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Fruit Department. | yield, perhaps, a great surplus, to a family that
does not wish to go into marketing. When Black Kinot.-Our Maryland readers are very
winter arrives these fruits are gone, and can be familiar with the Black Knot, which, within some enjoyed only by recollection. The te w dozen years past, has made havoc especially with the winter pears, from the single tree or two, do not morello cherry trees. We have seen within a
last long. Perhaps they are eaten before half emall compass, morello cherry, and damson trees,
ripe, in the eagerness to enjoy something of the completely destroyed by this fungus, while a val
kind at this sparse season of the year; and the uable red cherry, of which we do not know the
owner concludes, as a corsequence, that winter name, but which bas a good many of the charac
pears are hard, tasteless and good for nothing. teristics of the morello, was entirely untouched
Instead of coming to this summary conclusion, by the disease. This cherry is valuable for pre
he should plant enough for a crop that need not serving, --larger, and lighter colored than the
be eaten until it has ripened up into its golden morello; a healthy and vigorous tree, and an
color, nelting texture, and rich and excellent abundant, and sure bearer. Why it should be
flavor. We have found nearly all long-keeping exempt from a disease, which is destroying the
varieties to mature into all the excellence of wbich morello everywhere, we do not understand.
they are capable, by giving them a good, cool A correspondent of the “Gardener's Monthly”
cellar and plenty of time to ripen. says of this disease: “I am inclined to think that
Among some of the best- which, so far as our some ingredient in the soil is the cause of the mis
observation has gone, have uniformly turned chief, and that a remedy can be discovered, by
out of excellent quality-are the Lawrence, Winwhich the evil may be avoided. The wild choke
ter Nelis, and Beurre Gris d'Hiver. There are cherry, in some places, is nearly dispatched by
several other sorts that ripen very nearly but its ravages, and the worst infected of this shrub,
not quite as well.
Now if we number our trees, according to the are found near old stone walls, where vegetable mould accumulates. Salt, lime, and sulphate of
length of season they are to fill, we should have iron, (copperas,) have been used as topical reme
as inany of late sorts—to extend, say, from the dies, applied to diseased limbs. Perhaps these
first of November to the end of January, or la. elements are needed at the roots. Sections of
ter, as for all summer and autumn, or from the snch diseased branches exhibit accumulations of
first of August to the first of October. There deformed buds, crowded together in the tissue as
should, indeed, be more, for these autuma fruits if produced by repletion. By cell growth this
have now disappeared. unusual form rapidly increases when the sap is most active; and a succumbent, spongy mass, is
Birds, Insects and Fruit. the consequence. By extraordinary pressure the Fruit growing, in the abstract, is a charning bark or cuticle bursts, and the timber weeps and pursuit, but practically it is beset by many perbleeds, inviting first the weevil, which mistakes plexities. Notonly is the cultivator disappointed it for an unripe fruit, and next the cynips, which by unfavorable scasons, but the insects destroy deposits its eggs in the hatched larva or maggot, his foliage and the birds eat up his fruit. In a and finally, the invisible spores of the spheria, state of nature matters are better arranged, and which rapidly vegetate, and crowd the surface we do not often find any one insect or bird suffwith opaque black spherules, containing within ciently numerous to seriously injure our native a whitish flesh, filled with myriads of seeds, to plants. The small birds keep the insects in check, spread, and be dissipated by the atmosphere, while the birds of prey prevent an undue increase when ready to fall from the deadened and brittle of the fruit-eating birds—bird, insect, and plant, branch."
have a fair chance in the 'struggle for existence,"
and all goes on harmoniously. Civilization has Plant Winter Pears.
destroyed this natural balance of things, and now Planters of pear orchards, in making their se- 1 fruit culture is in good part a fight with birds and lections, will often take six or eight trees of sum- insects. We have dropped a cog-wheel somemer varieties, thirty or forty of autumn sorts, where in the machinery, and it is running badly. and, perhaps, one or two of winter. When the This interference in the natural balance between trees come into bearing, the summer varieties the different departments of vegetable and animal furnish a fine supply, when most other fruits life found a striking illustration a few years ago, cannot be ohtained, and are, consequently, very in one of our large cities. New water-works were acceptable. The autumn sorts ripen with peaches, built, and the reservoirs were carefully furnished plums, grapes and apples; and all taken together with strainers to keep out the smallest Ssb, and
no one was in danger of finding a minnow in the Fruit Trees for Ornament. tea.pot. All went well for a while; but the water When we pass the turning point of the winter, gradually acquired an unpleasant taste, and finally we leave bebind the things of the past, and look became intolerable.
forward to the sunny days of spring. We see in Science took up the microscope, and found the anticipation the many colored beauties of the water full of animalcules, little oily fellows, which flower-garden, and the varied fruition of the orimparted the taste to the water. These, in the ab- chard, almost as glorions. We begin, in fact, to sence of their natural enemies, the fish, had bred think of flowers and fruits; how we shall get to an inordinate extent. The obvious cure was them, and what we shall do with them, and in to let in the fish, and it proved effectual. The the mind's eye we have a real, present enjoyment, indiscriminate shooting of birds, formerly so com- of things that are to be. mon, allowed insects to get a fine start. The agri- Now, meditating, we are happy in the image cultural press, ours among the rest, joined in the of a glorious old apple tree we know of, whose (ry spare the birds." The appeal had its effect; sturdy trunk, with just the least inclination from insects are much less destructive than they were the upright, bears up its wide-spreading branches, a few years ago. But the birds will eat fruit as while they wave aloft, in breeze and sunshine, ten well as insects, and now the cultivator is in a thousand thousand blossom--apple blossoms, dilemma to decide whether it is best to let the each one of which has a separate and special insects feast on the foliage of his vines and trees, beauty. and thus destroy his crop of fruit, or to allow Now, we have a cherry tree, which has sprung the birds to check insect depredations, and take up by hedge row or fence side, like a willow by the fruit for their pay for doing the work. The a water course, and without help of pruning question comes up: are all birds the fruit-grow- knife, but prospering rather by neglect, has, by er's friends, and if not, which shall be killed and the hidden principle of an orderly life, developed which spared ? The manner in which birds will an organism of perfect symmetry. Its towering dispose of strawberries, grapes, and other small top is covered as with a mantle of snow, and fruits, is something astonishing to one who has every snow-flake has a starry brightness and never seen it. In some places it is impossible to beauty of its own. get a bunch of ripe grapes of any of the nicer These, and very many others, glorious in their kinds, for birds are excellent judges of quality in spring-time beauty, and precious in the autumn fruit. We are glad to see that the subject is at- fruits which crown them like the good deeds of tracting the attention of horticultural societies. a good man's life, come back to us now from the At a recent meeting of the Alton (111.) Society, far-off scenes of childhood. We sit by the winter a report and discussion upon birds formed a part fire and commune with them, almost as with of the proceedings. It is hoped that other pomo glorified spirits of the departed. logical associations will discuss the matter in Speaking of spirits, here is a matter we would order that some general laws may be established. fain talk about to Mr. Downing-the great LandWe give the conclusions of the Alton Society, scape Downing-who has taught us to enjoy and which may serve as a basis for the action of love so much the beautiful in nature We would others.
protest against the principle inculcated by some It was voted to destroy the Baltimore Oriole, writers upon taste, and upheld, if we remember Cherry Bird, Cat Bird, Jay Bird, Sap Sucker, and arigbt, by him, that in adorning a landscape by his kindred. The Robin was not placed in the planting, fruit trees are not admissible, because list, though he received a very bad name and the idea of utility mingles with and mars that of should take warning. Our own belief is that he the beautiful. This sentence condems our apple is as bad as the rest. One gentleman stated that and cherry tree, and every other like beautiful the Oriole had, during the past season, cost him object, to the straight line of hedge or fence, or 250 gallons of wine. The birds reported as not the right angle of a stifly ordered orchard. We destructive to fruit, and to be fostered, were : do not appreciate the argument. We do not see W’ren, Swallow, Martin, Black Bird, Meadow that a tree is any the less beautiful for the fruit Lark, Pewee, Blue Bird, Chip or Snow Bird, Red it bears, than that a face is less fair because the Bird, Ring Bird, Cuckoo, Quail, Owl, Hawk, and spirit of kind and gentle deeds beams through Dove. We notice also that the Massachusetts its loveliness. With no disposition to exclude Horticultural Society has appointed a committee our old friends of the shrubbery, or any of our to consider the case of the Robin, and to report trees that are merely beautiful, we do favor the upon his value, or otherwise, to the fruit grower. idea of making the useful contribute when they American Agriculturist.
I may to ornament as well as use. We would have them planted and arranged with a view to beauty the subsoil, without bringing any of it to the in the landscape. Especially should this be done surface. We are satisfied from our own experiin small country places, where little expense may | ments that this preparation of the soil will be he afforded. Many of our fruit trees are very amply rewarded by the increased amount of fruit beautiful, and all sufficiently so to make them produced. serve the purpose well in spring with their wealth TIME AND MANNER OF PLANTING.-The best seaof flowers, while in the fall they offer us a more son for planting the blackberry is autumn, if the substantial interest in their abundance of fruit. soil is in a proper condition. The blackberry With these views, we commend the following re- commences growth very early in the spring, and marks from a cotemporary to the same effect: if disturbed at this period by transplanting, is
"Apple and pear trees should be in more gen- very liable to die. None of the small fruits so eral use as ornamental plants, and we wonder imperatively demand planting in the fall or very why they are not more frequently planted in early in the spring. If the plants can be set out places of moderato, or even limited extent, as early in March, or in the first opening of the suburban and villa residences, by intermixing spring it will answer, but if the planting is dethem with common shrubbery plants. The great layed, it will be at a sacrifice of a large portion beauty of the bloom of some varieties of apples of the plants. and pears would of itself entitle them to a place! The plants should he set out in rows eight feet in our grounds solely as ornamental plants, and apart, and the plants should be set two feet apart I wish I could persuade nurserymeu to make a in each row. Give the ground between the rows selection for this purpose, I imagine many coun- good culture the first season, and the second keep try gentlemen would be induced to purchase them all the weeds down, not working deeply between for their homesteads, if good sized plants could the rows. Strawberries may be growu between be procured, and that proprietors of small places the rows the first two years, if preferred. Lei would be glad to introduce them. I say nothing the plants come up thickly between the rows, but of the Chinese apples and pears, which are just cut off with a hoe, even to the ground, all suckers now in bloom, and are worthy of all the admira- | that come up between the rows, treating them as tion they call forth ; but having noticed for sev- weeds. The plants coming thickly in the rows eral seasons how really beautiful the bloom is form a kind of hedge, the canes mutnally susmany varieties of apples, I venture to suggest taining one another, thus rendering stakes and. the matter to your readers. As for the pear, it trellises and the trouble of tying unnecessary:is, when old, one of the most picturesque trees to We have practiced this system with great sucbe met with, and invaluable as an ornamental cess, and those who have seen our patch in fruit tree when in bloom. I strongly advise planters say the yield was enormous. There is no care try the Beurre Rance pear, and three or four or labor required in training by this method.-other new varieties; these have fine foliage, and Those who go to the expense of procuring stakes flowers, and a strong habit of growth, which, and setting them, and tearing their flesh to pieces as they grow old, would prove useful ornaments in tying up the caves, would avoid the trouble to landscape scenery."- Weekly Sun.
after trying the plan we recommend.
PRUNING.-The only labor required by this Cultivation of the Blackberry, method of treating the blackberry is in pruning. Soil.---The blackberry delights in rich, rather This is done in summer. When the plants send moist soil. It would be almost impossible to get up the caves four or five feet high, go over the a soil too rich. We have seen a portion of a patch with a corn-knife, and cut off the tops of blackberry patch receiving the wash of a barn- all the canes to the height of about four feet.yard, and the canes grew to an immense size, This will then cause them to throw out laterals, and produced the largest berries we have ever upon which the fruit is produced. The plantaseen, while the quantity borne was almost in- | tion must be gone over several times during the credible.
season, as new canes are raising themselves, and PREPARATION OF THE Soil. The soil should be their tops must be cut off as before recommended, deeply ploughed and trench-ploughed in the fall. If the laterals get too rampant, and in the way, By trench-ploughing the soil is deepened, and a as they will, they must be shortened in. The portion of the subsoil is brought to the suaface, only implement required for this work is a coruwhere it is subjected to the ameliorating iofiu- knife, and one man will prune sereral acres per ence of the frost, air and sun. In February or day in this manner. March the ground should be ploughed, and the I would particularly recommend that after the subsoil or lifting plough used, which breaks up plantation is established the ground between the rows should not be disturbed. It will break the been made poorer to the amount of the two crops roots, and cause an immense amount of suckers taken off, besides otherwise injuring it for the to put forth and greatly weaken and lessen the production of grass, as a few years will show. productiveness of the bearing canes. The best This unnatural method of improving old pasplan is to spread a heavy mulching of straw, or, tures by repeated plowing and cropping, has, in what is better, conrse manure between the rows, many instances, been fairly "un into the ground," thus keeping down the weeds, rendering the soil and many of these naturally fertile and grassy moist and enriching it at the same time.-N. I. hills have become poor and waste places, while Colman, before the Horticutural Society.
others near by, which have never been poisoned
| by the plow, nor too closely fed, still, to a good Plea for Permanent Grass Lands. degree, maintain their productiveness..
Observation and experience from my youthful | Jf an old pasture could be spared a few years yeurs convince me that lands natural to grass, to rest, and to grow up to white birches or other and desired for its production, should never be trees, whose roots should penetrate and pervade disturbed by the plow, but their fertility kept up the compacted soil, while their limbs and leaves by top-dressing of animal manure, ashes plaster, would give resting and shade in the summer, and muck, earth, or whatsoever enriches-pastures warmth in winter, and altogether rarifying, and at almost any time ; mowing lands soon after ærifying, ameliorating, and renewing its condithe hay crop is removed, that the surface dressing tion, then cutting off the young growth, and may act upon the grass as the earth does upon you have the best kind of new ground and good other crops under cultivation ; also affording pasture for years, enriched by shade and rest, protection and warmth during the cold and win fallen leaves, and decaying stubs and roots. The try season.
first plowing is the beginning of evils, and Natural meadows--that is, the level land bor sbould never be done where grass is desired. dering on streams and rivers-are undoubtedly To hear an old farmer, in passing over his debest for mowing, and can usually be made smooth teriorated mowing or pasture lands, say "the without even a first plowing, and are sometimes grass has run out here, this needs plowing," is found self-sustaining; also, lands receiving the strange logic to me. I believe in Cincinnatus wash of hills, roads and barnyards, often keep and the plow, but on grain and not grass land. up their fertility without any direct application, The sage saying of the Scotch minister-Tour though the hay crop is continually taken off. friend John Johnston will agree in this)—when taLands less favored naturally, must be treated ken by his parishioners, in time of drought, around artificially, and strengthened and replenished by with them from field to field, to pray for rain irrigation, or some fertilizing substance applied and the blessing of Heaven upon the parched and to the surface.
feeble crops, coming to a very poor and neglected Plowing seems to destroy the life and take field, he said to his brethren, “Pass on, pass on; it away the heart of the land for grass, which als will be of no use to pray over this land-il needs most always soun runs out after it, and must be manure!" This was common sense and philosrichly manured and thickly seeded, and the pro- | ohpy, as well as piety. cess often repented, in order to keep it up.
It is somewhat of plowing as of praying to The custom with farmers here, is to plow an- / make grass grow on a poor or run-out fieldunally a small piece in their mowing lots—we plowing will do no good; it needs manure.--In have but very little natural meadow land-put Country Gentleman. A. P. Virts, on the entire manure of a large stock, get a good
Hancock, Jass. crop of corn, followed by oats, with new seeding, then a fair hay crop for about two sea. "Men are not disturbed by things, but by sons.
the views they take of things. Thus death is noIf the grass has been improved, it has not been thing terrible, else it would have appeared so to done by the cast-iron plow, but by the liberal Socrates. But the terror consists in our notions Oli mure. A less portion put on as a top-dressing of death, that it is terrible. When, therefore, we would have resulted in a grexter and more per- are hindered, or disturbed, or grieved, let us Danent benefi, besides the labor of getting off never impute it to others, but to our own views. the stones and preparing it for the mower. It is the action of an uninstructed person to re
It is also the custom to plow a piece in the proach others for bis own misfortunes; of one enposture, sow to buckwheat, followed by oats, with tering upon instruction to reproach himself; and 116w seeding, and is then assumed that the land of one perfectly instructed, to reproach neither is unde better, been enriched, while in fact it has others nor himself."
both pleasaot and refreshing. There is nothing Those who are willing to accept and profit by at all offensive in it. the teachings of agricultural science are often mis An evil consequence from this error is, that the led, and in consequence disheartened, when they farmer who accepts it for truth is troubled with follow those who assume to be teachers. It is the thought that he is suffering serious loss of difficult to guard against this evil. It is not only the most valuable element of his stable manures that the wisest and most knowing are often them- whenever he perceives this odor. He resorts to selves at fault, and teach theories which they af- methods and practices which, to say the least, are terwards have occasion to correct, or teach a false unnecessary, in order to protect himself against a application of a true principle; nor that the learned loss which is little more than imaginary. In the differ very essentially as to the most iniportant fresh manure of the stables, where this odor is theories, as exhibited in the celebrated discussions strongest, there is really little free ammonia, of Baron Liebig and Lawes and Gilbert. This is though that little may be distinctly perceived.to be looked for until we have an agricultural Yet it was the fear of losing ammonia which has, science better established. But our trouble, or- through so many years, impressed practical men dinarily, is with those who, in their zeal to be with the idea that they must bury such manures teachers, run ahead of the teachings of science, in the soil at the earliest possible time. Intelliand proclaim for truths wliat are rather their own gent observers have more recently raised them. hasty inferences than legitimate inductions from selves above the influence of the old theory, and well-ascertained facts. Hence we have had a great in defiance of it put their stable manures on the deal of so called agricultural science, the tendency surface. of which has been to discredit and bring into The same idca that the odor arising from Pecontempt all theoretical instruction.
ruvian guano, even when perfectly dry, indicated Writers of this class should not be dealt too | the waste of ammonia continually going on, ingently with, because, percbance, they mean well, / duced an intelligent gentleman to put his guano and imagine they are doing the world service.- bags carefully under corer, and then to cover We cannot always call them truly pretenders, them up entirely with sulphate of lime. He acted because, perhaps, they deceive themselves as well | under the influence of two errors; one that per: as others; but their blunders are nearly allied to fectly dry guano is losing largely of ammonia, crimes, and they should be, if possible, brought and the other that sulphate of lime any more to a proper sense of their shortcomings. The than other dry earth would have protected it only complete remedy for the evil is in such dif- from waste. fusion of general, and thorough, instruction of Again this writer says: “It is the ammonia in farmers, in the principles of agricultural science, rain water that imparts to it its peculiar softness that the class of writers alluded to will realize in washing the hands or clothes." It is true that that their occupation is gone. There is a real rain water contains more or less ammonia, but desire for such information now which gives im- that it makes it what is called "soft" may be portance to any one who professes to be able to questioned. In that case cold water should be impart it. When farmers are better instructed, softer than hot, because it absorbs ammonia when such teachers will find their proper level in popu- cold, which is driven off by heat. Yet we find lar estimation, as they now have it only in the hot water always preferred for washing. The opinion of the few who can criticise their pro- "hardness" of water is caused, in fact, by some ductions.
of the salts of lime or iron, which it dissolves We will illustrate what we say by noticing a from the soil it passes through, and rain water is few instances from a writer standing even above soft because it contains none of these. the class alluded to.
The use of charcoal is recommended, and its "It is the ammonia,'' he says, "that escrpes value explained thus: “It will absorb ninety from putrefying substances that causes their of times its bulk of ammonia, and will give it out fepsire smell." How many ignorant, or even slowly to the vital attraction of the roots of cnreless readers, would accept this for a truth. plants." This would seem to give this substance Ammonia is indeed generated in the putrefaction a much higher value as a fertilizer than it has of animal substances, but in the odor perceived ever had the credit of. The "vital attraction" it is mixed up with others which disgust use the spoken of will not reach beyond the points of compounds of carbon, phosphorus and sulphur. contact of the roots, and the ammonia shut up That ammonia of itself is not offensive we may in the pores of the charcoal will not be very readily understand if we are familiar with the available, perhaps, to the rootlets. Besides, it is use of the smelling bottle, which a lady finds only when dry that the charcoal absorbs ammo