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it, and the fertilizing gases mixed with it are atIt is not our purpose, in these papers, to at- sorbed by the soil and retained for plant food. tempt to explain the mysteries of planting, or Another fact, which erery observing farmer to advocate any particular theory of vegetable bas noticed, may be noted in this connection. growth. We propose merely to state the facts The good effect of a shower depends much on that fall within the range of common observa- the time of its falling, and the subsequent costion, and to trace the connection of these with dition of the air. If a shower falls early in the their obvious causes.
morning, and is immediately succeeded by a bot The subject of ammonia, and its influence on sunshine, farmers say that the crop gets but little the growth of plants, which we introduced in good from it. But if the shower comes in the the last number, is, when properly understood, evening, then plants will be greatly benefitted by a key to unlock many mysteries that surround it. Now the reason of this is obvious. The the observing farmer. Remembering that am- ammonia brought down by the morning shower monia furnishes plants with all the nitrogen they has hardly time to reach the roots of plants, be contain, and that animal—every tissue of whose fore the heat of the sun sends it back again iato bodies (excepting the fat) contains nitrogen-de the air; but the evening shower carries its ferrive it all, through the vegetable, from ammonia, tilizing gases to the roots of plants, and they and that these organized structures, both animal quietly feast on it all night long, and the reand vegetable, when they decay, return their ni-mainder of the plant food thus furnished has, by trogen to the air, in combination with hydrogen, the time the sun warms the earth on the followin the form of ammonia; and when we further ing day, been carried downward, in the well more bear in mind the very light and volatile pulverized soil, so far that it is but little effected character of this gas, and its high solubility in by the sun's heat. cold water, and the readiness with which it is The careful farmer who understands the science liberated again when the water is warmed but a of his business, will not only prepare the soil so little, we shall be able to solve many problems as to give it the highest capacity for absorbing which have often presented themselves to the ob- ammonia and carbonic acid from the air, bat he serving farmer. You have all observed how will furnish these indispensable articles of plast much more vigorously plants grow after a show- food for the use of his growing crops, from every er of rain, than after artificial watering, however available source. A very effectual method of well it may have been done. This is especially doing this is the plowing in of green crops. observable if the shower has been preceded by Growing vegetables contain a larger proportion a drought of some weeks. You need have no of the nitrogenized elements, than is found in difficulty in explaining this. From the decay of them after they have fully matured and ripened. organic bodies the ammonia bas accumulated in These, when plowed under in the greer state, the air-the water, descending through the atmos are rapidly converted into carbonic acid, water phere, washes out the ammonia and carries it to and ammonia, and these being disengaged under the roots of the thirsty plants, which drink it up the earth, are absorbed by the soil, and held subgreedily, supplying at once two of the important ject to the demands of the subsequent crop.elements of plant geowth-water and ammonia; The farmer, whose stubble field, last fall, was while in artificial watering we supply only one covered with a heavy crop of ragweed, which be of these. If, however, the soil is deficient in ve suffered to ripen and stand exposed to the storms getable matter, the lack of carbon will soon be of the winter and spring, has but a faint idea of seen in the rapid loss of ammonia when the sur- how much his corn crop of this summer will lose face is exposed to a warm sunshine. Or if but a by his neglecting to turn his ragweed under few inches of the surface soil has been pulverized, while it was in bloom. the heat of a summer's day will certainly drive Clover is the crop commonly used for turning back into the air all the ammonia that yesterday's under, and, if plowed in when in the vigor of shower brought down to the earth. Deep culti- its growth, is probably the best; but almost any vation holds the ammonia at a depth below the thick coat of growing vegetation will serve a heating influence of the sun's rays. This is by good purpose, if deeply turned under. There is no means the least important advantage of deep an inconvenience, or perhaps two of them, attillage and thorough pulverization of the soil; tending the use of clover as a green dressing for nor is it only the ammonia and carbonic acid fallows. If we turn under the first crop, it will brought down by the showers that a soil properly require to be done about the middle of June tilled will appropriate. A porous, finely pulver- a time when the corn crop demands all the force ized soil admits the air to circulate freely through I usually available on the farm. If the second
crop be used, it furnishes less green material than long, and then pinch them, and on the fruitthe first, and is dryer, harder, and decomposes bearing vine pinch the lateral as soon as the third more slowly, and furnishes proportionably less bunch of fruit has set and a leaf opened ; then ammonia to the soil.
rub off the first bunch of fruit, and leave the seIf the farmer, however, manages to spare the cond and third to mature; this work, I think, is labor from the corn field to plow in the June the most important, (with the exception of gathcrop of clover, his naked field must be exposed ering the fruit when it is ripe, and killing the to the direct rays of the sun, without any pro- birds that rob the vines) of any the vintner has tection during the long, hot months of summer. to do, for a very few days neglect will often blast The damage from this exposure will nearly offset a large proportion of his crop. the advantages of the green dressing.
Prune with thumb and finger; never use a From this cause, a fall erop, if it be but weeds, knife in summer pruning. We should direct the should always be preferred for plowing in, growth, not cut it away.''- Country Gent. whether the ground is to be sowed in wheat or planted in corn the next spring.
Management of Grapevines. In plowing in green crops, care should be ta I would here remind those who are growing ken to have the vegetable matter well covered. grapes, that this is the proper season to lay down Indeed the crop should be turned under so deep long branches for producing future plants, as has that if tbe corn be raised on it the following been so often recommended in this paper. I year, the vegetable matter will not be disturbed raised a number of these last season, and was by the cultivator.-R. T. Brown in Northwestern surprised at the vigor of the plants thus grown, Farmer.
and the close mat of fibrous roots. Without any
desire to spoil trade, I must say that you seldom Vineyard Management. get such plants out of a nursery as you can raise The Missouri Democrat contains a report of the yourself. Pin a long branch down into a shallate annual meeting of the Missouri Horticultural | low trench, and when all the buds have made a Society. A large portion of the discussions was growth of several inches, gradually fill the occupied with the grape and its culture, and trench up with earth, checking, by pinching, any among the letters read we extract the following disposition of some shoots to outgrow the others. from that of J. M. Jordan, of St. Louis, who I agree with B. F. J., in thinking that we imiplanted a vineyard of five hundred Concord tate European practice too closely in cultivating vines, in the spring of 1864. He remarks: the grape. Especially do we plant too near, and
“In the spring of 1866 I put up a trellis of oak thin and prune altogether too much. We don't stakes, 84 feet long, 14 feet in the ground; make allowance enough for the difference in clislanted the top to the north 3 feet; put in one mate. Here we must have shade and a plenty of stake to every two vines; put four lines of wire foliage to maintain a healthy equilibrium with on the top side, lower line 2 feet from the bot- the root; there it may uot be of so much importtom, the other 20 inches apart; fastened the wire ance. I always leave three times as much wood to the stakes with a No. 8 wrought nail, driven as the books direct, and if the crop of fruit is too into the stake and bent over the wire. From heavy, thin it out. Twenty years ago we could these 500 Concords I cut 11,000 pounds—an easily grow grapes by planting at the foot of average of 22 pounds to the vine. This season, large trees, and allowing the vines to run ail from one vine, I cut 96 bunches; they weighed over them. A friend grew great quantities of 23 pounds; from another 65 bunches, weighing Catawbas and Isabellas in this way, and yearly 301 pounds. I pinch the fruit bearing laterals as got at least two barrels to the vine of what I soon as I can after the third bunch of fruit has then thought was the finest and choicest fruit I shown itself.
These vines are long since dead, win. My present opinion, subject to correction, by ter-killed. Now we are obliged to cover our farther experience, is success with the Concord plants every winter with earth, even as far south depends on good healthy vines, planted about 8 as St. Louis, and are lucky if we get seven or inches, in well plowed ground. Plow at least eight pounds of fruit where we once got fully 12 inches, and the deeper the better. Clean cul- one hundred pounds with much greater ease. ture, never growing any other crop in the vine. Even with these drawbacks, growing the grape yard, not so much as a crop of weeds. Always is the most profitable branch of agriculture that grow enough good, well ripened wood for the we have, and for more than a hundred miles on next year's fruiting, and no more. Leave the lat- the Mississippi river banks, it is the most certain erals to grow on the new canes, about 1 foot crop that is raised.-B. T., Country Gent.
Courage and Confidence-J. W. Manning's in land, who is about to revive the WinnisimNursery.
met nursery in Chelsea, which was established by In every department of life, and in every in bis father. dustrial pursuit, there are always plenty of Little Mr. Manning has built up, in within the last Faiths, while the Great Hearts are about as sel-twelve years, quite an extensive business at Readdom met with as they are in Pilgrim's Progress. ing. We are particularly pleased with a late Among fruit growers the tenants of Doubting addition to his grounds of some ten or twelse Castle have been greatly increased of late, by acres, consisting of almost every variety of soil, such Lions in the Way, as canker worms, curcu from a deep muck to a light sand, on which he lios, borers and certain indefinable and mysteri was at work at the time of our visit. This had ous, but potent adverse atmospheric influences.'' the fresh appearance of "new land ;' most of 11 Against the ravages of wild beasts and insects— having been recently cleared of trees, bushes. against anything, in fact, that can be seen or rocks, and water, at a large expenditure for felt, anything that has flesh and blood-men had chopping, blasting, ditching; plowing, subsoiling courage to contend long and bravely; but now and trenching. Here and on other portions of that the “Prince of the powers of the air” is the grounds, the display of the triin bodies and pitted against the cultivators of fruit; now that graceful branches of some four thousand maples. blight bas chartered the thunder clond that from six to sixteen feet highi, the “spruce” appasses over the tree in blossom ; now that sun pearance of some two hundred thousand evershine and the soil are channels of discase and greens, with elins, apples, pears, and other fruit death, brave indeed must he be whose faith is trees in corresponding profusion, arranged with unshaken and whose heart quails not. And yet all the military precision of a dress parade, with there are such men,-men who, in the face of all uncounted grape vines, currant bushes, &c.. tl:ese discouragements, believe that fruit may be richly repaid us for the pleasant spring morning still raised in New England! We catch a glimpse spent in this nursery. The standard apple, pear, of such an individual in another article in this cherry, and even peach trees, appeared to be reweek's Farmer. We allude to J. A. Harwood, markable thrifty and healthy, the cherry and Esq., of Littleton, on whose farm there are large peach being in full blossom. Mr. Manniug has apple and peach orchards, and who thinks there no faith in the theory of the degeneracy of fruit are as good inducements now as ever for en trees, in the omnipotence of insects, nor in any gaging in the cultivation of fruit. In our paper permanent unfavorable change in the seasons, of the week before, Mr. Comings, of New but believes that those who plant trees and take Hampshire, expresses the opinion that the care of proper care of them, will have no occasion to trees will pay if the care of lambs and pigs will; complain of want of success.- New England and Elder Frederick, a New York Shaker, tells Farmer. brother flepworth, “tbee sees we love our garden,'' and intimates that his trees both know and
Roanoke Tobacco Company. love him. A week or two ago, the Boston Cul Above Danville, in Virginia, toward the head. tivator told us of Capt. Geo. Pierce, of Arlington, waters of the Dan river, are the celebrated gres (late West Cambridge,) who, in the midst of lands, which produce the famous high flarored legions of canker worms, and all the other ills tobacco, now monopolized and manufactured by that trees are heir to in the older portions of the this company; a small lot of this tobacco, of two country, sold last year $1198.07 worth of apples, qualisies, the “Maryland Club” and the “* Prince and $532.25 worth of pears and squashes, from of Wales," were forwarded to this office some three acres of what was once called “Poverty time since, by Col. George P. Kane, the SuperPoint.'
intendent of the Company. We have smoked If these are brave men, is not he a braver man the Turkish tobacco, even the famed Latakia, still who goes into the nursery business in these sent by the Sublime Porte as a unique and comtimes ? This question brings us back to the place plimentary present to all foreign diplomatie of beginnir.g—Mr. J. W. Manning's nursery, agents within the Turkish Empire. The “Lone Reading, Mass., which we recently visited. Jack” and “Here's Your Mule," hare cheered
Mr. Manning is a practical nursery man. He us on many a lonely bivouac, but we must say was an apprentice and student to the late S. W. that the tobacco from the grey lands of the upper Cole, author of the Fruit Book, and first editor Dan, manufactured by the Danville Company, is of the monthly New England Farmer. In this supplies of this tobacco can apply to the selling
the best we have ever smoked. Dealers wishing connection we may remark that we had the and purchasing agency of Bruce, Millard & Skinpleasure of meeting here one of his sons, spadel ner, 37 Park Row.
| taken, my own observations included, the folThere was a promise passed I know, to impart lowing points which I believe to be facts. to the public through the medium of the " Jour The Galloway cow, though affording a smaller nal," at an early day, something which some quality of milk per day when fresh, than any of one happened to know of the qualities and char- the English or American dairy breeds or grades, acteristics of the pretty little provincial cows of by maintaining a maximum flow throughout the Britany. But just at this time I have no means season, and milking from three to five weeks of determing whether that promise was made by longer than the average with other breeds, the Yours Respectfully, in person, or some one of amount of milk in the aggregate will equal that three or four personal friends. N, importe- of any of the ordinary breeds of cows. The hold myself responsible for the ful6lment of the amount of butter per cow per week, calculating obligation, and would cancel it now, but for the all together from the dairy herd of thirty or more interposition between my pen, the publisher and animals, down to single cows kept by gardeners, the public beyond, of a bovine of another charac- mechanics, &c., and counting eight months as the ter so well worthy of favorable public opinion that season, the average will be very nearly eight for this time Britany must go to the wall, while pounds. Though in many instances Galloways the North Britian walks up for preseutation to kept on “short commons," or rather keeping our American stock breeders, dairymen and far- themselves as best they can on commous, or iners generally.
“ browsing" out their board abroad in woods An eminent English berdsman, whose anthor- i and swamps, will average nine pounds of best ity is unquestionable, thus writes of the Scottish quality butter per week through the entire seaGalloways: “Small, harmless, hornless, docile Have we many cows among us of any and hardy animals--color dark brown or black, breed or grade that under like conditions will do flesh of fine grain and quality-milk moderate as well? in quantity, but excessively rich-almost cream About two-thirds the bulk of feed required to as it flows from the udder, the milking period be- keep a cow of any of our ordinary dairy breeds ing considerable longer than with any of our fa- in medium milking condition during the feeding vorite Southern breeds. Inability to endure portion of the year in the Middle and Northern severe winter weather unsheltered, the Galloways States, will carry a Galloway through a cold have no equals, and in capacity for maintaining Canadian winter a month longer than ours, a supply of milk and themselves in good heart maintaining a maximum flow of milk, and the condition, they are excelled only by the Irish animal in first class condition. It is the popular kerries.''
opinion, both in Scotland and British America, Though my own practical experience with the that provided with a well littered yard, and orGalloways has not been a tithe of that of the dinary open shed, fronting the south, the Gallogentlemen quoted, I have seen a great many of way cow will do better than she will cribbed, them-milked with my own hands more than a confined and cooped up in a close stable. I hundred different cows of the breed, never in a have seen them cropping out a comfortable subsingle instance, so far as I can now remember, sistance from resources where the most enterprizmeeting with one who moved head or heels with ing Alderney, Devon, Hereford or Short Horn vicious intent during the process of milking, so that ever went afield would perish with famine. that my own conclusions in that direction are And many a time have I seen the black, Scottis'ı that I was either singularly fortunate in the se "buffaloes" wading and wallowing through CaIcction of animals to experiment upon, or else the nadian drifts, braving Artic blasts and blinding Galloways are the most docile, well behaved snow storms, with the mercury down to nothmilkers that milk man or maid ever put a pailing, seemingly as insensible to cold as a Russian under.
sable. In Canada, and throughout the British posses The Galloway cattle are less liable to any of sions in North America, the number of Scottish the ordinary diseases incident to bovine existGalloways kept for dairy and ordinary milking ence than any other breed of stock, if we except purposes, probably exceeds at the present time the wild cattle of the South American plains and that of all other breeds counted together, and pampas, and being excellent breeders,. kind in having made diligent and close inquiries respect disposition, amiable in habits, cheaply maintained ing them, from many parties best qualified to and so easily obtained from our Canadian neighafford correct information-during a recent ex
bors, it seems to me that an early experiment
with the Scotch Galloways would be well worth tended excursion through Canada and the pro- the attention of our breeders, farmers and dairyvinces east, I make up from all the testimony men.-Victor in the Am. Stock Journal.
A Fruit Critic Criticised. can be grown with as much uniformity and in The farmer of Edgewood, in a recent number as large quantity. This, we think, is true of of the American Journal of Horticulture, ad- many other pears of the first quality. Farmers, vances some very sceptical and heterodox no and beginners in fruit culture, should not be tions in pomology, calculated to discourage im- discouraged from trying to grow the best varieprovement in this fine art. He says: “I doubt ties, by the idea that they require specially nice very much if the finest flavored fruits can be treatment. They will do better with this than grown as easily as the grosser tasting ones." without it, as the Bartlett will, but they are And again, “in the pear line, it is quite possi- | quite as likely to succeed with ordinary care.ble that, with great nicety of treatment, both in The best are quite as likely to succeed in your garden culture and in the ripening process, soil and climate as inferior varieties. There(which last counts for a great deal,) a higher fore, plant them. A great deal of horticultural and finer flavor may be given to the Beurré Diel, writing is an account of local experience, valuor the Flemish Beauty, or the Beurré d'Anjou, able as far as it goes, but it should be distinctly or even the Duchess, tban belongs ordinarily to stated that they are only individual opinions. the Bartlett. But put the Bartlett in comparison No one man is able to lay down rules for the with either, under tair average treatment, and whole extent of this vast country.-- American upon ordinary garden lunds, and I think two Agriculturist. luscious Bartletts will present themselves, to one of either the other names." The idea here ad
How to Keep Up Your Hay Crop.
vanced, that the finer kinds of pears require ) A farmer who had been in the habit of selling
specially nice treatment in order to succeed, is his hay for many years in succession, being asked mischievous, and is certainly not sustained by how he kept up his hay crop without manuring facts. The Seckel, the highest flavored of all or cultivating his land, replied, "I never allowed pears, is even more hardy than the Bartlett, and the after swath to be cut." If this rule was will bear good fruit in almost any soil that is generally followed, there would be less said adapted to the pear. It is improved in size by about running out of grass fields or short crops high cultivation, but that is true of all pears~ of hay. Some farmers feed off every green thing and of the Bartlett as well. We do not think and compel their cattle to pull up and knaw off the flavor of the Seckel is improved by its size. the roots of the grass. Cutting rowen is cutting The Flemish Beauty and the Beurré Biel, upon ruin, and hard fall and winter grazing is certain ordinary gurden lands, and with the fair aver death to hay crops. A farmer had better buy age treatment, have always borne as well as the hay at $40 per ton than ruin his hay field by Bartlett, in our experience. The Beurré d'An- close grazing. The general treatment of grass jou is a newer pear, but it is notoriously a good lands in this respect is wrong and expensive, and grower and bearer, and may prove itself adapt- should be abandoned as a matter of profit and ed to as wide a range of soil and climate as the economy.- Wisconsin Farmer. Bartlett. The Duchess is more fastidious about its soil, b'at where it finds congenial alimeot, it
Gas Lime as a Fertilizer. is as easily raised, ripens as well, and keeps bet An officer of the Edinburg Gas Company, ter than the Bartlett. We found four large, writing to the Scottish Farmer concerning gas well grown trees, upon pear stock standing in a lime as a fertilizer, says: common meadow, three years ago, in Westches “I believe that waste gas lime is equal in ter county. They have never had any special efficiency to fresh lime for most of the purposes care, apparently; they stand in sward land, and aimed at in its use in farm lands. I sold all the yet for three years in succession, they have borne lime thus produced at the gas works in Forfar. abundant crops.
A cow-pasture seedling could shire, for sixteen years, to several farmers, who not be more hardy, or bear with more unitormi- uniformly expressed their satisfaction therewith. ty. This variety, we are told, does very well at One very useful application of it was its mixture New Haven, and is comparatively worthless at with the large pile of weeds and tangled roots of Hartford. This depends, we suppose, not at all grass cleared off the fields annually. On being upon treatment or culture, but upon the original composted in this way, the lime gradually killed character of the soil. The Paradise d'Automne, all the vitality of these weeds, and returned them the Muskingum, the St. Ghislain, pears of exqui- to the land in the way of manure. It also served site flavor, are quite as successful with us as the the purpose of opening up stiff clay soils, being Bartlett. In soil that suits them, without any first spread over the surface, and then ploughed special manipulation or culture, we think they'down."