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hatching or 'setting, as we term it, for at least
tliree months." HATCHING CHICKENS.
"At a farm near Lizieux," says lie, “I saw a To such an extent is the system of poultry turkey that was then sitting, and had been so raising carried on in France, that in some parts upwards of six months; and, as I considered it of that country the hatching forms a special rather cruel, the hatcher, to prove the contrary, trade or business carried on by a class of persons took her off the nest and put her in a meadow, known as Coupeurs or Hatchers. These people and also removed the eggs; the turkey, howhatch for farmers at all times of the year at so ever, to my surprise, returned immediately to much per egg, or purchase the eggs in the mar her nest, and called in a most plaintive voice for ket, and sell the chickens, as soon as hatched, at her eggs; then some eggs were placed in a corfrom six cents to twelve cente each, according toner of the box, which she instantly drew under the season of the year. The hatching-room is her with her beak, and seemed quite delighted. kept dark, and at an even temperature in sum. Moreover I was informed that it was of great mer and winter. In this room a number of economical advantage to employ turkeys to hatch, boxes, two fiet long, one foot wide, and one foot as they eat very little, and get fat in their state six inches deep, are arranged along the walls.- of confinement, and therefore fit for the market These boxes are covered in with lattice or wire any day.” work, and serve for turkeys to hatch any kind! The extraordinary advantages of this singular of eggs. Similar boxes, but of smaller dimen- system appear in its cheapness—the sitting bird sions, are provided for breeding fowls. The bed covering nearly double the number of eggs that of the boxes is formed of heather, straw, bay, or we cominonly put uoder a hen, and at the same cocoa fibre; and the number of eggs for a tur- time getting fat for market instead of famishing key to hatch is two dozen, and one dozen for in the process; in the uninterrupted successioni hens.
I of chickens-the hatching being completely indeAt any time of the year, turkeys, whether pendent of a broody condition in heng, which is broody or not, are taught to sit and hatch in the often delayed or interfered with by wintry following manner : Some addled eggs are emp- weather; in the wide margin for hatching, and tied, filled with plaster of Paris, and placed in a the certainty of none but large broods coming nest, after which a turkey is fetched from the off at every three weeks; and in the power to get yard, and placed on the eggs, and covered over chickens from the “live hatching machines,': at with the lattice; for the first forty-eight bours any season, and thus time them as adults for the she will endeavor to get out of her confine high prices of spring and early summer, without ment, but soon becomes reconciled to it, when any troublesoine and expensive provision of refresh eggs are substituted for the plaster of Paris lays of pullets of different breeds and ages, ones. They will continue to hatch, without in- | wbich must otherwise be kept for the purpose. termission, for three to six months, and even
We think this method well worth a careful longer; the chickens being withdrawn as soon trial with us. We shall describe the mode of as batched, and fresh eggs substituted. After raising the chickens hatched in this way in our the third day the eggs are examined, and the | next number.- Massachusetts Ploughman. clear eggs withdrawn, which are then sold in the market as new laid ; but as they may be
PROFITS OF POULTRY.-Messrs. Editors : In 1866 soiled or discolored from having been sat upon,
I kept fifteen hens--three of which were eight they clean them with water and silver sand to
years-five were three years--seven were one restore their original whiteness. The turkeys are
year old—began laying March 9th--laid till Septaken off the nest once a day, to feed and to
tember 30th-stopped laying on account of moultremove the excrements from the nest; but after
ing. We used for cooking for a family of three,
which I did not keep account of. We packed awbile they cease self-feeding, when it is neces
seventy-two for winter use, raised forty-five sary to cram them, and give them some water
chickens, and sold seven hundred and thirty-two once a day. "At one place we observed," says Geyelin, in his account of a visit made but a
Average price per dozen, twenty-one cents........$12 81 few weeks ago, which we alluded in the last | Sold thirty-three chickens-weight eighty-three number of the Ploughman, "sixty turkeys batch
pounds, at thirteen cents per pound.......... 10 79 ing at the same time; and we were informed that
It cost me for keeping fifteen hens and one cock... 10 39 during winter and early spring, M. Auche had sometimes upwards of one hundred hatching at
For care and profits ..................$13 21 the same time, and that each turkey continued! This is an exact account. The hens were not
fed Juring the summer-they ran around the remarkable uniformity in its geological condibarns and picked up their own living.--A FAR- tions. Throughout its extent we have the same mer Box, Lewis Co., N. Y.
| productive soils, everywhere bounded by the same We give the above as an example to farmer's great geological formations. boys in account keeping. Who of them that Through New York and Pennsylvania the reads the American Farmer will take account of whole of this beautiful region is crowded with the cost of keeping, and the product of their a dense and prosperous population, with cities hens for a year ?—Ed. Am. Far.
and towns springing up like magic; with for
naces, and mills, and factories in full blast, CHARCOAL For FattenING TURKEYS.-"Having
teeming with wealth, and glorious in its beauty. made an experiment in feeding charcoal to fat
But in Virginia and Tennessee and Georgia, it tening turkeys, the result surprised me," says a
is comparatively a wilderness. Three-fourths of writer. "Four turkeys were confined in a pen
the country remains in original forest, and in and fed on meal, boiled potatoes and oats. Four
many sections the solitudes are as deep and unothers of the same brood also, at the same time,
broken as if the foot of man had never intruded confined in another pen and fed on the same ar
upon them. Why should not this section of Virticles, but with one pint of very finely pulverized
ginia rival the prosperity and wealth of correscharcoal mixed with their feed-mixed meal and
ponding portions of Pennsylvania? She is boiled potatoes. They had also a plentiful sup
blessed with a more delightful climate, equally ply of broken charcoal in their pen. The eight
fertile soil, and mineral deposits not inferior in were killed on the same day, and there was a dif
richness and variety to those which have secured ference of 14 lb. each in favor of the fowls which
to the latter State such a degree of prosperity. had been supplied with the charcoal, they being much the fatter, and the flesh greatly superior in
The great need is capital and enterprise. With
these, properly applied, Southwestern Virginia tenderness and flavor.”
would, in a few brief years, rival the most favored [Did the use of coal tend to promote digestion.
regions of the Keystone State. We must thereand, therefore, thus to increase the nutritive ex
fore invite this capital to investments here. We tract from the feed? What say poultry-feeders?
can and must so present the advantages and ca- Mass. Ploughman.)
pacities of our State as to command the attention
of capitalists, and court the fullest and most The Mineral and Agricultural Wealth of Southwestern Virginia.
searching investigations into the resources of the
country.-Lynchburg News. There is, perhaps, no portion of our State which contains within itself more of wealth than the section known as “Little Tennessee." The
Coal Ashes. fertility of the soil, the salubrity of the climate, Coal ashes in England have been found to be and the varied mineral deposits with which the excellent top-dressing for clover and grass lands, earth is liberally filled, combine to render it one especially on dry, sandy soils. The quantity of the most interesting and atıractive regions of used is from fifty to sixty bushels per acre, spread the State. With the exception of a few miles either immediately after harvest, or duriag the immediately contiguous to the line of the Vir- | winter or early spring. The qualities of coal ginia and Tennessee railrond, the great area of asbes are said to be improved by covering up in this beautiful country is litterally a terra incog- every cart load of asbes one bushel of lime in its nita to enterprise and capital. The distance from hottest state, for about ten or twelve hours, when market and the absence of many facilities for the lime will be entirely fallen. Tbe whole is developing the agricultural resources of the coun- then mixed together, and turned over three times, try, combined with the natural adaptation of the when the cinders or half-burned pieces of coal, soil to the production of grasses, have conspired which would otherwise be of no use, will be to make the inhabitants of this section of Vir- found reduced to as fine a powder as the lime ginia rather a pastoral than agricultural people. itself. The coal ashes should be kept perfectly Lying in the great linestone region, which dry, and when thus prepared with lime and apstretches from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf, it plied to swampy soils, is said to improve them partakes in a high degree of all the characteristics very materially. Dry coal ashes, applied to of this favored formation. Consisting of valleys, night soil, from time to time, frees it from unand groups of valleys, alternating with moun pleasant odor, and forms a highly concentrated tains rich in mineral and clothed with verdure manure, which is in proper condition to be carted this region throughout its whole estent presents' away.
---- --Much of the coal used for fuel in England is
Manurial Values. the soft coal, but we have no doubt good results
Fertilizers purchased for agricultural purposes would follow from the use of ashes of American
bare been a fruitful subject of discussion, arising coals. Indeed, in proof that they have consid
from the discrepancies that often exist between erable manurial value, we have often seen
their value in the market, owing either to cost of squashes and other vegetables growing in great
production or to a demand for other uses-and luxuriance upon a heap of coal ashes which bad
their value on the furm--wbat they will actually been thrown out from the grates, and entirely
bring out of the ground in increase of producfree from a mixture of earth or manures. The
tion. Prof. Anderson writes a letter to the consumption of coal in the inland cities and vil
Scottish Farmer, in which he refers to saltpetre, lages is becoming every day more extensive, and
as an example of the kind--an article which. the ashes for the most part are thrown away as
commercially speaking, is of so inuch greater useless material.
valae than it is in a manurial point of view, that To those living within the reach of cities and
no farmer can afford to purchase it; because, alvillages, it would be well worth while to collect though to a certain extent it is a valuable fertilithis waste rubbish and experiment with it upon zer, yet the results produced by it would be too yrass lands, with a view of determining its dearly purchased at the price which it is worth real value. It is a mine which may be well in the market. After mentioning this, the Farworth working, and one which the practical far mer adds : mer should not overlook.-l'lica IIerald.
On the other hand, the commercial value of a
fertilizer may be considerably increased, simply A Great Invention in Bee-Culture-How to
because its manurial value is such that the farEmpty Combs.
mer can afford to give more for it, and the deThe Bee papers of Europe and this country are
mand which arises for it from this cause will, as filled with accounts of the discovery of a German
a matter of course, increase its commercial value, A piarian, of a method of emptying combs of
which may be still further heightened if the suphoney without injurying them. The process is Prat
ply at any time falls short of the demand. In exceedingly simple, and consists only in slicing
the latter case the commercial value might become off the caps of the cells, and then causing the
too great to allow it to be used profitably as a combs to rerolre on the periphery of a wheel or
fertilizer. Again, there may be a difference even cylinder, which empties one side of honey; then
in the manurial value of a fertilizer, as an article the other side is turned and emptied. Liquids,
may be more advantageously used as such on u pon bodies which are wbirled or revolved, tend
certain soils, and under certain conditions than to fly off by what is called centrifugal force. In
in other cases, and thus the manurial value will this case the revolution is so graduated that only
be greater to some farmers than to others. the honey flies off, and dead bees, bee-bread, &c.,
From all of which we may safely conclude, remain behind, so that not only is the comb
that when the chemist, after completing an analsaved, but the honey is purer and better than
ysis of any fertilizer, goes on to give an estimate that strained. The temperature requisite to suc
of its money value, he ventures on what must, of (ess, is about 80° Fahrenheit, which is gained in
necessity, be subject to constant fluctuations, and a warm room, or on a summer day. .
if correct for the time and place for which it is
calculated, may be quite erroneous—when quoted The value of this invention may be the better
ata different date, or in another country.- Counappreciated when it is known that it requires the
try Gentleman. consumption by the bees, of 15 to 20 pounds of honey, (estimates vary,) to make 1 pound of wax, consequently, that the comb requires for its Signs OF A SEVERE WINTER.-Says the Lyuchconstruction the use of just about as much burg News: The phenomena which usually prehoney as it will contain when filled. It may be sage, according to the notions of the very obfound that in the economy of bee life, it is essen- servant in such matters, the approach of a hard tial for the bees, to make or excrete a certain winter, are becoming very marked as the season amount of wax in order to remain in good progresses. Hives are overflowing with honey, health ; but this is hardly probable, for it has long the busk of corn are declared to be of extra been the practice of bee-keepers to save empty thickness, and the furs of animals are pronounced or partly filled combs with scruplous care, and exceedingly rich and heavy. It is observed, too, give them to the bees. And no bad results have that the squirrels are niaking arrangements on an ever been noticed. -- American Agriculturist. increased scale for storage of nuts.
The American farmer. The first quarterly meeting of the Executive
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF STATE AG. SOCIETY, The first quarterly meeting of the Executire
Committee of the State Agricultural Society was Bultimore, January 1, 1867.
held on the 4th of December, at the office of the
Society, 67 West Fayette street. Jolin MerryTERMS OF THE AMERICAN FARMER.
man, Esq., was appointed permanent President
of the Committee. A communication was reSUBSCRIPTION TWO DOLLARS PER ANNUM. ceived from Ross Winans, Esq., declining, from
personal considerations, the office of President of RATES OF ADVERTISING :
the Society. The committee will meet again Eight lines of small type constitute a square.
| early in January to elect a President, according
to the constitution, from among the Vice-Presi1 Mo. 3 Mo. 6 Mo. | 1 Year.
dents. One Square........
$2.00 $5.00 $10.00 $15.00 Sub-committees were formed to take charge of Half Page...
15.00 35.00 60.00 110.00 One Page.... 25.00 60.00 110.00 200.00
| the Finances, the obtaining a charter for the So
ciety, and the selection of a show ground. PUBLISHED BY WORTHINGTON & LEWIS.
243 An inquirer says: "Can you tell us why it Office, 52 S. Gay street,
is that Peruvian guano has come to be nearly Near Exchange Place. BALTIMORE.
worthless ? That which I have used for the last
three or four years was not actually worth $20 Christmas and New Year.
per ton. I have bought my last bag.
"I have been using Peruvian guano for the last We greet our readers everywhere, with the joyful Christmas Proclamation, “Peace and
fifteen years, and what I state here I know to be Good-Will." Let the New Year take up the
a matter of fact. I have made inquiries of all the words of love, and carry them outside of the
farmers in my section, and they are of the same churches, and into the fields, where the Angels
opinion about guano." first uttered them. Let them go forth with men
Got supplies from the wrong quarter we supinto all their callings, and all their daily life, not i pose. ED. AM. FAR. as words merely, but as powers, to do the works of peace. It is the noble privilege of man, to
THE LOUISVILLE JOURNAL.-The thirty-sixth anspeak the words, and do the works of the Minis, niversary of this Journal was celebrated recently tering Spirits of God.
| by a banquet. The venerable senior editor, the | renowned Prentice, presided, and “gave to the
occasion the brilliancy of his wit, and the eloNo Politics.-A Philadelphia friend says he fs
quence for which he is so famed." glad to see The Farmer, but would like bim bet
General Rousseau sent the following toast : ter if he would drop all politics. The Farmer
" The Louisville Journal.'' -Its leader of totakes his kindly suggestion in the spirit by which
day is sufficient evidence that it is as vigorous it was prompted. A too keen remembrance of and powerful as when, thirty-six years ago, it the sad past, or a “rash humour,'' it may be, not
sprang into being, matured and full-armed like yet toned down to a becoming meekness, bas
Minerva from the brain of Jove. been exhibited occasionally in the prosecution of our proper work-instruction in agriculture. But, withal, to such as will let "by-gones be
Post MASTERS. — Will Mr. John Dahney, a P.
M., who wrote to us lately on business, please by-gones," and who feel, and mean, kindly to
write again, and say in what part of Uncle Sam's those with whom he liad sympathized and suf
dominions he has the honour of keeping a Post fered, there is no heart that goes out with less of
Office, and give us the name of his office ? He bitterness, or more of brotherly kindness, than this old Farmer's. Would that be had the
does not give it inside of bis letter, and it is pot
legible outside. . power to still the bitter waters of strife, and to make the people North and South feel, that, after
A The paper of Dr. Lee on "The Study of all, they are brothers.
Agricultural Facts, and the value of fertilizers,"
will be found very interesting and instructive. Rot We call attention to the advertisement of We hope the doctor will favour us further on the Leonard Scott Publishing House.
The Agricultural College of Maryland. /ning. Let this first step be followed up. Let ELECTION OF PRESIDENT AND PROFESSORS.
the Society be, by all means, encouraged. Let A meeting of the Board of Trustees of the
every Marylander, who calls himself a farmer, Maryland Agricultural College was held in Bal
become a member, and give it his personal intimore on the 10th of December for the purpose
fluence and support, and let us hare a State Asof electing Professors for the reorganization of
sociation of farmers that we may be proud of. the College.
But what we would call attention to, especially, There were present: Gov. Swane, Lieut. Gov.
in these lines, is the lack of neighbourhood asCox, and Rev. L. Van Bokkelen, representing
sociation-farmers' clubs. Where is there now the State; and Hon. James T. Earle, President of
one in the State, but the time-honored association The Board, Rev. Dr. William Pinkney, Hon.
of Talbot county, the club that for so many Charles B. Calvert, Col. Edward Lloyd, Otho H.
years has held its monthly meetings, going from Williams, Esq., and Col. William H. Purnell,
farm to farm, and eschewing all topics of con
versation and discussion, but those especially representing the private Stockholders. The elec
pertaining to the order of the day--a good dintion resulted as follows:
ner, indeed, being always discussed as not out Gex. Costis LEE, President, and Professor of
of order. Why should there not be in every Mathematics and its Applications, and Military
county of the State a half dozen such clubs? Science.
These should then unite in a county association, V. B. WORTHINGTON, A. M., Professor of Moral
and the county associations should be the earnest, and Mental Philosophy, and English Literature.
active, allies of a great State Society. We earnDR. Jas. Higgins, Professor of Natural Sciences
estly commend the matter to the consideration of and Agriculture.
our friends throughout the State, and hope the BATTISTA LorixO, L. L. D., Professor of An
leisure of the winter months will be taken adcient and Modern Languages.
vantage of to get up farmers' clubs in every VR. DANIEL BARKER had been previously ap
neighbourhood. pointed Practical Agriculturist and Horticulturist. Other Professors and Assistants will be ap
Labour. pointed as the exigencies of the Institution may Many sermons have been written on the "digTequire it. The College will be reopened on the
nity" of labour, and much pains has been taken 5th of February.
to persuade young men that it is "dignified" to
roll up their sleeves, and toil and sweat in the Farmers' Clubs.
dirt. Has any one been persuaded that this is We do not suppose that there is in any portion "true preaching,” and, if so, has lie been of the country, so much apathy as to agricultu- prompted by it to go to work? No. No man ral interests, as here in Maryland. States de ever worked because of the dignity of labour, vastated by the war have had great agricultural and the argument may as well be dropped. gatherings, and numerous counties in those States Most men work from necessity, or what seems have had neighbourhood meetings for the discus- to them so, all should work because it is their sion of their affairs, and have organized associa- | duty. This is the word--DUTY. It is due to tions, and appointed stated times of meeting. In himself, his friends, his country, and, above all, New Orleans there has been one of the most im- to Him who gave the faculties and the power to posing gatherings, with a spirited exhibition of work, that every young man should take hold at agricoltural and mechanical productions. In once of that which lies before him, and do it Richmond, there has been a great convention with his might. of ber farmers, and a discussion of many days, We like, therefore, the preaching of Gov. Wm. upon the important topics presented by the pre. Smith, of Virginia, who, in his speech at the sent condition of the agricultural affairs of the Farmer's Convention at Richmond, is reported as State. North Carolina has had her agricultural follows: "When he got home after the war, he State convention for the same purpose. In these found citizens of the village standing at the and in other States, there have been many asso corners of the streets, the young men idle-but ciations formed in neighbourhoods and counties, he reminded them of their duty. He told them which indicate a spirit and energy that make us if they could not earn a dollar a day then they very hopeful of the rapid revival of Southern ought to take less, and they would have the couagriculture.
solation of knowing they had done their duty. Here, in Maryland, we have, indeed, organized That was the principle.” This is indeed the a State Society. This is, at least, a good begin. I "principle”-the very beginning of all right