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doing, that a thing be done because it ought to
Old Virginia. be done.
"" 'Twas my forefather's hand But, alas for our weakness! this first law of
That placed it near his cot, duty does not often sufficiently constrain us, and
There, woodman, let it stand, He who "knows what is in man,'' has hemmed
Thy axe shall harm it not." us about with necessities, real or supposed, The thoughts upon the holding of our homewhich whip us to our work. The necessity of steads, and the value of our lands, wbich we hare food and raiment for ourselves, and those de- poorly, but earnestly, espressed in the Farmer, pendent on us, the supposed necessity of provid- in months past, are nobly and powerfully uttered ing a home of our own, of keeping our position from the late Farmers' Convention at Richmond, in society, of making a good show before the by the President, Mr. Willoughby Newton, and world, of laying up some fund for a future day, ex-Governor Smith. To preserve the old homes of supplying the thousand wants, many of them and the old land-marks, that not a house be imaginary, which press upon us day by day; alienated nor a tree cut down, should be the our pride, our vanity, our ambition, our avariče, prompting of every true Virginian; pot froin our love, our honour, all supply us with motive hostility or unfriendliness to any outside of the power to do what we often persuade ourselves is Oid Commonwealth, but that the identity of her done from a sense of duty. Labour in the call- people may be preserved, and that the sons and ings of life is right and good in itself, without the grandsons of her present and past generareference to the imperfect, or even vicious, mo- tions may not fail of their inheritance in the tives which prompt it. God's work in the future wealth and grandeur of the poble old world is often done by evil agents, and through State. And more, that this great future may be vicious promptings. There are motives, too, the work of their hands. It is a rich heritage, other than duty, that are amiable, and lovely, and a noble work. Let others come from every and of good report. But the principle" of quarter, for there is room and verge enough, who duty, to begin, or be moved to, a work because would make new homes, and take part in the it is good, because it is right, because it is the great work, and be adopted As sons, but let the very work which has been set us to do, while it Old Dominion be still the land of the old Virdoes not change the character of the action ginians. We make the following extract from makes the doer God-like. Let us tell our young Mr. Newton's address : men, then, not that labour is “ dignified," but "To sum up my advice in as few words as that it is right—that it is their “duty."'.
| possible, I would say: Hold fast to your lands. Do not sell them under any circumstances except
at a fair price. Do notbing in haste-await de President of the State Agricultural Society. velopments. You bad as well be ruined by in
At a meeting of the Executire Committee of terest, as by the voluntary sacrifice of your proState Agricultural Society, held on the 4th of perty. Do not refuse to sell your surplus land at December, a communication was read from Ross a fair price to pay just debts ; but cling to the Winans, Esq., declining the appointment of Pre- homestead. Wbether it be the bumble cottage sident of the Society. This was matter of grent or the stately mansion that bas sheltered you and regret to the committee, as it will be to the com- / your fathers, let it continue to shelter your chilmunity, for no man in the State could more | dren and your cbildren's children. Teach the worthily and efficiently fill the position. It de- rising generation to preserve the land-marks, to volves now on the Executive Committee to fill venerate the 'patrimonial oaks,' and be sure to the office from among the Vice Presidents, and a love each shrub and tree planted by their fathers suitable selection will, no doubt, be made from as if it were a sentient being. You will thus so respectable a list of Maryland gentlemen. cherish a sentiment stronger than law, by which
your homes will be preserved to your posterity.
"If your estate is large, divide it with your ORCHARD AND HERD'S GRASS.-A correspondent sons, and keep them in the State; for one of your in Augusta county, Va., inquires : "How much young men of proper spirit is worth a hundred seed to the acre of these grasses ?" Orchard immigrants. You may retain a thousand acres grass is very light and chaffy, and when sown of arable land, which may be cultivated under alone not less than two bushels is required. of your own eye with entire convenience, with the Herd's grass one bushel per acre. If mixed, aid of a bailiff, according to the English system halve these quantities; and so when sown with of managing large farms. As an illustration, I clover or timothy.
cite the Netherby farm, in Cumberland, England,
containing 1290 acres of arable land, exclusive wine from the Rhine, and silks from France; of parks, of the operations on whiclt a detailed whilst in place of them new factories should be report is given in the Library of Useful Know- established, in which the Confederate soldiers ledge. Smaller farms of 500 acres, or less, may could get employment. He looked forward with be cultivated with equal success, under the man- hope, though the signs of the times were omiagement of an active and intelligent proprietor, nous. Let us look forward with hope, and let with the aid of a bailiff. To the bighest degree us go to work and do our duty." of success, lime, grass, stock, labor-saving machinery and manures-home-made and boughtare indispensable. The truth that poor land
Experiments on Potatoes. • cannot be cultivated by hired labor without loss,
The distinguished agricultural chemist, Baron must never be forgotten. This makes improve-Von Liebig, has published a paper containing ment a matter of necessity, if not of choice, and the records of a series of experiments on the may, in the end, prove ample compensation for growth of potatoes, and analyses of the results, the loss of our slaves.'
which are worthy of attention. The soil selected "The soil of Virginia is kind, and easily culti- for the experiment was a coarsely powdered turf. vated; the climate genial, and the variety of her One of these was left unmanured, the others productions greater than that of any other re were manured. One received a copious dressing of gion. In addition to all the productions of phosphate, sulphate, and carbonate of ammonia; Great Britain, we have the important staples of the other was supplied abundantly with the cotton, tobacco, and Indian-corn. We have phosphates of potash and soda, carbonate of abundant water-power, boundless mineral re- potash and gypsum. The result of this upon sources, free navigation, and open markets with the soils of the three boxes is represented in the all the world. Why, then, should our lands, not following table, of which No. I, expresses the have a high market value, and be capable of unmanured box; No. II, that treated by the salts profitable cultivation by hired labor ?"
of ammonia; and No. III, that supplied with the Governor Smith said:
alkaline phosphates and gypsum : “He agreed with the President, that large
II. farms could be managed better than small ones, Phosphoric acid.... 2.20 1.96
2 83 if there was capital' to do it. When a man had
0.23 a little farm he became like one of his own cat
0.39 tle, for he had to work incessantly, and there Silicic Acid............. 22.45
Sulphuric Acid........ 1.21 was no time for the improvement of the intellec
Magnesia .............. 0.95 tual man. He had earnestly impressed on his Sesquioxide of Iron and
26.40 friends not to leave the country. Where would Nitrogen..
24.60 1.51 they go? Virginia was the place for them, after
In addition In addition
to contents to contents all. Let every Virginian say this is the spot
of No. I. of No. 1. for me; here is my ancestors' home. I will die here, and I spare no effort to restore my native
The ammonia appeared at first to retard vege. State! Where could they go ? To Mexico ?
tation, the shoots of the potatoes making their No. To Brazil? To the West? No. For there
| appearance above ground two days later in the they would be overwbelmed by hordes of for
turf which had received the ammonia than in eigners. He had travelled much of late, and
either of the other boxes. The shoots in No. III. took occasion to converse with the people. He
I grew much more rapidly than in the others, but came to this city, and saw palatial residences
towards the close of vegetation, the shoots in going up. And for what? To sell other peo
No. II. were quite as luxuriant as those in No. ple's industry in. Thousands of dollars were
III., though the latter had to the end a brighter thus spent, when, if they had been applied to
colour. Flower buds made their appearance four
days later in box No. III. than in box No. II. manufacturing purposes, other people would be
Soon after the stalks began to wither, the potabuying from us. Ile had been to Danville. He saw there a water front of a mile and a half,
toes were dug with the following results : which could be devoted to manufacturing pur
Box I Box II. Box III. poses, but he found the merchants there putting
Turf With Withont
alone, ammonia. ammonia. up fine houses in the country, where they spent Grammes .................
2520 3062 7201 Proportion ...........
100 121 286 some of the time which ought to be devoted to
Weight of tubers planted.. 7.6 9.7 business. He saw fine stores going up here, in
2870 which to sell shoes and hats, from New England, ' Proportion ................ 100 192 156
The average yield per acre would have been soil essential to the bealthy growth of the vine
112 136 320cwt. and of the mulberry. the best arable land producing about 180 cwts. Now, while these experiments are very instruc
Calculated dry, the results vary a little, as tive, we could have wished that they had been may be seen by the following table :
somewhat differently conducted. Turf, for exTOPS.
ample, is an exceptional soil, and its peculiarities Solid Water Solid Water
militate against the experiments. How much so matter grammes. matter grammes. grammes.
will be seen when we take account of the quan462.36 1374 64 386.72 2133.45
tities of manure added to that wbich was already II. 716.22 2818.78
696.03 2365.07 III. 672.85 2197.15 1427.24 5773.76 in the soil. For example, the ammonia added Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
contained 1.5 grammes of nitrogen, which is less I. 25.17
84.66 II. 20.53
77.26 than 1-16th of the whole quantity originally in III. 23.45
the soil, while the potash was more than double As far as a single series of experiments can the amount in the unmanured turf. Such wide go, this would appear to indicate an inverse
disproportion in the relations of the different relation between the quantities of water in the manures to the quantities already on band, must tops and in the tubers, respectively; where the vitiate any reasoning upon the results. Furtherlatter were rich in solid matter, the former being more, the organic matter in the turf was conwatery, and vice versa. It would also appear
stantly supplying nitrogen, and we may rather that forcing the growth of the plant diminishes
suppose the increase of box Il, to be due to the the quantity of water in the taber, and that an
phospboric and sulphuric acids, which effected a moniacal manures are especially energetic in this
much greater percentage change in the soil than direction.
did the ammonia. The results are explained by Baron Liebig, as Again, thc same weight of tubers ought to due to unequal distribution of the elements of have been planted in cach box. The manner in plant-food. Thus the potash in the soil amount
wbich this may bave affected the yield, will be ed to 277 grammes, of which a full potato crop seen by a consideration of the proportionate could withdraw only about six grammes. The yield as compared with the sowing. Thus, while soil also contains twice as much phosphoric box III. produced nearly three times as much as acid, ten times as much lime, and about as much box I., it must be borne in mind that it was also magnesia as potash. Now potato tops are rich planted with nearly three times as much seed. in lime and magnesia, and poor in potash, while
By calculating the actual multiplication of the tubers abound in potash, and are poor in the al
| crop, we get very different results from those kaline earths.
given in the tables quoted above. Thus, rating Now, taking the tubers as 10, the tops in box in this way, we find that box I. produced, of 1. were 7.2, and in box II., 11, but considering
tubers, 333.6 fold, the weight planted ; box II., the increase, if the increased product of tubers in 305.5 fold; and box III., 331.9 fold. box II. were rated at 10, that of tops would be
Such irregularities as these prevent us from 31. Therefore, the use of phosphoric acid, and
reasoning closely on the actual increase from each salts of ammonia in manure, had brought into
manure. The experiment seems to us valuable, play, lime, magnesia, and potash, which had
chiefly in indicating the direction in which previously been inert, while the deficiency in
growth is promoted by the different agents empotash interfered with a development of tubers
ployed, and in this the results appear to us imcorresponding to that of tops.
portant. The difference is rendered still more In box No. III, the addition of potash stimu
striking if we consider the proportion between lated the growth of tubers, for, taking the tubers,
the solid matter in the tops and tubers, respec13 before, at 10, the relation between tubers and
tively, in the three boxes. Taking the dry mattops was :
ter of the tops at 100, we have the following reOn the whole produce......
sults: On the increase..................... 10 Still further, of the potatoes grown in the un
83.6 manured turf, every tuber was attacked by the
Box II. 100
97.2 Box III.
201.6 potato disease, whence the Baron infers that whatever promotes the natural development of Thus the proportion of dry matters, in tubers, the plant, wards off disease. He attributes the to that in tops, increased in both the mannred failure in the grape and silk crops of Italy, en- boxes, but very much more in thut treated with tirely to the exhaustion of the constituents of the 'the alkaline salts.
scope would both amuse and instruct them, and THE SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR FOR DECEMBER, 'en- I advise erery boy and girl who wishes to know larged to Forly-eight Pages, contains the follow the wonders which lie in little things to save his ing interestiag articles :-Farm Work for De money nntil he has $2.75," and send it to Geo. cember ; Agricultural Implements and Machine- | Meade, Racine, Wisconsin, and you will promptly ry; New Process for Dissolving Bones ; Chinese receive this beautiful new microscope by mail, Tea in North Carolina; Rice Culture; Possible postage paid. Number of pounds of Cotton to the Acre; The Dawn of Day in Southern Agriculture; No POUDRETTE-Eow TO PREPARE IT.--A corresProfit in Cultivating Poor Land; Guano; Paspondent at Greeneboro’, North Carolina, wants fures and Forage Crops ; Manures; Economical information on this subject. There is no book or Farming; Sea Island Cotton ; Gardening vs. publication that he can resort to. The practice Farming; The Garden ; Culture of Vegetables ; is, mainly, to haul the raw material to some spot Mexican Pea; The Flower Garden; The Orchard; where it may be spread and dried in the sun, and How to Plant a Tree; Grapes; Brinly Plows; to mix it with earth, ashes, or any refuse that Guinea Fowls; Food for Chickens; Curing Meat; will help to dry it, and make it fit to handle. It How to Cook and Make Sausages; The Dead makes most valuable manure, and should never Wife's Portrait, (Poetry,); Mrs. Buckster, Wil- be wasted where it is possible to put it in condilic's Journey to Heaven; besides Editorials, &c., tion for use. To make it portable, it is important &c. The 25th volume commences January, 1867. to use the least quantity of drying material that Now is the time to subscribe. Wm. N. White, will answer the purpose; but, if it is to be hauled Athens, Ga. $2.00 per annum.
| short distances only, it is of less consequence. Publishers wishing to club with the Southern Cultivator, are supplied with it at $1.50 per annum.
-The experiment of sowing oats in Febru
ary, made by our correspondent of Baltimore TøE SOUTHERN REVIEW.-A Quarterly tu be
county, is a striking and useful one. It is well called The Southern Review, will be regularly iso known that there is great advantage in the earsued in Baltimore from and after January 1, liest possible sowing of this crop consistent with 1867. The Review will be edited by Albert Tay- its safety, and which the preparation of the lor Bledsoe, L. L. D., one of the profoundest ground will allow. If further trials, on the sugthinkers, most vigorous writers, and ablest schol
gestions made, shall show similar results, a great
crestin ars of the South. As a lawyer, a mathematician, improvement may be made on our common praea linguist, and a man of letters, he is surpassed tice. It will greatly favour too the clover seed, by few in any country. The contributors to the if it can be sewn thus early on land prepared in Review are all gentlemen of high scientific and the fall. literary attainments.
How to SELECT Fowls.-In view of the fact A WONDERFUL MICROSCOPE.The editor of the that the holiday season is at land, when poultry New York Sunday School Advocate-Rev. Daniel is more frequently on our tables than at any Wise, D.D.-says:
other time during the year, an exchange submits "The simplicity, cheapness and great magni- the following rules for selecting good fowls : A fying power of the celebrated Craig Microscope young turkey has a smooth leg and soft bill, and struck me with surprise. Then I was examining if fresh the eyes will be bright and feet moist. a fly's eye by its aid, and was struck with won- Old turkeys have scaly, stiff feet. Young fowls der at the skill and power of the Creator which have a tender skin, smooth legs, and the breast is displayed in its structure. When I saw a bone yields readily to the pressure of the finger. statement in an advertisement that this micro- The best are those that have yellow legs. The scope magnified one hundred diameters, or ten feet and legs of the old fowl look as if they had thousand times, and could be bought for $2.50, seen hard service. Young ducks are tender unI thought it was one of the many humbugs of der the wing, and the web of the foot is transpathe hour, for I had paid $20 for a microscope not rent. The best are thick and hard on the breast. long before. But now I find it to be a really Young geese have yellow bills, and the feet are valuable instrument which I should like to see yellow and supple; the skin may be easily brointroduced into the families of our readers in ken by the head of a pin; the breast plump and place of the manifold useless toys which please the fat white. An old goose is unfit for the hufor an hour and then are destroyed. This micro-' man stomach.--Ex.
For the "American Fariner."
cotton or corn before planting. To make good The Study of Agricultural Facts.
cowpen and stable manure enough for twelve
hundred acres, and apply it before planting BY DR. DANIEL LEE.
every year, would be a formidable, not to say, In the December number of the American Far- an impracticable undertaking. The latter ope mer, Peruvian guano is quoted at $95* a ton;
ration he did not attempt, while the expense of while such appears to have been the demand for
annually manuring twelve hundred acres, so far this fertilizer that the market is bare of the ar
as the labor of distribution was concerned, was ticle. Common cow manure, formed by the con
comparatively small, and the profit large. sumption of wheat straw, rye or oat straw, is
When a man makes four hundred pounds of not worth more than a dollar a ton for agricul
clean cotton on an acre, and sells it, something Tural purposes. How many farmers or planters
ers | less than one pound and a half of nitrogen, have thoroughly studied the causes of this re
(which is.so valuable in guano,) leaves his planinarkable difference in the price and value of
tation. The bale of cotton contains also about these substances, both of which are largely used
a four pounds of incombustible salts. For the 43 plant food ? Mr. David Dickson, of Hancock
sake of round numbers, call the loss in both six county, Georgia, made a fortune by early mas
pounds. Let us assume that to each acre planted tering this problem in agriculture, and largely
in cotton he applies one hundred pounds of Pee utilizing the material facts which it discloses.
ruvian guano, and thirty-three and a third Why should the dung of sea-birds be worth
pounds each of potash, common salt and epsom from fifty to one hundred times more, pound for
salts, and that the surface soil gains as much by pound, than that of cattle? Both are animal
| moving water bringing fertilizers into it, as it excrements, both nourish agricultural plants.
loses by washing or leaching. In this case the Why then is the imported manure worth so much
acre receives two hundred pounds of agriculural more than the homemade? There are good rea
salts a year, and parts with six pounds, having sons for this difference, and every farmer ought
a clear gain of one hundred and ninety-four to understand them.
pondds per annom. A thousand acres of Mr. If the constituent elements of both were then;
Dickson's piney woods plantation, treated in this same in quantity, condition, and necessity to be
way ten years, would lose, on producing a bale applied to tilled land, any essential difference in
to the acre, of four hundred pounds on an arerprice would be absurd. On the contrary, if the
age, sixty thousand pounds of agricultural salts, cow manure is composed mainly of substances
and gain one million pounds of Peruvian guano, which rain water and atmospheric air can sup
and the like weight of potash, common salt and ply to growing crops, and has only a trifle of as
epsom salts. The excess of gain over the loss similable nitrogen and phosphorus, while Peru
would be one million nine hundred and forty vian guano has very little of those elements
thonsand pounds. which air and water furnish, but is rich in avail
With this enormous balance in favor of ferable nitrogen and phosphorus, (which are defi
tilizing atoms applied to the soil, should not Mr. cient in most soils,) we have only to prove the
Dickson's home plantation grow rich quite as
Director necessity of nitrogen and phosphorus to plant
fast as its owner? This plantation contained, growth, to explain in the clearest manner why
when I saw it, some nine thousand acres; and it the one manure is worth so much more than the
is pertinent to inquire whether a man, who buys other. All reading farmers are so well satisfied
ten thousand dollars' worth of highly concenils to the necessity of assimilable nitrogen and
trated manure a year, may not so use it as to draw phosphorus in the healthy organization of plants
fertilizing elements from what were before inilud their seeds, that no space will be occupied in
soluble silicates, phosphates, sulphates and chlorthe Farmer in discussing that point. It is vast
ides in the ground, as well as carbon, nitric ly more important to learn, if we can, how to
acid and ammonia from the atmosphere? Is it concentrate homemade manure, and give to a
not a part of the great and perfect economy of ton of it the same agricultural power and value
nature that manure, as well as the seeds of plants which exist in the best Peruvian gunno. Mr.
and all animals, shall be reproductive of more Dickson purchased annually ten thousand dol
food for plants? If so, is not this reproductive lars' worth of this and other highly concentra
function a matter of the highest importance to ted manures, mainly because with them twelve
all tillers of the earth, who need plant food as hundred acres of land were readily fertilized for
much as bread? *This was an oversight, and the price should have been
A little phosphate of potash, extracted from a quoted $86 per ton.
granite rock, by a few cells of noss growing on