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For the American " Farmer."
therefore much exposed to the sun's rays. Put on these a layer of moss, to prevent excessive evaporations, which will save labor in watering
Employers and Employed. and be of much benefit to the plants.
We liave said in the June number of the FarSpecinien Fuchsias in pots should be attended mer that the labor question was an engrossing to daily, as inattention to watering will cause one, and that much depended upon a systematic the foliage to drop and render the plants very un arrangement of help, &c. We would now sugsightly.
gest rules for the efficient management of such Many choice plants will soon be perfecting gardens us require much manual labor-the first their seed, and whatever is required for future of which is, let the help provided for the garden use must be secured in time. It is safest to col- be kept to that work. We do not mean to be lect the seed before it is dead ripe, as in many understood that such help should not be taken cases the seed vessel opens and the seed is lost. from that department in cases of emergency, Cut off the heads with a portion of the stem at such as at haying and harvest time; we mean tached, and spread them on paper, under cover,
that the help should not be taken from the garfor a day or two to dry, and then expose them den for everything which may be wanting about in the full sun to harden. To prevent mistakes, the estate, when it frequently happens that a label all seeds when gathered, and of all hardy boy at $6 per month can accomplish as much, withherbaceous plants sow a portion at once. in a given time, as a man at $20; and whatever out
Geraniums---We have now many varieties of side work there is to do, the overseer should have a this useful and beautiful bedding plant which clear understanding of it, so as to enable him to should now he propagated for next year, using regulate his work accordingly. Without such an cuttings of only two or three joints in length, understanding, he can never depend upon his help, planted in a partially shaded border. By being and it becomes absolutely impossible that there planted and rooted early, there is time for the can be mutual satisfaction between employers and plants to make good ripe wood before winter, employed. We can fancy a man with some ten which will flower beautifully in May instead of or more hands, when in the early spring and having to wait until July for flowers. Go over summer months he finds that he has rarely more all the flower beds frequently and keep all the than three and frequently not more than one, plants nicely regulated and pegged down until himself willing to get forward, will toil from the surface is fairly covered; after which, more early 10 late for a time; but will he continue freedom of growth may be permitted.
to do so? Can it be expected he should ? If
worth anything he will not In the second The Cattle Plague in Holland.
place we would suggest that employers interfere
as little as possible with the assistants of the The Dutch Minister of Internal Affairs has presented his second report on the cattle plague bas appointed for them to do. We have always
overseer, such as taking them from the work he to the King. It appears from it that since June, found that such divided command upon an estate 1865, when the plague first appeared in Holland, 90,469 head of cattle have been attacked
will soon destroy alike discipline and responsiby it. Of these 39,595 died, 17,460 were killed, bility. We would not have it understood that 32,080 recovered, 1,403 remaining under treat
we question the right of the employer to employ ment on December 3d, the date of the report.
as he pleases the help on his property; but we The total of the losses accordingly amounts to
question the propriety for his own interest, unless
he is his own manager. To the great advantage 55 1-5 per cent of those seized. Nearly twothirds of the whole perished in the province of of many in this country, there are many ladies
and gentlemen who manifest a great and growSouth Holland, nearly one-third in Utrecht, and
ing interest upon matters pertaining to horticulthe small remainder in North Holland. No small aggravation of the calamity is at
ture, floriculture, &c., and enter upon it with tributed to the deplorable state of the veterinary great zest, taking great pleasure either in doing profession in Holland, where anybody can set up liable man of their own choice. This is as it
the work themselves, or having it done by a rein this line on paying five florins for a patent. In Bregenz, one Berliman, a dealer, who, by but we maintain if the machinery of management
should be, and deserves great commendation; his carelessness in importing infected cattle, caused the murrain to spread from Tyrol to Vo- is to go right, there should be an efficient man
appointed as the head, next to the proprietor, rarlsberg and Switzerland, has just been sentenced to six months in prisonment, and a fine to whom it should be understood that every other of eight hundred florins.
man upon the estate should be subject; and when
For the "American Farmer."
ever any help is required the overseer should be tested. I think it will require more than one applied to for it, instead of others exercising the year. The negro is dissatisfied now.
He canright of taking help indiscriminately from the not understand why he is poor, and much less work assigned them. In what we have said comfortable than he was eight years ago. Two upon this subject, we have been studying the years of freedom has not made him rich and employers' interest, and we make bold to say from comfortable, (as was his calculation,) so be is practical experience, if these rules are clearly dissatisfied, and is for shifting his quarters as acted upon and carried out, that there will be often as possible. much more satisfaction between employer and Large, well organized establishments, will conemployed and much fewer short servitudes—one | trol the labor, (if anything can.) An establishgreat bane to improvement in horticulture in this ment well managed, with a church, school, store, country.
DANIEL BARKER. and other things necessary for the comfort and
convenience of the negro, “would become a blessing to our country." There is not capital
enough at the South to “try the experiment," Large Farms and Associated Capital. as the Southern people know would he most Messrs. Editors : In the May number of the likely to succeed.
DISTRICT No. 2. Farmer just at hand, I have read, with much in N. B.–Our prospect for cropping is not satisterest, Mr. L. A. Hansen's article under the above factorily. The freedmen are disposed to put heading. My February number of the Farmer down the shovel and the hoe, and take up politics. having miscarried, I did not see the suggestions of H. H. Mr. Hansen concluded his article thus,
For the "American Farmer." " My hearty wish is that the experiment may be tried. If it should succeed, it certainly would
Serradella (Ornithopus sativus.) become a blessing to our country." I here en MESSRS. Editors : For the last six or seven dorse Mr. Hansen's views fully; and I can assure years this plart has been extensively cultivated him that the "principal obstacles" can be easily in Europe. The Serradella is a native of North and satisfactorily overcome, that is, “ to find able Africa, Spain and Portugal. These countries and honest superintendents.” There are many of being most surrounded by water, shows that it our able, honest, intelligent, practical and scien-thrives best in a moist atmosphere. The pecutific planters, here at the South, who have had liar merits of this plant are, that it grows most the experience of twenty to thirty years of suc- luxuriantly on poor and light sandy soil. Stiff cessful management of thousands of acres, with clay and wet soil is objectionable. It combines many hundreds of laborers. These gentlemen | the merits of clover, esparzetti, luzerne, and, in may be employed as superintendents. There are fact, of all good grasses we cultivate. Its hay overseers too who are every way capable, and are is preferred by all kind of stock to clover, and accustomed to manage under the direction of chemically analyzed, shows to contain a greater these gentlemen superintendents. We have every amount of nutritious matters. For turning unrequisite at the South for trying the “experi- der as manure, it also exceeds the clover, leaving ment,'' except tbe capital.
more roots in the ground, and growing more The advantage of a large orer a small rice luxuriantly above ground. The proper time to plantation is very decided. A plantation of two sow it is in wheat or rye. As the seeds require thousand acres would require no more than one a considerable amount of moisture to germinate, first class steam thrasher, costing about fifteen it must be sown on the fresh furrow. If it is thousand dollars. Each of ten plantations of two desirable to sow it by itself, it must be done as hundred acres, must have a steam thrasher, at a early as possible in the spring. Deep ploughing cost of eight or ten thousand dollars. One steam is necessary. As much moisture is required for dredging machine for cleaning canals and ditches, the seeds to germinate many seeds do not sprout, may be used to great advantage on the large and consequently it must be sown thick, say 24 plantation. The small plantation cannot afford to 30 pounds per acre. In the course of eight or to own and work one of these machines. The ten days, if the season is not too dry, the young same with regard to many labor-saving machines plants will appear. For a long time they remain which must be used to make free labor pay in nearly stationery, but, after the first blossoms apthe cultivation of rice as well as cotton. The pear, their growth is most astonishing. During negro, too, prefers working in large gangs. He this period the plant draws a vast amount of moisknows and feels the advantage. “The experi-ture from the atmosphere, even on hot days the ment" of free labor has not been satisfactorily' dewdrops may be seen on the leaves at mid day.
When the plant has reached this state, dry sea
The Currant. sons will rarely effect it. Its growth is so rapid that it will destroy all weeds, and leave the
Of all the small fruits that grow in the temsoil perfectly clean. As the seed is very apt to perate latitudes, the currant is the most reliable fall out, great care has to be taken in barvesting, and costs the least labor, and for this very reaAs soon as the first pods turn brown, about the son it seems to be the least appreciated. The first of August, it has to be mown in the morn
various forms in which the currant may be used, ing and at night, or after a rain. Leave it for its agreeable flavor and healthful qualities, en12 to 24 hours-rake it together; also, when the title it to higher consideration that it generally dew is on it, make into small cocks, and let it receives, and should induce its more universal cure like hay. Before hauling turn the cocks cultivation. In the first place, being adapted to gently. In bauling use a wagon with close bot use when green, it is one of the earliest fruits tom. The object is to stir it as little as possi- available. By the time it is half grown, if stewed ble. It is easy thrashed with fails, and easy in a swimming supply of water and sweetened cleaned. If Serradella is sown with grain, it to the taste, its mild, fresh tart, forms a refreshwill produce a ton or more of hay after the graining relish upon the breakfast or tea table, and is is cut. Serradella is not only the best feed for to the taste, what the first notes of the early stock, but also the very plant to enrich poor spring birds are to the ear—a prophecy of good soil.
things to come. Strawberries are delicious, and If our farmers should show any interest in this red English raspberries are luscious, and the full new and very valuable plant, I will, if required, ripe currants, served up raw, with sugar well in some future time, give a full description of its moistened with water, stepping in just when culture, &c.
L. A. HANSEN. these step out, are scarcely less grateful to the CLIFTON, Fairfax Co., VA., May, 1867.
palate; and with a little care in leaving the later
bunches, the luxury may be continued from foue We hope Mr. H. will give us further informa- to six weeks. And except in cases of organic tion, and put us in the way of obtaining seed for disease of the stomach and bowels—when the trial.-Ed.
seeds must be avoided-they are a most healthful fruit, the acid having the effect to counteract
bilious and malarious tendencies, and the exAgricultural Schools.
pressed juice, properly prepared, makes a barm
less and refresbing beverage in most cases of Every farm and workshop onght to be a school
sickness. where our sons and others can be taught to
There is said to be great difference in different guide the plough and swing the scythe, and han- | kinds of currants, in respect to yield and quality. dle every tool in the most appropriate manner Undoubtedly there is some difference in varieties. known to those skilled in their use. In the one, The white and black currant does not seem to should be taught the nature of soils, the quali- yield as well as the red, and some reds seem, at ties and uses of manures, and all the minutiæ of least, to produce better than others. But much the cultivator's art; in the other, the laws which of this difference in the red currant, we appregovern mechanics should be studied, and the pu- bend, is owing to cultivation. Ground cannot pil should be instructed in all the mysteries of be too rich for the fruit, nor kept too clean. The the mechanic arts. Thus, in both should be mode of propagating is well understood by most taught all the various learning which goes to people. A hill of old currant bushes taken up, complete the farmers and mechanics' education may be divided into a half dozen to a dozen setfor the practical duties of their calling.
tiðgs, which will producc fruit a year or two But their education should not be on the farm earlier than cuttings. But when these cannot be or in the workshop alone. The district schools obtained, cuttings of last year's sprouts—which should not be neglected. These are pre-eminently from old hills should be mostly removed-cut the farmers' and mechanics' colleges. They any time before the buds start, and set 'early in ought to be improved, and made to become such good mellow, rich ground, will take root. The schools as are now but too uncommon, wbere lower end of the cutting should be cut square our youth may obtain not only a good business with a sharp knife. The top should be cut back education, but one that will fit them for all of to a good stray bud. Dig and set the shootthe duties which grow out of the relations they not force it into the ground. The latter process sustain to each other, their country, and their is liable to tear the bark from the end and preGod.-W. B. Downer's Address.
vent its taking root. Wisconsin Farmer.
Selecting and Keeping Seeds. to any other influence. When the drill came The practice of selecting seed having in view
into use, intelligent farmers testified that fifty the preservation and improvement of its quality, pounds put in contact with the seed, through the and that which tends to the same result, the in
tubes of the drill, were equivalent to iwo hun
dred sown broadcast: and less than half this crease of the fructification by the process of steep- quantity was said to give an equal apparent iming, are both very commonly considered new ideas; and the latter especially so uew as to bave provement, in some cases, where the grain was
brined first and dusted with as much gua no as its value not yet determined. The selection of
would adhere to it. seeds was considered by Virgil as essential to
Dr. David Stewart, well known as an agriculprevent rapid degeneration, and their prepara.
tural chemist, and who has given a great deal of tion for sowing by steeping was familiar:
experimental investigation to questions of this "I have seen, indeed, many sowers prepare sort, says, in an article published some years ago their seeds artificiully, steeping them first in salt- in the American Farmer : “Any soil properly petre and the black lees of oil, that their produce constituted with regard to consistence, and in may be larger in the deceptious pods. And organic elements, will produce double the crop though, to lasten their growth, they were steeped with good cultivation, if we insure a prompt and over a slow fire, after long selection, and proved vigorous growth of the young plant." by much care, yet I have seen them degenerate,
"The most important influence,'' he says, furunless human industry culled them out with the ther, "exerted by concentrated manures, appears hand, the largest every year. Thus all things to be their tendency to develop more promptly naturally basten to decay, and yliding away are
and perfectly the germs of the cereals. how it insensibly driven backward ; not unlike him who, is possible that the embryo should anticipate its rowing his skiff with much ado aguinst the cur
future wants, and recognize the supply, we canrent, by chance slackens his arms, when the tide
not divine; but it appears pretty well established hurries him headlong down the stream.''
that seeds may be dormant for years, until a cerSuch is the testimony given near 2,000 years tain excess of the elements necessary to their full ago to the tendency to degeneracy of cultivated development aceumulates around them, and thus, crops, and, strange to say, the lesson it teaches
or hy peculiar cultivation, they obtain the asis not yet well learned. It is only what we call cendency over other plants. especially enlightened cultivators who see the "Multiplied experiments hare proved that a necessity of such selection, and practice upon it. tithe of this quantity, placed near the seed, will Some have practiced it with most valuable re- produce the same effect, although two-thirds of sults, not iu maintaining only the quality of the manure are composed of volatile elements seeds, but in originating valuable new varieties. which do not contain one-fifth of their weight of There is indeed scarcely one of our ordinary nitrogen; and what is still more remarkable, the crops which have not, within a few years, felt nitrogenous or ammoniacal manures, not only the effect of judicious selection.
add more than ten times their weight of nitroBut few cultivators, comparatively, recognize gen to the plants, but those grains that contain the value of a due preparation of seeds by steep- the most nitrogen are least benefitted by nitroing in fertilizing substances. There seems to be genous manures. Have we derived no hints on on record hardly enough of reliable testimony to this subject from the poor Iudian, who to this justify a dependence upon any particular mode day presses out a few drops of blood from his or any particular substance, in thus fertilizing slaughtered toe upon his hills of maize? Blood our seeds, but quite enough to call for and to is a highly azotised substance, exceedingly liable justify the most painstaking experiments to de to change, and during the state of activity or termine how or with what the different seeds may change it is apt to set up fermentation in grains be prepared to give them that impulse in their of corn, and those metamorphoses which precede earliest growth which seems to influence all their and accompany germination.”'
We know how especially neces A number of carefully made experiments are sary to our great staple, wheat, is such an early also found recorded in the American Farmer, as impulse, that, under our practice of late fall sow made by Hon. T. G. Clemson, Commissioner of ing, it may be so rooted in the fall as to enable Agriculture under President Buchanan, on his it in spring to bear its burden of seed. It may place near Washington. be đoubted whether the marvellous effect of a "The practice of preparing seed," he remarks, mere dusting of Peruvian guano were not due “is by no means new. The Egyptians and other rather to this effect upon its earliest growth than nations practiced the art, and I have reason for
believing that it made a necessary part of their hours in the drainings of the manure heap, or system of husbandry. After multiplied obser- soaking in strong brine and drying in powdered vations and varied experiments, I have come Peruvian guano, or some similar treatment, may to the conclusion that a proper preparation in- be tried without loss, even if it fail entirely of creases, vastiy, production. I also believe that anything but the labor. In these times of necesthe same cause renders the plant less liable to the sary economy, it will be very satisfactory to find casualties of disease and the destructive action that we can indeed cause great increase of crop of insects, and in small grain, on which I have at the very small cost indicated. chiefly experimented, increases the quantity and quality of the grain, as well as adding greatly to the size, healthiness and amount of straw.
Resources of California. *These observations have been repeatedly corroborated by those who have had occasion and
Dr. Holden, President of the San Joaquin have taken sufficient interest in the matter, to
Valley Agricultural Society, in his late address compare and examine into the subject.
before that body at the opening of their Fair at "As the experiments were instituted for my
Stockton, thus sums up the resources of Califorown personal satisfaction, I have not found it
nia. He is a practical agriculturist and reprenecessary to be exact as to measurement of ground sentative man of the bone and sinew of the
land : and product, varied plantings, side by side, afforded the means of comparison for my purposes.
“The State extends from latitude 32 deg. 20 At the instance of a friend, I carefully measured min north, to latitude 42 deg. north, is 570 miles the ground planted last year in rye and wheat. long, and has an average width of 230. It emNo manure of any kind was used.
braces 89,685,515 acres adapted to agricultural "The ground seeded amounted to nine and purposes, 29,000,000 acres swamp or tule land, a-half acres-seven and a-half in rye and two in
thousands of acres of which are being reclaimed, wheat. The top of the hill, which I thought the and much of it producing unparalleled crops of poorest, was sowed with rye, the seed having vegetables, grass and fruits. The area of the been previously prepared; through the entire valley is 30,000,000 acres, making, with the length and in the centre a strip of about two mountain land, a total of 70,000,000 acres suitlands was sowed with the same seed in its nor- able for agricultural and grazing purposes. Of mal state. The ground sowed with prepared
this there is under fence over 6,000,000 acres, of seed measured three acres. There was a mani- which 178,960 acres, in 1860, produced 3,068,693 fest difference in the size of the heads, straw and bushels of wheat; 154,690 acres produced grain, between the prepared and unprepared. - 6,939,678 bushels of barley ; 37,620 acres proThe crop from the prepared seed was even, tall duced 1,563,459 bushels of oats. and heavy; the heads long and bending over. near as can be ascertained up to this date, four That from the unprepared was uneven, much of times the above amount of cereals bave been
raised. it small and not worth cutting.
"The three acres from the prepared seed yielded Fruit trees and grape vines, in 1860, numbered thirty-six bushels. The six and a-half acres from 6,000,000. These have quadrupled up to this unprepared seed yielded rye thirty-three, and
time. Stock of all kinds in 1860 numbered wheat nine bushels—forty-two bushels."
1,576,990. Horses 577,000, cattle 922,374, sheep There seems to be no reason at all to doubt the 491,794, goats 12, 743, swine 165,921, mules accuracy and care and intelligence which at- 47,000, poultry over 80,000.
At the present tended these experiments, or the remarkable re
time there are over 2,000,000 sheep, and in no sults. What we should learn from them, and part of the world do they do better or can be from all that bas been said upon the subject, from raised at less cost. The French and Spanish the antiquity of the practice of preparing seed, merinos, the Southdown, the Cotswold and other and the confidence with which it is spoken of as varieties have been imported from the Atlantic an old usage, and by those whose attention has States, France, Spain and Australia, and prosper been more recently directed to it, is that it is a here as well as in their native countries. Wool matter well worthy of scientific investigation, is fast becoming an important article of export, and the most careful and varied experiment.- over 7,000,000 pounds having been shipped last And in our practice, in the meantime, no one for year.” want of faith should fail to give his seeds of every Certainly agriculture and manufactures should description such fertilizing treatment as is here be made the leading interest of the State; the suggested. A soaking of twelve or eighteen mines may run out, the soil never can.
This year, as