
We have often taken occasion to disabuse the sterility, and in making, most literally, the desert minds of our readers of the very low estimate so to bloom and blossom like a rose. No contrast, commonly entertained of the value of what we indeed, can be more striking than that presented call "sandy lands." There are tracts of such to the weary wayfarer as he plods along through lands very common in Maryland and the more the wild tracts of the Campine, when he comes Southern States, the intrinsic value of which are / across a little farm, the boundaries of wbich are entirely lost sight of, under a hereditary impres- made up of the surrounding sand, and within sion that as they have been easily "worn out," which there is a little oasis of verdure and plenty. they will poorly repay the cost of improvement. On one side of a narrow and deep furrow or ditch, We have also repudiated frequently the idea of you see a strip of rye or of colza; on the other, the so early wearing out of that which was mani- the sandy desert stretches out in its wilduess, and festly destined by Providence to last very long. you wonder at the magic which has transformed If soils can be worn out so readily as common the glad greenness of the one from the dull drear. opinion allows, men would seem to be nomads of iness of the other. Proud thoughts possess you necessity, wandering over the face of the earth as you think of the warfare thus kept up by mun for new fields to exhaust, and to be brought ere with the desert, and you look upon the little farm long to the goal of the Macedonian warrior, with environed by the desert, the enemy, as the citadel out another world to conquer. It is not, how which issues the mandate: “Thus far shalt thou erer, for the purpose of extended remark, or to come, and no farther;' and from which will go suggest means of improving the class of soils forth the intelligence and the industry which will named at the head of this article, but to show ultimately gain other victories, and transform in rather by example what has been done in this process of time the wild heat is around, level the direction, under circuinstances far more unfav sand heaps, fill up the marshes, and make the orable than any our readers are called to deal wild desert a rieh garden of delights, to gladden with, for we have not seen or heard of here, any the heart and please the eye of the husbandman, thing so hopeless by hall, as the blowing sands Slowly, but not the less surely, is tliis process of of the Campine plains of Belgium. In the lesson reducing the desert to fertility going on throughconveyed, we have a striking proof of what can out the Campines. Farms are daily multiplying, be effected by pains-taking industry, and by a irrigation is being rapidly proceeded with, roads, careful saving and expenditure of manure, in re canals, and large tracts of meadows are being ducing to smiling fertility tracts of land, which, formed. One of the great instruments in this from their normal condition of utter barrenness work of transformation has been the canals.and wildness, may be taken as a type of all that These have been formed on a very complete sysis sterile, and all that is most hopeless, and most tem, and at a large expense. By these canals the forbidding of aspect to the husbandman. We practice of irrigation is greatly aided, and they quote from Notes taken during a Tour in Belgium, forin the high roads so to speak, by which on Ilolland, and on the Rhine, by Scotch farmer : the one hand the produce of the farms is taken
"The Campine is the name given to the largest to the markets, and by which, on the other, the plain in Belgium, which extends over a great part inanure is taken from the towns to the farms.of the provinces of Antwerp and of Limbourg. Such, in fact, is the whole essence of a treatise on It is impossible by words to convey any idea of Campinoise agriculture-"With the water, the the wild and apparently hopelessly unproductive grass; with the grass, the cattle; with the cattle, condition of large tracts of this plain. Sand the manure; with manure, every thing nearly every where-buge mounds of it glistening in which one desires on a farm." Many of the the sunlight-sand so thin and fine that it runs richest gardens and the most fertile farms, in the down the sides of the heaps in rills, mored by neighborhood of the towns of the Campine, ten, the passing breeze, or driven into clouds under twenty, and thirty years ago, were tracts of the the feet of the toiling wayfarer; long tracts thinly most barren heath, and stretches of the dreariest covered with heath, or with marshy plants, and sand. Whenever manure has been easily obinterspersed here and there with pools of water,tained, there it bas been the most carefully prepatches of stunted firs, or miserable brushwood. | served, and the most prudently applied ; and in But every now and then, as if to raise the spirits the history of facilities for obtaining abundant of the wanderer, otherwise too much oppressed | supplies of manure, you read the history of the by the desert around him, patches of smiling ver- culture of the deserts of the Campine. dure greet his eye, and, presenting a glad con- "The white land--of which a large portion of trast to the barrenness beyond, show what can the Antwerp Campines is formed-is so light and so little retentive of water, that it passes it like
Horse-Breeding. a filter, and can only be made productive by mix
Remarks of L. T. Tucker, Esq, of South ing loam with it. The white sand hills are gen
Royalton, Vermont, at the Windsor erally brought into cultivation on the large scale,
County (Ver.) Farmers' Club, by covering them with fir trees and with brooin, the cones and leaves of which, as they fall, form The first thing to be done in breeding horses in time a richer soil, and consolidate the sand. is to select the best animals, and the first indesIn bringing in a tract of white sand on the petite pensible quality in such animals is a good conculture system, the small farmer first encloses al stitution. Without this as a foundation, all certain portion by surronnding it with a ditch. I attempts to perfect a race of horses will be a Broom is sown. This grows in the very poorest failure. The animal that is selected for a breeder of' soils, and its roots serve to consolidate the should have a deep chest, strong loins, good land, and its leaves to form a vegetable mouli; limbs and, feet. The nervous temperament of but wlien in its third year it yields some return, the animal should by no means be orerlooked. being then sold for fuel. If manure is obtainable The eyes should be wide apart, full, and clear. in any quantity, it is applied to the soil, which at The ears should set apart, not lopped off like this stage is fit to bear potatoes, buckwheat, or those of a mule, nor pricked forward like the rye. A patch or two of clover begins to appear, rabbit's. To these points of a good constituand with the forage plants and roots come the tion and a fine nervous temperament, add all cows, with the cows manure, and with increased the symmetry you can. Make sure of good supplies of manure come increased products, and size; never take a mare weighing less than 1,000 so on in a continually increasing scale of fertility, to 1,200 pounds, and not below 15 to 16 hands until at last the sand tract is formed into a rich bigh. The fault with most of the horses now productive farm.
in Vermont is, they are too small. Though we "The preparation and saving of manures form can never compete with the South and West in sa important part of the labors of the Campi- breeding large horses, we must breed such as noise. In the care with which every thing is will command the highest price in the market, saved which can act as fertilizers, those acquain Small horses may do most of our work here ted with the country say that it exceeds the pro- among our hills, but they will not sell well. We vinces of East and West Flanders, generally ad- ought to raise those that will do our work equally mitted to be at the head of all agricultural as well as the present stock, and then sell for countries. The stable or cow-house manure, twice as much as those bring us which we now very much decomposed, is the principal manure, I have to dispose of. and that which renders the greatest services to The next requisite is blood. Having selected the agriculturist. It is composed of the branches your mare, never take any but a fixed blooded of the furze or gerse, of turf, or earth, all these stallion. Wheu you bare the qualities already being used as a litter for the stock. Straw also described, breed as much as possible for speed. very frequently forms a part of it. Rye straw is When you produce a fast horse, you will always most esteemed for this purpose, and is cut in two find a man ready to buy him, and other things in order to render it more easily spread. Buck being equal, the greater his speed the higher wheat straw is not held in great repute. The price he will bring. management of the litter of the cow-houses while In regard to in-breeding, we must breed near forming it into manure, presents some features enough to secure the desired qualities, and when worthy of observation. Bebind the cattle an ex once secured, to retain them; but we should not cavation is made, into which the litter is placed breed nearer than first cousins if we could avoid on being taken from the stalls. This is beaten it. If "in-and-in breeding" is followed more down by the passage of the animals, and of the closely than this, and persisted in, your colts workmen over it, till it is in a thoroughly com- will be either stillborn, or if living, they will be pressed state. This method possesses nearly all cripples. We should never sell the best animals. the advantages of the "box-feeding'' system, and When a man has disposed of his best breeding is certainly better than that adopted in East and mare, he will advance in his work on the same West Flanders, where the litter is thrown into plan that the "frog jumped out of the well"the court yard, and left exposed to sun, air, and one step ahead and two backward. rain."
It is poor policy to go to the city and buy a It is proposed in Charleston, S. C., to
broken down mare, thinking to make a breeder convert the square of the burut district into a
of her. In a great majority of cases you will public garden.
Tonly breed defective animals. Men should be (careful about breeding from too old stallions. No had previously been feed two months six quarts matter how famous a horse has been, and what corn meal each, twice a day; they gained two his stock has prored, if he has lost his vitality, pounds each per day. Changed to feed of rye, let him go--he will only work mischief in your corn and oats, increasing gradually, two weeks, herd if you try him.
until I had got up to one and a half bushels to In this business no one point demands more the pair per day, and roots twice a week to keep attention than the kind of a stallion with which their appetite good. They gained three pounds the young mare is first coupled, as there can be each per day for six weeks, at which time they but little if any doubt now, but that the first were taken to market. Had they been kept six union will in a great measure influence all the weeks longer, they would not, upon same feed, riter progeny. After a mare has been coupled, hare gained over two and a half pounds. she should be kept from bad company-away! My experience is that a little grain increases from horses that are badly marked, with a big the appetite for hay, which must be of the best Waze in the fice, a “wall-eye,'' or 'white-stock-quality, while an excess lessens it, and part of ings"-and she should always have the kindest the grain passes off undigested. Where grain tratment. Mares transmit more of their good is cheap, worth less than good hay proportionally, qualities to the male offspring. You seldom if more grain would be economical, as in some ever knew of a first rate stallion out of a poor portions of the West. There, undoubtedly, the mare.
amount of grain mentioned above, will look But after you have exercised the best judgment small, but here in the old Bay State we have in selecting your animals and coupling them, learned to make good beef on hay alone, and you will make but little progress in your work with a little grain, some mammoth oxen.- Counwithout the best of care. To raise first class try Gentleman.
B. M. C. horses, they must have "care first, care last, care North Stockbridge, Mass. in the midst of all things, and care without end."
Cattle for Feeding. Winter Feeding Cattle for Beef. There is much good sense in the following ex
L. TUCKER & Son-Noticing in your last issue tract from a recent writer on this subject : an inquiry as to how many pounds of beef can To ensure success in feeding for the butcher, le made with one hundred pounds of corn meal | the great essentials to be provided are shelter, and and good hay, I will state what little experience a regular and plentiful supply of nourishing I have had in that direction. I feed usually from food. There is, however, another important two to three bundred bushels of grain to fatten- | matter to be attended to, and that is the selection ing cattle every winter. My plan is to buy good, of the animals themselves, as, without the most thrifty three and four years old steers and oxen, careful attention, and the cautious and cool es. Ibat are well started-feed lightly at first, after- ercise of mature judgment, it will be useless to wards from two to eight quarts. Feed twice a Attempt the fattening of cattle with the reasonable day, according to size of animal--a fifteen hun. hope of being able to realize a handsome profit. dred steer or ox four quarts each feed, giving The shelter may be very inadequate, and the When the best of care, to wit: good hay, fed at food not nearly so good as it should be, and yet short intervals during the day, well carded once the beasts will thrive, do well, and leave a profit, at least, and watered twice in the twenty-four if they are well bred and moderately good spebours; stables kept clean and warm, but well cimens of the breed they represent. On the ventilated. My feed is usually corn, rye or other hand, if they are badly bred—that is to harley) and oats--equal parts by measure, well say, too much crossed, and more particularly if inised and ground fine. Think I have never they are the offspring of a cross-bred bull-bitter failed of one and a half pounds live weight, disappointment will almost invariably be the equal to one pound dressed weight, per day, with result. Place such animals in the best stalls that four quarts each feed, and have frequently done can possibly be constructed for accommodation inucb better. Much depends upon the animal, and warmth, and pamper them with every conand as much upon the care given them. I do not ceivable variety of food ; yet they will scarcely adrocate very heavy feeding for profit. You can attain to such a state of ripeness in six months as make more beef at less expense by taking longer well-bred animals, (which, although they may still time. All the undigested food is wasted. | be crossed, are the produce of a thorough-bred
As an experiment, I last winter took a pair of bull,) will do in little over bulf ibat time. four years old steers, weighing 3550 lbs.; they
Use of Mules.
reliable. Look wel! to the size of the barrel or The value of mules on large plantations, where body of the mule; don't think you are choosing they have been chiefly in the hands of negroes, a running borse; a small body that becomes even is very well known. Their endurance and ability smaller at the hind quarters, is not what you to stand hard, rough usage, is acknowledged. want, but rather look for a mule that resembles But, generally, they are thouglit "ugly” animals the best brood mares in shape of body or barrel; in two senses of the word, and are therefore by no they have endurance, and are most easily kept. means duly appreciated. Their great docility | Being thip is no great objection; it rather assists under kind treatment, the age to which they live, in picking out the form of the body to build and the economy of keeping, compared with the upon. horse, should be better known. We give the fol- Much information as to the choracter, disposilowing from a correspondent, at Nashville, of the tion, &c., &c., of the mule, can be gained by Country Gentleman :
noticing the way its lead and ears are carried, • The fact cannot be too deeply impressed on both when in and out of motion. A fine mule the minds of farmers, that there is nothing in the will carry a high head, with ears in motion-is shape of working animals that can do the same very quick to see and hear all that is passing. amount of work in a generally variable climate, As in the horse, blood will tell; the imported or for as low a cost to the owner as the mule. half-breed Black Spanish Jack will always leave
It would be worth the wbile of any person who his impress on bis offspring, as will others of has any doubts as to the docility, endurance or more humble origin. The mule from the imcapacity for education of the mule, to inquire of ported jack can be discovered as quickly, and at returned soldier, one who has been on the long with as much certainty, as a colt from a thoroughand hard marches with either of our glorious bred stallion. armies, as to the use which the patient mule has The legs of the mule should be broad and thin; been, and the manner their part of the marches like a fine blood borse, the joints should be unhas been performed.
cominonly large in proportion to the legs. The But ope opinion can be giren : They are the objection of the legs being too light, I have never strongest animals for their size, will endure the known to hold good with mules if they were most hard work, and get along with the least to wide. The most durable colors are black, brown, eat or drink of any animal we use for work. grey, dmn, spotted, including roan and sorrels. Oh, you cannot kill a mule! I am sorry to say This is quite a question of fancy, as many persous that this last is the idea of too many of the prefer one above the other ; for work there is drivers the poor creatures have to control them. / about the same general difference as in the horse, The impression that all mules are vicious has also except the black mules secms to have as good happily exploded, as experience has taught us eyes as any other color. The hools of most army that among the tens of thousand mules in aamules are suffering from a very common disease ærmy, it is but seldom one kicks or has any among horses in our best stables, contraction of vice that has not beer tanght them. To teach a the heels. It is as easy to cure this disease in the team of mules to guide perfectly with one line is mule as in the horse, if you can make the blackbut the work of a few days; a perfectly green smith take sufficient interest in the animal, and team, one that has never been harnessed, is ex- not think because it will not show lameness, it pected to take its place regularly in the train in therefore does not suffer. less than a week after being first bitched up or Much good to both classes of animals, and a harnessed. There are with mules, as with horses, great saving to owners would occur if the use of all qualities, from bad to good; and in the pur- the Good-enough horse-shoe, or some other of chase of an animal we should endeavor never to equally good kind, were more generally introget one of an inferior quality; a good one at any duced. I have already given in a former article ordinary price is cheap, and a poor one for the relative value of the mule and horse for work nothing is dear.
for a term of years, and recommended to our Size is desirable, but by no means should great | farmers the use of the cheapest and best animal consideration be placed upon height; it does not for farm work. constitute size proper, although the purchases for Further, it should be understood that mules are the army were based upon the height of the ani- good animals to drive in carriages for pleasure mill. Let your judgment for a mule be in size as as well as work. They are neither bad looking for an ox, high from the ground to the top of or bad drivers, and are used by many persons of shoulder, but short legs. Beware of long-legged, wealth and taste in this city, because of their slab-sided, small-bellied mules; they are not ability to endure bard driving on hard roads; six to ten miles an hour is considered a good gate trough kept scrupulously clean, and constantly for a pair of driving mules. Jf good driving supplied with pure fresh water. mules are wanted, don't use a whip about them; I presume the bog and her young fanily to be never let them become accustomed to a continual comfortably located in a roomy and detached touching up."
stye, which, like the troughs, should be kept scrupulously clean, for though pigs undoubtedly
will "thrive in muck," they will do so not beManagement of Young Pigs.
cause of the muck, but in spite of it, just as many "Pigs, young or old, will eat anything, and a dirty and ill-fed boy lives, in spite of dirt and pigs thrive in muck." During the last fifty privation, to be a stout man. But who will venyears or so of my long life, I have at least thrice ture to deny that he would have been still more fifty times heard that singularly stupid remark robust if he had grown up without the dirt and from the lips of men whose experience, to say privation instead of in spite of them. nothing about their possession of at least average
In a good cleanly stye, rather high roofed, ani? common sense in regard to matters and things with a ventilator above and bebind her sleeping in general, should bave taught them better. place, our Lady Bessy Hog, well fed, and reguExcepting young humans, I know of no creature
larly fed, will support her little family with profit that requires for the attainment of its greatest to her keeper, and without visible injury to her physical perfection, greater attention or more own condition, for a full month. Then, let an skillful management than a young pig. And, opening be made at one side of her breeding stye, in truth, as to internal structure, there is far less
just large enough to allow of one of her youngdifference than people in general suppose, between sters getting from the stye into a narrow but the young child and the young pig. Let the enclosed adjoining slip, in which a shallow pan child be kept in comparative darkness, and on
or trough of really good stuff, (barley-meal, un wholesome food, and you will have in the re- | thioly at first, mixed with milk, warm skimn sult a stunted, weakly man or woman, of a milk and water,) should be placed at three reguscrofulous body and an intellect to match. In lar hours daily. The little pigs will at first feel the case of the pig, of course, the inteliect is out in a slovenly fashion enough; their paws will be of the question. What you want to secure in
as deep as their snouts in the templing mess, and piggy's case, is the greatest capacity in fattening, their jaws will get more on the outside than on that it may be the earlier production, as to time, the inside. But magister artium venter—the belly and yield the largest possible quantity of pork is the great master of arts, applies no less truly in cash. If you would ruin your pig, as to both and strongly to pigs than to men, and after a day of those requirements, pray take as your rule of or two your young pigs will require a larger porcine management the profound maxim quoted supply of their outer stye food. Two great obat the head of this brief paper, but be assured jects are thus accomplished : the young pigs, that, in doing so, you will make pig-feeding a
without privation to themselves, are gradually mighty unprofitable pursuit, whether as to your
weaned, and the mother pig suffers the less from larder or your purse.
their appetite, increased with their growth. I Remember, young pigs, like young children, I have known in my own management of my styes, find wcaning anything but a pleasant process.
at Upton Grey, in Hampshire, a single fortnight The former, like the latter, should be weaned
to wean a large litter of pigs, both mother and gradually, and the gradation should be com
little ones being in really splendid condition. menced very early. In my native county,
| Let it be remembered that air, sunlight, cleanHampshire, England, we pay so much attention | liness, are as congenial to properly kept pigs as to pig management, that we have obtained the
to huinans. Pigs thrive in muck, eh? Yes, and soubriquet of Hampshire hogs, and a few words
so do measles and foot-rot, neither of which :18 to our management of our porcine stock may would amict the porcine family if the above not be unserviceable. We keep our breeding | brief directions be complied with; the troughs Ow8, when in pig, in all but actual fattening being of cleanly kept iron, and the styes having condition. Her food, besides being good, is al- la Southern esposure.-W. T. u., Practical Farways boiled, and always fed to her at about the
mer. temperature of new milk; it is given to her at regular hours, so that she may never be so hun- Though rapid growth is desirable in succulent gry as to fret; it should always have a light vegetables, this is not the case with most flowersprinkling of salt, and, in addition to her feeding ing shrubs, which form bushy, and therefore trough, she should always have a small cast iron 'handsomer plants when grown slowly.