Imágenes de páginas

Winter Management of Stock should be kept where they can have daily access Prerequisites for properly wintering stock are, to it; they will take no more than they need, 1st, good stock; 2d, proper kinds and quantity and it will tend to keep the blood cool and the of fodder; 3d, convenient, comfortable build- system healthy. A variety of food is as well reings. To enter into all these prerequisites would lished, and is as desirable for dumb animals as extend this article beyond the limits of a single for their masters. An occasional change from paper, and exhaust the patience of the general cornstalks to bay, and vice versa, will tend to reader. I shall, therefore, confine myself to the keep up their appetite, or a change of kinds of general management of farm stock. The health hay; an occasional feed of roots is also desiraand comfort of all stock is of the first import-ble, tending to keep the system healthy, as well ance in good management; to secure this, suffi- as giving a relish. For milch cows, carrots, cient room and good ventilation are indispensa parsnips and beets are preferable to turnips, as ble. A certain degree of warmth is also desira- these roots do not affect the flavor of the milk ble; to insure this, tight floors and buildings are unfavorably. necessary. Ventilators should be supplied, so as All animals should be kept cleanly, as cleaalito carry off all the foul air without contamina- | ness is essential to health. The skin performs ting the fodder; and to give the stock pure, fresh some of the most important functions of the air, without subjecting them to a draft of air. body; keep it clean, and in good order, by cardThe wintering of cattle and stock embraces their ing at least once a day. I once knew a man wbo treatment, from the time they are brought from fatted some of the best stock sent to market in

e pasture in the fall, till turned away again in those days, who made a practice of taking a the spring. Milch cows and cattle, intended for card in his hand, and using it every time be went fattening, will need to be brought up and fed into the yard or stable; the result was, as might earlier than other stock, although they may be be expected, bis cattle were always clean, quiet, allowed the run of the pasture during the day. | healthy, improving and gentle, expressing the When the fall frosts affect the feed, or when it greatest satisfaction on his appearance. A good becomes short, a little hay and grain should be bed of straw will aid in keeping animals warm fed night and morning till it is time to shut them as well as clean. A few hours spent in the yard up; and here many are apt to err in letting the daily in pleasant weather, will greatly promote cattle run too long before bringing them in. Of comfort, and whatever promotes comfort, tends ten the feed that they get does little if any good, to keep animals thriving. The different kinds of merely stuffing them without increasing flesh, stock should be kept separate, not allowed to ocwhich is very essential for their well-doing in cupy the same yard at the same time.-STOCK cold weather. It is often practiced to give out the poorest feed first, and then gradually keep

Mashes for Horses. improving. Tbis feeding dry straw only, when first from grass, is a sort of torture that should

The following receipe was given me by a celebe abandoned. Some succulent food should be

brated steeple-chaser-I never knew any borse given to keep the animals improving, and gradu

refuse it: Take a feed of oats, a double handful ally accustoming them to the change, thus keep

of lindseed for each horse, and boil for three ing them improving, instead of checking their

hours; then turn into a large tub or eartbeathriftipess. Regularity in feeding is of the first

ware pan, and add as much bran, with just importance in keeping stock improving; a much

enough warm water to moisten the whole through; less quantity of feed is required to keep cattle

put a cloth over it, and let it stand an honr; thriving than when fed irregularly. When fed

then mix it well, and feed as soon as it is cool at irregular intervals or periods they are often

enough. This mash is very useful when borses in hungry, and on the look-out for a supply, caus

hard condition "dry up'' and grow thin, in spite ing uneasiness. This is not the case when fed at

of continual feeds of corn. I give it once a week regnlar intervals; they then eat their feed with

all the year round, but oftener if required by any

particular horse. A few beans may be boiled a relish, ruminate and rest contented till the time for the next feeding comes around. All stock

with the corn if the horse is in a very low con

dition.- London Field. should be fed three times a day what they will eat up clean, and at a regular hour; be watered Hog CHOLERA.-Mr. Miner: I send you a safe three times, morning, noon and night, with good and sure cure for the hog cholera. When a hog fresh water at the yard, not driven to the pond,

has the disease, throw it and give two large ta

| blespoonfuls of the common pine tar, and it will or stream, to push each other, and perhaps get cure it if not dying.-S. REYNOLDS, Brooklyn, lamed, by slipping upon ice, etc. Rock salt' Ind.-Rural American,


Rural A

The Fast Nags.

worms. His loss will be over $20,000. This is The fastest time on record,'' at all distances,

but one case in many this year. I planted 300 is as follows:

acres, expecting to make 100 bales cotton. Rain,

rust, boll worm, and caterpillar will cut the 1 mile, pacing, Pohahontas......

....2.17% 1 mile, trotting, Dexter.......

....2.18% yield off so I shall be glad to get 20 bales. Oth2 miles, trotting, Flora Temple...


ers are better or worse, as the case may be. Tim 3 miles, trotting, Dutchman...

.....7.314 16 miles, trotting, Prince..........

.....50.00% Bunker puts down 60 hands for a 500 acre $20 miles, trotting, Trustee..........

...59.35% 100 miles, trotting, Conqueror .........

place. Forty hands are plenty, and 30 is all I

..855.62 100 miles, double, Master Burke and Robin ...1017.22 want. I cultivate this year 300 acres corn, and

1 mile, running, Henry Perrist...... ......1.42% 4 miles, running, Lexington....... .....7.19%

300 cotton, with 18 hands; will make 6 or 8,000 bushels corn, and had it not been for causes

above mentioned, would have made 100 bales Warts on HORSES.-H. H. Howe, of Nebraska,

cotton. I have 16 mules, run eight double informs the Rural New Yorker how to cure warts

plows part time, and part time six. I worked on horses : “Mix equal qunntities of spirits of

corn and cotton with Sulkey cultivators. Wages turpentine and sulphuric acid, stirring slowly in

$10 per month, and doctor's bills. Rations 31 a tumbler and afterwards botile the mixture. lbs. bacon and one peck meal per week. Three Rub grease around the base of the wart and then

thousand bushels of corn do the plantation one apply the medicine to the wart with a feather

year. Mr. Bunker only enumerates wages for once or twice a day; it will gradually eat them

10 months; it takes the whole 12 on a cotton off. I have thus taken them off a horse's neck

place, and sometimes 13 could be used up. when as large as a turkey's egg."

There is no rest or intermission in work for cotton.

Land is scarce that yields one bale to the acre ; Dr. H. Hinkley.

the majority of cotton lands yields only half a We regret extremeiy to hear of the death of bale-much land one bale to three acres; a bale this gentleman, so well known to the agricultural is 500 lbs. Land can be rented at less than $10 press of the country. He died in Green county, per acremfor all except the very best. Five hunAlabama, about the 20th November, before the dred acres land worked in cotton, could be following letter, the last, perhaps, he ever wrote stocked and worked for $15,000 per annum for for the press, was published.

first year, by any white man with brains, very Dr. H. was a most enthusiastic agriculturist,

easily, after first year; cost of stock and impleand lover of improvement, and while busily

meuts to be deducted, and seed also. occupied with a large cotton plantation, found

Half a bale to the acre would yield 250 bales of time to communicate his intelligent views of

500 lbs., at 30 cts. per Ib.worth........... $87,500 00 matters of interest to the agricultural commu Deduct $30 per bale for rope, bagging, hauling, nity, through all the leading journals. For very | wharfage, insurance, tax, commission, etc. 7,500 00 many yea:8 he has been a correspondent of The Leaves .............

......$30,000 00 Farmer, and was one of the first to greet its re Less ezpenses of plantation ......

...... 15,000 00 appearance. He was a native of Baltimore, and

Leaving a profit of $15,000 for first year, proin his last letter to us expressed his earnest desire

vided nothing happened to injure the crop, etc. to get back to his old home in Maryland, and

White men who improve their own land, work spend here the evening of his life. He has been

improved machinery, and work better than necut off in the mid-day of his career, being but

groes, may do better even. forty-five years of age.

There is no need of rushing at the thing so Cotton Culture-Costs and. Risks.

largely. Why not be satisfied with one or two BY H, HINKLET, I D., EUTAW, GREENE COUNTY, ALABAMA. hundred acres ? The cotton fever is likely to kill " Timothy Bunker, Esq.," (page 316, Sept.,)

some, some never recover, and some are not inhas gone into big figures in his estimate for a cot

jured by it. This year it will kill a good many. ton place, and his figures may be considerably

A New York General has thrown up a large reduced. His estimate of yield takes for grant

plantation in disgust, and gone back to New ed a crop is certain. “But cotton is one of the

York; others are weathering the storm. most precarious crops grown, and has numerous enemies. A man in Sumter, ten miles from

During six months there were exported here, who planted 600 acres of cotton, will make from Canada 15,000 horses, 103,810 cattle and one bale to 50 acres; cause of failure, rust and' 158,000 sheep.

Plank Drains-Suggestions about Draining. all other cases, one drain, properly located,

I notice a correspondent, p. 336, wants more nearly parallel with the hill, will affect more information, &c. A neighbor of mine had quite than several located vertically, or in the direca quantity of draining done, some six or eight tion of the apex of the elevation, which answers years since, thus :

to the ridge of a house roof. No one would The ditch was dug about two-and-a-half feet think of adjusting troughs every two or three deep and fourteen inches wide at the bottom. feet, running from the eaves in the same direcThen a V shaped channel was cut in the centre tion of the rafters, for saving the water or preof the bottom about five inches wide and the venting the door yard from being overflowed.same in depth, leaving about four-and-a-half Rusticus.- Country Gentleman. inches flat surface on each side of the channel.

lemlock slabs were then laid over the channel, The Fishes of the Valley of the Amazon. and a little waste straw or leaves were then put

BY PROFESSOR AGASSIZ. over the joints where two slabs meet to keep the dirt from falling through the loose joints, and The following extract from a brief report of then the ditch is filled up.

lectures of Prof. Agassiz, will be read with inThe drains have been in constant and very terest, as indicating the extraordinary wealth of useful operation since, without any repairing the waters, as well as the lands, of the regions

I have just bad thirty-five rods of draining of the Amazon. The Professor reports 1800 made in the same way, except that I sawed the varieties of fish in the waters of the valley, slabs into pieces fourteen inches long, and laid against 100 in the Mississippi, while the rivers of them across the channel, after having the sharp the old world, have, with few exceptions, little edges hewed off and straightened.

more than 60, 70, or 80 varieties. The curious I am inclined to think that where the bottom will be amused to learn that some of these of the ditch is “hard-pan," and the descent not varieties, sit on, and hatch their eggs, like hens: very rapid, so as not to wash or gulley out, this taking to the land, and even climbing trees. We is a cheap way of draining that will pay; and are indebted for this report to the Boston Culiin such a case as mine it will pay every three vator.-ED. Am. Far.: years—though I hope it will last twenty-five Professor Agassiz then proceeded with an acyears. The descent is only one inch to the rod, count of the most common varieties of fishes, but water runs freely, and there was a percepti- illustrating bis descriptions of their peculiar ble alteration in the surface soil within forty- formations and characteristics by means of draweight hours.

ings. He began first with the families of the I think there is much discretion needed in Mississippi river, saying that, with the exception laying out drains, so as to accomplish the best of two families, none of them had representatives effects with the least amount of draining. Very in Southern waters. One of these families was many, if not most of the wet lands, are made the Silurida, known as the catfish, bull heads, wet by the springs which ooze out near the foot and pouts. These were also found in the of the hills wbich lie about them; consequently, rivers, on the Atlantic coast, and sometimes in if this water is conducted off before it disperses the Arctic regions, but not in Europe, excepting itself through the porous soil of the flat, that in the Danube river. The characteristics of the soil will not be affected by it. In order to do family were delineated briefly, and a description this, the ground must be examined at different of the sturgeons given, and compared with the seasons of the year, springy places noted, then catfish-the points of difference being explained drains must be laid out, just below them, as near by means of drawing. The family of Gonioparallel with the hill as will afford sufficient de dontes, which was found in the Mississippi, was scent, somewhat as eave-troughs are arranged to not represented in South America. The most carry the water off from our houses, so that the numerous family in the Mississippi river was that door-yards will not be ail wet.

commonly known as suckers--Cyprinidæ. These It would be very easy to show by diagram differed from the Siluridæ in the absence of teeth and mathematically, or rather philosophically, in the mouth, and having them at the entrance that as water observes the laws of gravitation, to the stomach. The largest were found in the the above is a correct theory of laying out drains ; Missouri river; where they grow to a weight of and practically there is any amount of proof of it. sixty pounds. Not one of them could be found

Of course, where there is a large spring, so in South American waters, wbile there were as large as to keep for itself an open channel, the many in Europe as in America, and they were most direct route to the river is the best; but in ' also found in the islands in the Indian and

Pacific oceans. There was another kind of fish dages on their jaws which extended along half somewhat similar in form to the Cyprinidae, but the length of the abdomen. On this they deposit with teeth in their mouths, and having their their eggs, and carry them about until the young heads flattened. They were called Cyprinidontes, are hatched. Another kind bored holes in the and the common minnows were of this kind. river bank three or four feet in depth, and deThe next family was the perch, which had repre- posited their eggs therein in round bunches. sentatives among us. They differed from the In the tenth lecture of Professor Agassiz's others in the formation and position of their fins, course on Brazil, the lecturer began by saying and were found in Europe and Northern Asia, that in his public lectures he had usually aimed but not in South America. Another family with at giving general results, rather than showing us was the pickerel, the chief characteristic of how those results are obtained. But the growing which was the position of the dorsal fin. Of interest in natural history warranted him in this family we found nothing in South America, giving the modus operandi of naturalists at work. but they were yielded in Europe and Northern Supposing they had fishes to examine, they first Asia. The trout was next taken up. The family determined if they really were fishes, or whether was distinguished by a very small fin on the they were aquatic reptiles, such as star and craw under part of the body near the tail, and was fishes, which, though usually designated as common in northern countries. The white fish fishes, really belong to a different branch of the and lake herring were of this species. They animal kingdom. Naturalists now designate as were never seen in warm latitudes. There was fishes those marine animals, which agree with the a species called Characines, which frequented mammalia in general structure. They go a step waters nearer the temperate zones, while the fish farther, and divide these iuto orders, as, for inin the more northern waters were called Sal- stance, the Goniodontes, whose peculiarity is an monidæ. Herring were considered as not being imperfect mouth; and other orders with other properly a fresh water fish, and only in the Ama- l characteristics marking them. Next to the orzon were they permanent inhabitants of fresh ders are groups called families, not having a water. Eels and cod were also briefly mentioned. genealogical relation, but related by form.

The lecturer then stated that every river system Slight differences in detail characterize still anohad its own kinds of fish, and that the fishes of ther division called genera. The lecturer gave the southern waters were not the same kind as illustrations on the blackboard, of these differthose in northern rivers. The fish which gave ences, marking the genera, mainly in the forms character to the North differed in kind from those of the fins, tail, head, and scales, not changing of the South. In Europe there were three great the general outline giving the family character. river systems—the Rhine, the Rhone, and the The Professor then described several families Danube all rising in Switzerland, and flowing of the Goniodon'es found in the waters of Brazil, in opposite directions. At their sources these remarking that be gave these details to satisfy three rivers yielded the same species of fish, but his bearers tbat the animals of L’razil are entirely in their lower courses these head-water fishes different from ours, and as having an important disappeared, and the varieties were different in bearing on the question whence they come, and the rivers. In Europe the perch, pickerel, trout, how animals are distributed on the globe. One and eel differ from those of America. They was the family of Callicthists, characterized by were corresponding, but not identical, and the two rows of scales upon their sides, with a desame was true of all fish in every locality-with pression between them. These fish have the the exception of the salmon, which was a sea peculiar habit of leaving the water at times; and more than a fresh water fish.

the Professor said he had frequently found them The Goniodontes were peculiar to South Ame- on dry land three miles from the water. They ica, and not to Asia, Africa, or Australasia. deposit their eggs in a cavity, after the manner In the Amazon 'they teemed in many species, of the stickle-back, and hatch them by sitting, combining the characteristics of the pout and as it were, upon them. They ascend trees, and sturgeon. The kinds varied in the different the same shot of the sportsman which brought places in the valley, no two localities yielding down a parrot has been known to dislodge one the same kind. They were also found in other of these fishes.' rivers in Brazil, and even north of that country The next family mentioned were the Dorades, in South America. They were to be found in mainly distinguished by a single row of scales the mud, and in hollow trees in the water. One on each side, though some of the genera have of the species took care of its young as no other two and three rows. Another family, the Asphefish did, being provided with apron like appen- ' rides, lay their eggs and then pass over them, the eggs becoming agglutinated to the under triple event. Her engagements for 1867, are : sides of their bodies, and remaining held there The One Thousand Guineas Stakes, of 100 sovs. by a filament until hatched. Still another each; the Oakes Stakes, of 50 sovs. each, and the family possesses a peculiar property which is Great Surrey Foal Stakes, of 10 sors. each, 100) used by the Indians to embellish their pet parrots, added ; Epsom, Summer; the Prince of Wales' the fish being given as food to the birds, whose | Stakes, of 60 sovs. each, 1000 added, and the green plumage is thereby tinged with yellow Cornation Stakes, 100 sovs. each; Ascot, Sumspots. Some of the parrots seen in our cabinets, mer; the Great Yorkshire Stakes, of 10 sovs. the Professor remarked, which were considered each, with 100 added, at York, and St. Leger, of to be distinct species, were really specimens of 25 sovs. each, at Doncaster.-Mass. Ploughman. the bird thus variegated in color by the Indian method of feeding.

Facts in Farming. The lecturer described several other families

There are some things in farming that are of this order, with their peculiarieties of form,

established, namely: color, and habits, remarking that several of these families have hitherto been unknown to the

That manure must be applied, not only to get naturalists. He then passed to another order,

up land, but to keep it up. That wet soil must the Characines, representing in the tropic waters

be drained, either by ditching or otherwise. That our salmon. The peculiar construction of the

| sub-soiling is good. That grain should be sowa

earlier than it generally is; that it should be month marks the different families of this order, some of them being entirely toothless, others

barvested earlier than it is done; that grass should having teeth only in the upper jaw, and others

be cut when in blossom; and never when ripe,

unless for secd. That our soil is not sufficiently having both jaws armed with teeth. These families also differ so much in color that the

worked, especially in hoed crops; that stirring the combination of lines seems almost endless, though

soil aod keeping it well pulverized, is a partial

guard against drouth. That the most advantathere is a general plan in the colors as much as

| geous grain for horses is the oat; that it improves in the form. One of these families is a most formidable fish, having a wide mouth, armed on

| fodder to cook or steam it. That warm shelter

in winter saves fodder, and benefits stock. Tbat both sides with pointed, serrated teeth. A horse or cow falling into the river would be devoured

the best blood is the most profitable. That there

is much advantage in selecting the best seed, the in one hour by these greedy fish. A man would

earliest matured and the plumpest. That in-andfare no better.

in breeding is not good in close and consecutive The Professor briefly and rapidly sketched

relationship, but must be carried on by foreign other families of this order, one of which he said

infusion of the same blood. That warm quarters comprised forty genera, only three of which

and good treatment are necessary in winter to were before known. One of these three was the

produce eggs from most hens. That top-dressing electrical eel, so highly charged with electricity

grass lands should be done with fine, well-rotted as to be able to give several shocks in quick suc

| manure, applied close to the ground. That it is, cession, without sensibly diminishing its power.

in general, best to sell produce as soon as ready These eels are caught, as related by Humboldt,

for market. That blackberries require rich soil; hy driving mules into the water, to receive the

strawberries and raspberries vegetable mouldshocks until the eel becomes perfectly harmless.

such as rotten leaves, chip manure, &c. Tbat more lime should be used. That salt, in some

cases, is good for land-also plaster, the phosAchievement, the two year old prodigy of phates, guano, &c. That fall ploughing is the the English turf, continues to meet with success best for clay lands; that land should not be in her career. She won the Champagne stakes at ploughed wet. That young orchards should be Doncaster, thus making her total winnings, this cultivated. That compost heaps are a good infar for the year $41,885. She has been worth stitution. That clay and lime, rather than more than a gold mine to her fortunate owner, animal manure, be employed in raising fruit. Col. Pearson, and if the promise of her present That manure should be rotted before it is used. age is transmitted to and preserved in her three That agricultural papers are an advantage to the year old form, her name wil descend to posterity farmer. That a cultivated mind is requisite to linked with the undying honors of the English high farming, and that a good reputation exerts turf. Achievement is a sister to Lord Lyon, the a good influence on the farming community.-Rwinner of the Si, Leger, and the bero of the grand ral World.

« AnteriorContinuar »