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Topping. This work should be done as the to
bacco comes into bloom. Early in the season While bowers and groves and orcbards round me waved
top down to leaves of six inches in length, and What verdant banks my winding streamlet laved !
at a later period still lower, to give the upper How dear my dow'rets, and my cooling shade! What fattening flocks along my pasture strayed!
leaves the chance to ripen before housing. The All laughed around me, and my fancy dreams
| plant will, usually, be fit for the house about O'erflowed with Helds of corn, and milky strears! three weeks after topping. Short-lived chimeras!-impotent and vain! The broils of state, that o'er my country reiga,
Suckers.-As soon as the plant is topped, suckers ilave left me nothing but my sylyan reed.
will begin to grow from the foot of each leaf.-Adieu, my flocks, my fruits, and flowery mead!"
These consume the juices that would otherwise
give weight and body to the leaves, and should Farm Work for the Month. be taken out before they make much growth.
Especial care must be taken to destroy them before The press of the summer's work will now be cutting the plants, as they continue to grow after abated, and the farmer may afford to give himself, the tobacco is hung in the house, and, if frozen, and bis laborers, ag occasional respite on Satur- will stain and damage the leaves. day, and at midday make the hour of rest some
Swing Seed. Some of the most perfect plants what longer. The corn will now be dependent
must be left, from which seed may be saved.-only on the state of the weather, as all will bave
When the leaves are thorouglily ripe on these been done that industry and skill can do in the
plants, they should be stripped off and tied up to way of cultivation. The wheat and other grains
cure, while the stalks are still left for the thorough will have been secured, ready for the threshing
maturing of the seed. machine. The hay will have been made, and put out of harm's way in mow or stack. The care of Worms.--All that can be done with the worms, tobacco, potatoes, turnips, and other such crops, is to watch for them in their first approach, and, will be light work.
As far as possible, destroy then while young. If TOBACOO FIELD.
a great many eggs are obs:rved, and a prospect
of a large glut, great diligence should be used in It is an important month to the tobacco crop,
destroying them before they begin to crawl about, and mainly determines its character. In the
when they hide themselves fruin view. Turkies, early stages of its growth, it should be ploughed
though very useful when the plants are comparadceply, to encourage it to strike its roots well
tively small, cannot be relied upon when they into the ground. Otherwise, the hot and dry
get large, if the worms are numerous. weather will force it to a rapid, upward growth, and make a light crop. The plougus and hoes
POTATOES, must be kept diligently at work, during the Work the late potatoes well uutil they bloom, month, until the leaves so interlock, as to make and then give a light earthing with the hoe, and them liable to be broken.
leare them thoroughly clean.
RUTA BAGA AND OTHER TURNIPS.
THREBHING GRAIN, Sow ruta bagas at once, if not already done, It is always advisable to thresh the grain early, and white turnips from the 10th to the 20th.- to be in readiness for market, and the most conThe first in slightly raised drills, two and a ball venient time is generally that between harvest feet apart, with about 300 weight of good super- and wheat seeding. Prepare at once, and use phosphate sowed in the drill. White turnips, every possible precaution against the dargerous sow broad cast..
accidents that often occur.
PREPARATION FOR WHEAT. If rye is to be sown, the ground should be got in readiness this month, and everything be pre
The preparation of the clover field, or the oat pared to sow not later than the 1st of September.
stubble, for wheat, should be begun at the earliest This is not a favorite crop on any ground that
possible time, that the condition of the ground will grow a tolerable crop of wheat, but on light
will permit. All experienced wheat growers are soils it may, with a light manuring, prove more
aware of the advantage of early plonghing; and profitable. But under almost any circumstances,
the uncertainty of the state of the weather allowa small lot should be sown for early green food
ing it, at this season, makes it especially incumin the spring. It is fit for cutting two weeks be
bent to be prepared for the first opportunity to fore clover, and no one who puts a proper esti
do so. If well turned now, a superficial working mate on green food for stock, in early spring,
at seed time will be all that is needed to put into would be willing to dispense with it. For such
the best condition. Then the necessity for early a purpose it should be well manured and sowed
seeding becomes yearly more apparent, and some thickly—say at the rate of two bushels of seed
| good varieties of red wheat admit of sowing the to the acre.
1st of September. TIMOTHY.
There need. be no fear of making this first This valuable hay grass is most commonly
ploughing as deep as three good horses will turn sown in a rotation with grain, which is the best
it, unless there be good reason to suspect some practice. In that case, it is to be sown whenever
poisonous ingredient in the subsoil, which should the wheat is; but if a lot of ground is to be ap
be turned up, very cautiously, late in the fall.-propriated exclusively to it, let it be got in tho
There is seldom any reason for apprehension on rough readiness, and sown the latter part of this
this point. month. If seed enough be put on the ground at
The Vegetable Garden. that time, there is no reason why a heavy crop should not be cut the first season.
Prepared for The American Farmer, by DANIEL BARKER, It may be sown as early as the middle of Au
Maryland Agricultural College. gust, and in that case, a crop of white turnips may be sown with it, scattering the seed very
AUGUST. thin upon the ground; or mixing a quarter of a pound of turnip seed, with a peck of timothy,
BEANS. before sowing.
Early Six Weeks and Valentine, may still be If it is the purpose to grow timothy unmixed sown during the first two weeks of the month, with other grasses, in a rotation with grain, the being careful to select a piece of ground which proper place for it is with the wheat crop that is has received a liberal coating of manure, and well sown on a clover fallow; this would of course spaded, or deeply ploughed. Late beans, upon lengthen the ordinary four-field rotation in pro- poor, thin soil, should the fall be dry, will be portion to the number of crops of timothy.
very stringy. CATTLE PENS.
CUCUMBERS AND MELONS It is a convenient method of manuring the Frequently suffer from the effects of drought, thinner portions of a field, or any part that wants at this season of the year. A surface dressing heavy manuring for a special purpose, to make of balf rotted manure will benefit them, and be inoveable cattle pens, the bottom of which should the means of prolonging their bearing until frost le covered with coarse litter, of any sort that destroys them. may be got together. If such pens are moved once a fortnight, much ground may be manured The early planted will now require earthing up before the time to take them into the yards. It about every ten days, being careful not to add too is a favorable season now to gather material of much earth at a time, as by so doing it is likely to very description that may make manure. | get into the beart of tbe plant, and cause it to rot.
pots, into a compost of good, strong, turfy loam, For a fall crop, may be sown about the middle well chopped over with good rotten cow-dung, of the month upon a piece of well enriched ground. and potted firmly. The true Early Paris Silesian* is the best kind, all! Peaches, Nectarines, Grape Vines,--hardy and things considered, we have ever cultivated. Out exotic,-attend to directions given last month. of some twelve different kinds cultivated here this season, we have notbing to equal the above..
Do not omit to watch for aphides, (plant lice,) SPINACH,
&c., &c. We have found strong soapsuds very To come into use before winter, may be sown effectual for destroying them, (plant lice,) by apabout the end of the month. Sow in drills about plying it through the nose of a watering pot or two feet apart, and work well with the hand, or syringe. borse, cultivator, as soon as the plants are well
RASPBERRIES, above ground.
As soon as the bearing season is over, should WEEDS.
have all the old canes cut out, and the new ones Keep them from every part of the garden, as thinned out to about four, unless wanted fur they are great robbers, and not to be trusted,
making new plantations. the seeds from which, if allowed to mature and
NEWLY TRANSPLANTED TREES full upon the ground, will canse hard fighting
181 Should have the ground well worked between hereafter. Fill every vacant place in the garden,
them, and a good coating of mulch applied as a from which carly peas, potatoes, &c., &c., have
top-dressing to every tree, covering a radius of been taken, with cabbage, turnip, spinach, &c.
not less than four feet from the stem. Frequent Nerer allow any land to lie vacant during the
applications of soapsuds to all newly transplanted growing season. Continue to give all crops of
fruit trees, grape vines, strawberry plants, &c., (arrots, onions, parsnips, late beets, cora, &c.,
will be of great and lasting benefit. good cultivation between the rows, until all the land is covered with the foliage of the plants.
Will show itself in all close damp places, and • We can testify to the superiority of this variety, as cultivated this season by Mr. B., at the Agricultural Col.do incalculable mischief if not checked. Sulphur lege.- ED.
dustings are the best remedy we know. The Fruit Garden.
At this time of the year we generally find ourSTRAWBERRIES.
selves in arrears in regard to some departments August and September, we consider the best of our work, but as much of the planting is done, time of the whole year to make new beds, in or- and little watering is required, and there is a der to insure good bearing next year. If good momentary lull in the activities necessary during rooted runners are plentiful, select the best only, the early spring months, we would now pipe all taking up the plant with a good ball of earth, hands to give an effectual working of the ground and transferring them with great care to their wherever the band or horse cultivator can be newly prepared bed With such careful manage. ' used; the pruning and tying grape vines; workmeat they will barely feel the removal, and willing old, and new, strawberry beds; pruning old ordinary care will become very strong plants and and neglected orchards; eradicating borers; with produce a good crop of fruit next spring. This many other odd jobs which present themselves extra care can, of course, only be given to plants from time to time to the observant cultivator, wbich have to be removed a short distance, and wbich are "too numerous to mention." When runners are plentiful, we always destroy the weak ones; but any varieties it is thought Jack It is a mark of want of intellect to spend desirable to propagate to the utmost, we select much time in things relating to the body; as to all the strongest, and plant them in beds for be immoderate in exercises, in eating and drinkbearing, and the late ones in separate beds for ing, and the discharge of other animal functions, stock. These will not, as a general thing, pro- These things should be done incidentally, and duce much fruit until the following year, and our main strength applied to our reason." then will be, under ordinary circumstances, very sirong plants. Strawberries, to fruit in pots
Demand not that events should happes next spring, sbould by this time be well estab. as you wish; but wish them to happen as ibey lished, and in need of shitting into four-inch do happen, and you will go on well."
The Flower Garden.
Fascination.-Flowers, a beautiful rosy salmon,
with a margin of bluish wbite; a fine and beauANNUALS,
tiful variety, with good form and truss. Foliage, To stand the winter, should be sown from the light green, with dark zone., Very effectiye. . middle to the end of the month, in ground not Madame Vaucher.-A pure wbite Geranium ; too highly manured. The sorts to sow now, are fine large truss, well up in the centre, giving it a white and purple Candy Tufts, the beautiful va- fine, flat, even surface, and in form and color rieties of Nemophilas, Erysimum, Clarkias, Con almost equal to the old double white camellia.volvulns Minor, the pretty Godetias, new Rocket Habit, dwarf and compact. A beautiful variety. Larkspur, Lupines, Escholtzins, French and Ger
Brilliant.---Light scarlet ; an immense truss.man Poppy, and the beautiful varieties of Schiz
Light foliage, with dark zone. Habit, robust, anthus.
well adapted for planting in the flower garden, STOCKS,
or grown in a pot for green-house decoration. Intermediate, Queens, and Brompton, for flowering early next spring, should now be sown.-1 Bel-Demonia.-A beautiful, rosy salmon color, After about one inch high, they should be potted of dwarf compact habit of growth; the trusses singly in small pots, and kept shaded until they very large, and the petals of great substance, make fresh roots. The soil should be good, turfy remaining in perfection for a lengthened period. loam, not too rich, or the plants will become too New "Mimulus Monstrosus."'-This variets is sappy to stand the winter well. They are among
a decided advance on all that we have hitherto the most beautiful of our early spring flowering
cultivated. Habit, very robust and compact, proplants.
ducing its blossoms in the greatest profusion, and PANBIES,
of gigantic size. Color, varying from a beautiTowards the end of the month, should be pro
| ful soft canary, to bright orange, with large broad pagated in quantities for planting out in beds,
blotches of claret maroon, of a velvety appearand for early blooming in pots next spring.
vnce; throat and lower lip densely spotted with When well rooted, those to stand in open beds,
the same color. : should be planted in a good loamy soil, with a liberal admixture of good decayed cow-dung,
New LoBeLIA.- Lobclia Alba-coerulea.- This sand, and a small quantity of charred rubbish,
| very distinct and beautiful plant, alike adapted if there should be any on hand.
for the flower garden, planting in vases, or for a
hanging basket, will be found a great acquisiROSES.
tion, being a very profuse bloomer. The flowers Prune Pillar roses, 80 Ag to remove a moderate are very large, being from half to three-quarters amount of both old, and new wood. All that is of an inch across, with conspicuous, white centre, left to be of its full length and at regular dis- edged with blue. Splendid habit:-annual, tances, that there may be good symmetrical heads next season. Short cuttings of Chinas and Bour
Homemade Manure. bons will root now in the opeu ground, planted Twenty hens will furnish enough excrements in a shady situation.
in a year, if well cared for, to give an acre of
corn a good start, equal to a liberal supply of tbe Notices of New and Rare Plants. patent materials. The privy for six in a family,
if well attended, will produce enough for the hill BY D. BARKER, MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
for two acres of corn; and then, if more is needed, New ZONALE GERANIUMB.-This most splendid clean up all the fine manure in the yard and in class of flowers, alike adapted for the adornment the barn cellar, mix three bushels of ashes to a of the green-house and fower garden, and one cartload of thirty bushels, and immediately use of the best for cultivation as a window plant, it, putting a pint in a hill. It costs no money, deserves from their great improvement to be more but needs a little time and attention. I have generally cultivated. They vary in color from derer found the farmer yet who did not acknowpure white, through every shade of rose, pink, ledge that $19 is better used in making manure and salmon, to the most dazzling scarlet, with at home, than in the buying of others' manufacform almost perfection. We have in our posses- ture. I believe this rule may generally be apsion the entire stock of some from Europe, which plied. Some exceptions exist. But that it is a we hope to describe with other novelties, both bad policy to waste fertilizers at home, and buy fruit and flowers, in forthcoiniog numbers of foreign ones, is a fact too plain to be disputed..The Farmer."
| N. H. Mirror.
If you view our field labor as so many means Cultivation and Manure as Fertili. for exposing every portion of the surface soil to zing Agents.
the air, you will at once realize the value of By Henry Tanner, Professor of Ayriculture,
many operations which we have hitherto only
considered as of mechanical value in preparing Queen's College, Birmingham,
the land for seed, by rendering it light, and give [Premium-Medium Gold Medal.]
ing the roots freedom for their growth and exIn addition to this benefit, another desirable re- tension. But the advantages are double; for pot sult has been attained by the use of lime--viz: only is it necessary for the luxuriant growth of that, as nearly all soils contain ammonia in them, a crop that it should be so placed that its roots in a dormant state, the use of lime displaces part have a freedom of action for searching after the of this ammonia, and thereby this fertilizing mat
food which the crop requires, but, as I have ter becomes available for the plants growing in already explained, the means we adopt for attainthe land.
ing this result equally facilitate the success of the Thus it is seen that in the soil there are bodies crop hy the accumulation of fertilizing matter capable of separating ammopia from the rain as which is being simultaneously made. This free well as from the atmosphere, and afterwards pre- and loose condition of the soil is equally favoraserving these fertilizing stores until required for ble for the passage of rain into the soil; and when the crop. We have in the use of lime a double this is properly assisted by an efficient underadvantage; it not only gives the soil superior drainage, then alone is the full advantage derived powers of acquiring that valuable fertilizing mat- frora the rain, and its fertilizing contents. ier, ammonia, but it also renders the existing With a knowledge of these principles, if you stores of dormant ammonia ready for active ser- / review that old established practice of fallowing, vice in promoting vegetation. It is, however, of you will not fail to detect the reason for past sucno practical value to us having in our soils the cess in this practice, and you will see another inmeans of accumulating fertilizing matter, if at stance of that true union which exists between The same time we place it in a position in which practice and science, which every lover of agrithis power is rendered inoperative; consequently cultural progress hails with feelings of pleasure. we have two means by which to promote the The true principle of fallowing has been to exaccumulation of ammonia in the soil, and these | pose the land to the wind, rain, frost, and heat, are-Ist, increasing the capabilities of the soil to and to keep the land moving as much as possible. absorb ammonia; and 2d, giving the atmosphere Manifest have been the advantages derived from a free access to the soil, so that these powers may extra ploughing, wbich to the eye appeared at the come into full operation. The addition of lime time productive of little change or benefit, but to the land has in this respect a double action
the succeeding crop has in many such cases given viz: it sets part of the ammonia in the soil free, evidence of increased capabilities of production, and available for promoting vegetable growth, | which, until lately, has been set down as simply and it also renders the soil more competent for resulting from the mechanical condition of the accumulating a store which will maintain the fer soil being more favorable for growth, instead of tility of the land; and thus we have, in the use its being also referred in part to the increase of of lime as a manure, a valnable meaus of reali. food for the crop which was thus obtained. zing the first requirement an increased absorb The use of lime for fallows is an old established ing power. The attention may now, however, practice loudly decried by some as exhausting to be advantageously directed to the facilities for the land, but still the practice was continued, bethe increase of these powers, and these are mani- cause it was found to succeed ; and now the pracfestly twofold—viz: the exposure of the soil fully tice has, by its successful results, survived the to the air, and the passage of rain through the period of its condemnatiou, and entered into one land. The tillage of the land is therefore just of more honor, in which both practice and science the agency required to accomplish this desirable agree to sanction and advise its use. Here let us result; for as I have said before, the inversion, all take a lesson for our future guidance, and restirring, and crushing of the soil by the various member that old established and successful pracoperations of ploughing, cultivating, harrowing, tice has truth for its foundation, and although and rolling, each and all promote ihe exposure there may also be some error intermixed with it, of fresli portions of the soil for atmospheric ac- yet we shall be unwise to condemn any successtion; and whatever capability is possessed for ful practice as useless, which our present imperthe secretion of ammonia, the soil is thus fur- fect knowledge cannot exactly approve of. nished with the opporturity for its exercise. 1 We have now to notice the influence of tillago