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A “clover stand" in Eastern Virginia, even ing hand : and the fullest success to iny old upon well limed and highly cultivated lands, is friend the “ American Farmer."
F. by no means a certainty, owing mainly to our NEAR Richmond, Feb. 4, 1867. climate. A pea crop rarely, if ever, fuils. On lands like that we are now seeking to improve,
For tlie - American Farmer." it would be almost a miracle to get a good clover stand, while on the other hand, we might
Cultivation of Basket Willow. confidently look for a very respectable pea cover, Many experiments have been made to cultiaided as it would be by the beneficial effects of vate the “Basket Willow" with more or less the lime.
success. The experiments and results of them The pea fallow is but little inferior to a made by cultivators upou low swampy lands are clover fallow for wheat--and on Dinwiddie much wanted, and should be communicated for land limed, as suggested, with a moderate fallow the benefit of those who bare lands compar.i. of peas, I would confidently look for ten or tively worthless for any other purpose. The fifteen bushels of wheat per acre. The smaller willow is not only capable of being grown on yield at present prices, say $2.50 per bushel, low swampy and meadow land, but on dry will pay all the expenses for the whole course. banks and flat sandy land. But the best landi
Realizing by experience the repeated failures adapted to the successful culture of this desin in securing a clover "stand," I have combined ble addition to the farmer's products and profis, timotby with the clorer, so as 10 secure a cover. are the low Hat meadows bordering upon streams, If both the clover and timothy failed, I would &c. There are iu Maryland thousands of acres of try a second pea fallow. If the land be unsuita- land, that with good cultivation, (which consists ble for timothy, I would substitute orchard grass, entirely of preventing any coarse weeds from aer. a bushel per acre in the fall, and like quantity in growing the plant,) would produce from one to the spring. Even on this poor land, with the two tons per acre. The cost of raising the aids afforded, three-fourths of a tou of lay per Basket Willow!' consists in selecting a soil that acre would not be too high a calculation. The, it is always damp, and if flooded in winter and turning under of the clover and timothy would spring it will not be at all damaged. It has add yet more fertilizing matter, and fifteen to been our practice to first draiu the land by cuitwenty bushels of wheat might be hoped for ting open ditches about twenty-five feet apart,
One other objection to "A. M's" system is three feet wide at top, from two to three feet that Dinwiddie would have to wait rather long deep, and eighteen inches at the bottom. Tbea for the reimbusement of bis outlay—a serious | reibove all trees and brush 'which may be growmatter with the farmers of the South.
ing thereon, then plough the land, and by using I think "A. M." might improve his course the cultivator, harrow, &C., reduce the land to i sensibly, if he would allow his first crops of clo- | good tilth, being careful to destroy all cours. ver to fall and plough them with his second crop i growing weeds, &c., before plantiug the cus under. He would thereby greatly increase the rings. For this latitude we should advise plantvegetable matter for the active employment of ing in the month of April; we have planted at the large dose of lime he adıninisters. I can the rate of 11,00) per acre, two foot apart, which but think that he loses much by fallowing his will be found ample room for cleaning, cuttiny, clover in May and June, leaving a naked surface | &c. We have used cuttings about eighteen inexposed to the scorching suns of our summers. | ches in length inserted two-thirds in the ground, Besides, very few farmers would find the time in which have given every satisfaction. It is reMay or June for so heavy a job.
commended by some cultivators to allow the It has been with great diffidence that I ven- growth of a year before cutting. Our practice ture to give my views upon so important a sub- has been to cut down to within two cres of the ject as the permanent improvement of poor land: | main cutting every shoot of the first season's but I made up my mind when I laid aside the growth, therchy insuring a much stronger growth sword to do all I could to rebuild the broken the second season. The after management of fortunes of myself and countrymen, and if I the plantation consist in keeping it entirely free have contributed anything to this end by this from weeds during the early spring months; communication, I shall have my reward. I thank two thorough boeings in spring, and one (if the 66 A. M." for the Samaritan spirit which has land is sufficiently dry) in the fall, will be quite evoked from “ Nazareth,” his kindly efforts in suflicient for this purpose. Landon, in the "Arbehalf of Southero improvement. Blessings be bevetum Britanicum" describes upwards of one upon all who lend us, in our hour of need, a help-' hundred and eighty varieties of willow. The
late Duke of Bedford, one of the best farmers | air and heat afterwards, cultivate as science and and Arbeviculturists of his day, gave great at. practice dictate. tention to the cultivation of the willow; and in In the autumn of '65 I left a row of potatoes the extensive Arberelun at Wilbour Abbey, in (planted in April) ungathered : early in NoBedfordshire, England, there are grown upwardsvember I threw off the earth nearly down to the of two hundred species and varieties, one of potatoes with a double mould board plow, and which, Solix, Alba had its origin at that place. covered with straw, and earthed up as previousBut of the many varieties cultivated the “salis ly described. As soon as the frost was out of riminalis'' is found the most valuable for the the ground on the following spring, I dug up a manufacture of baskets, chairs, &c., and such daily supply which lasted nearly till my extra is the experience of the cultivators of the willow early crop was sufficiently ripe for use. Nearly in this country. There are hundreds of thou every potato was sound and as fresh as the sucsands of acres of land wbich are admirably adapt- ceeding early crop. Granting this experiment ed to the cultivation of the “Basket Willow," to be a fact, it follows that we can have at comand which I am fully convinced, if properly mand this almost indispensable vegetable every planted and managed, would yield an immense month in the year. profit.
As regards spring-forcing, see horticulturs] I will most cheerfully give any information in books aud the monthlies on the subject. my power to any inquiries made upon the sub- Without seriously deviating from the subject ject, by letter or otherwise.
I will add, that covering a summer crop of peo Vd. Agr. College.
DANIEL BARKER. tatoes with straw, or mulching, will add greatly
to the product. The mulch retains moisture,
prevents excessive heat, and holds the rich gases For the “* American Farmer ”
arising from the atmospheric air. In our SouthSpeculations on Potato Planting, &c. eru States, mulching, as regards the potato crop,
Occasional allusions are made in agricultural is indispensable to success. journals to the subject of planting potatoes in Again, to keep potatoes fresh and sound for • the fall.
spring and summer use, select from the potato I have no practical experience on the subject, | pits, when uncovered in the spring, those that and write altogether speculatively. Were I to
are sound and unsprouted; form, for example, esperiment, after thoroughly preparing the land, conical pits 6 inches deep, aud 9 feet in circumI would run out deep, bout furrows, north and ference: in these, throw the potatoes carefully ; south. Plant the potatoes about the last of Au on each layer of potatoes sift a heavy coat of dry gust, which will afford time and heat sufficient sand or light loam, -cover with six. inches of to start the shoots and partially decay the straw, twelve inches of earth, and, when settletubers.
ed, sod ihe surface, and form drains twelve After planting, spread over the tubers four inches deep around the pits, with an opening for inches of rough but well-decomposed manure, the water to pass off. The same object may be and on the manure eight inches of unbroken rye accomplished by packing the potatoes iu dry straw, (tangled straw will do as well but it is saud, and stowing them in a dry, cool cellar. more difficult to corer,) and finish covering by By excluding air, heat, frost and dampness, I rundingan angular harrow turned up side down, believe potatoes may be kept in their fresh, ori6 broad end on," which will draw to the centre ginal state, eitber during the summer or winter of the furrows a light covering of earth. Early in months, or for an indefinite time. My theory is, November, or before the ground freezes, throw up,
ir before the ground freezes, throw up. I if we exclude the elements from the potatoes, on either side of the potatoes, (by a heavy wide- dormancy results. breasted plow,) a ridge; then with a one-horse for convenience of transportation during plow lap those furrows, thus covering the pota- spring and summer, pack in tight barrels with toes, by the three applications, about twenty cut straw, saw dust, bran, &c. inches, and on either side fifteen. The frost inay Were I a northern or Canadian farmer I would penetrate through the earth but will be arrested | not hesitate (if necessity required it) to cover by the straw. The ridges should be convex or potatoes under a snow drift. Let one of your roof-shaped.
sharp Yankee bors tie up in a course bag a half In the spring (early in March) uncover down peck of sound dry potatoes (globular form ), to the straw. When the vines are fairly up, then, when the snow is in a fit state, let him roll sub-soil on either side, running the share next it over the snow (as boys are wont to do) till it the potatoes which will allow a free circulation of' becomes too large for his strength, then let him
place the ball under a northern aspect, on the ble for the stomach, and refuses entrance to the approach of spring cover the ball with straw, unsuitable. It is the faithful watchman to guard and over it a triangular chicken-coop, the closed the gateway to the stomach ; and whatever is side facing the South, or cover with pine boughs distasteful to it, should be rejected. The old or brush to keep the straw in place, and to ex-" Adage" that "one man's food is another clude the elements. I will wager high that the man's poison,'' holds as true with vegetables, and said boy will have the pride to present his mam- fruits too, as any other kind of food. Strax. ma with half peck sound potatoes for her 4th of berries, cucumbers, melons, squashes, pumpkins, July dinner. If boys souin of the State of tomatoes, egg-plants, &c., are all included in Maine wish to try the experiment, I advise them this class. to "break cargo” on next Easter Sunday. All kinds of our cultivated 'fruit, contain ag
My object is to induce my brother farmers to essential virtue when ripe, for the preservation think more, experiment, and with practice unite of our health and prolongation of our lives. science. It will be noticed that all I have said They are all nourishing, and most wholesome is speculative.
wben fully matured ; but, even then, they should Ballimore County.
be used with prudence, as the immoderate use
of anything is injurious; besides, the greater For the "American Farmer."
number of them being very wholesome and pal
atable in their natural or raw states. There are Uses of Fruits and Vegetables.
a great many ways of preparing and keeping Of the culinary vegetables which we cultivate them to please our palates. There are jellies, in our gardens, chemists tell us, that every ge- jams, syrups, stews, &c, made by our virtaous nus possesses a virtue for the prevention and wives, ; and men make of them-wine, cider, cure of many of the diseases incidental to hu perry, &c., which when pure, are all both man nature, suited especially for the season when pleasant and wholesome. Then, there are the it is in use; and the same is the case with fruits
abusive uses of them, by adulteration and when they are ripe. So that a well stocked gar
over fermentation. They are made into branden is a laboratory, filled with a great variety of dies, whiskies and vinegars-men-killers-but medicines suited to all our needs. We think by careful keeping, we can have both fruits but little of the value of wholesome vegetables,
and vegetables to use in their natural states all while we have plenty of them; but wben we the year round. Those that come on in aucant get them, the cravings of nature will soon
tumn are easily kept sound all the winter through, remind us that they are needed. What ardent until others grow in the spring. How beautilongings have people for fresh vegetables wbile
resh vegetables while fully the various species of fruits and reg. upon a long sea voyage! Raw turnip and raw etables follow each other in regular progrescarrot have been as sweet to our palate on ship
sion to give us a constant supply! How wonboard as the finest fruits have been upon land. I derful the foresight, and awful the conception, Without the prudent use of vegetables, along with that planned everything so complete. grain, food, fish and flesh meats, we would soon Philadelphia.
WALTER ELDER. be covered with disease. Vegetables correct the! Our correspondent will find that we have used humors, and vitiating properties of fish and flesh the privilege he gives us to prune his article some meats; and they cool and moisten the heat and what. He can furnish us, we know, good practical drynees of grain food; yet all of these are needed articles on cultivating fruits and vegetables, but for our sustenance and good health ; it is the com- there is a little disposition, we find, among the bination of the various ingredients compound- most practical to moralise and philosophise. As ed in the stomach, that gives a lively apetite, a our readers claim of us a very practical journal, strong digestion and vigor and agility to our fac- we are obliged to limit ourselves somewhat rigid. ulties. People who live much in-doors, and have ly in other respects. As to " brandy, whiskey not much exercise, should use plenty of vegeta- and vinegar," we may not contend, perhaps, bles to prevent costiveness, and to keep the pores with an Elder as to the first two, but is not the of the skin open to the free flow of perspiration ; other a good and wbolesome condiment? How but those who labor hard out of doors, must about cucumbers without vinegar?-[ED.] use more grain and fish and flesh meats, to give them hardiness and strength; their exercises will Te-Twenty years ago there were no vinenaturally keep their pores open for perspiration. | yards in the Department of the Indre, in France ; We should only eat such vegetables as suit our at the present time the extent under vineyards is palates; the palate is the judge of what is suita- about 60,000 acres.
For the American Farmer.
dred yards; all other lengths and depths in proa
portion. For grubbing $1 per square. Tariff of Farm Wages.
Resolved, That we recommend to the farmers Messrs. Worthington & Lewis.
of Somerset county to decline to hire day labor GENTLEMEN : I enclose a blank proposition for in any department of their business, when hands a tariff of prices for 1847, also resolutions on can be more advantageously hired by the month the same subject taken from a Somerset county | or year, believing that an ample supply of reliapaper upwards of a year since.
ble labor can be bad in time for the spring crop Your old and honored journal being the prin at reasonable rates, and such as the farmer can cipal mouth-piece in this State, deroted to the well afford to pay. interest of our farmers, prompts me to leave this important matter in your hands-hoping for
For the “ American Farmer." prompt and early action. The subject has been
Inquiries. alluded to frequently by farmers in this district
CMUBERLAND County, N. C. all unite in saying, there must be united action before individuals should act. Men now are
January 14, 1867. comparatively numerous, and provisions re MESSAS. EDITORS : Will you take the trouble duced in price. Last year, wages were nearly to give some instruction to one who has just bedouble that of days of yore. I wish that em gun to devote himself to agricultural pursuits, ployees and employers shall be equally protected,
and whose knowledge of agriculture, either praca and act together for general success.
tical or theoretical, is very limited. January 28, 1867.
The land on which I purpose farming is river PROPOSITION.
bottom, originally of only medium fertility, and
exhausted almost to the point of absolute unThat Baltimore and the adjoining counties
productiveness by careless and improper cultiva. adopt the following tariff of prices for the year ion. Much of the soil is stiff clay, and en1867; due consideration being had in reference
tirely too wet for grain cropy without an to short days, price of provisions, and probable
amount of drainage, which, I fear, would cost price of products :
more than the land would be worth. Now, what I suggest that, managers, overseers, and head
I want to know is, can such land be profitably gardpers be paid $... per month. Best farm
converted into permanent grass land? and the hands $... per month; second rate hands $...
best mode of doing so. What is the best plan per month. Female laborers on farm $... per
of eradicating weeds and the native grasses month. Cutting hard wood $... per cord; soft.
which are neither fit for grazing por mowing? ditto, $... per cord. Grubbing $... per 50 feet
What kind of grass is best suited to such land? square.
Will it pay to use gypsum or any others of the Hauling oak rails............$... per hundred. "
fertilizers ad vertized for sale, for the purpose of chestnut posts.....$... per " 6 oak posts...........$... per
increasing the yield of grass on such land, until " chestnut rails...... $... per
a stock of cattle sufficient to make the quantity Making new post rail fence, including dig
of manure required can be subsisted on the ging, boring, morticing and pointing rails $...
farm? per pannel; cleaning out old ditch 3 feet wide,
Is it profitable to keep cows for making butter 1 foot at the foot and half spit deep, $... per
when it will sell for no more than thirty cents 50 yards. Other widths of ditch in proportion.
per pound? What breed of cattle is the best Rot Without a guarantee, I doubt the pro- | for both dairy and fattening purposes ? priety of hiring men by the year.
You will oblige me, Messrs. Editors, by replyThe following are the rates alluded to as adopt / ing to the above inquiries, and giving informaed at a meeting in Somerset county :
tion on any other point connected with grassFor cutting oak wood 75 cents per cord, pine growing, through your paper, to which I am 60 cents per cord, for mauling oak rails $1 per
A SUBSCRIBDR. handred, pine rails 60 cents per hundred, for Will some of our correspondents familiar with day labor on farm with board 62 cents, without the character of land here spoken of give us board 874 cents. For hands to work regularly, their views in response to the above.--[Ed. per month with board $10, per year $120. For female labor by the year $36, for cleaning old Be Every child that eats fruit should be ditch 3 feet wide, one spit deep, $1 per hundred taught the importance of saving and sowing yards, 4 feet wide, one spit deep, $1.25 per hun.) seeds and rearing them up to fruit bearing.
For the "American Farmer"
to save them from the sad depredations, now ofConcentration of Forces.
ten made upon them, by our retired laborers,
who sleep during the day, to enable them to go [The following is the most material portion of out the more successfully, while all honest laa communication, received at a late date, from borers are taking their necessary rest. Please un experienced farmer and large landholder in reflect upon these, my humble suggestions, made Albeinarle county. We are not willing to omil for the benefit of our sadly oppressed people of anything which will help our Southern friends the South, and now and then, give to us, through to the solution of the dillicult problems involved your valuable paper, a page or two of your good in the matters of land and labor.--En.]
suggestions, of which we all are so sadly in need, "My own impression now is, since we can't, and for which many of us will sincerely thank rely upon the present system of lavor, we had you.''
G. C.G. better curtail the area putin cultivation, and lay 1 Albemarle county, Va. out the little means now left us in concentraied manures and labor saving implements, and apply
For the "American Farmer." the one and use the other ourselves, as far as we can, until our present wandering laborers shall
Small Farms. have grown tired of their idleness, and come to
Reese's Corner, Kent Co., D., their senses. Out of a field to go in corn this
February 11, 1867. year, I have selected some twenty-five acres for
Editors of American Farmer :
At this time, when we are nbout commencing cultivate with their own hands. This is a good l our farin operations for the present year, and find tield, one-half being low ground; it would be
that we are a good deal troubled for want of considered fair corn land unaided by manures,
sufficient manual labor, it is advocated by many yet I have thought of so applying bought ma
persons to reduce the size of our farms. In nures upon the wbole of my part, as reasonably
this opinion I am at variance with them, and to expect a first class crop of corn. Then in its
suggest that it will only increase the scarcity last cultivation, seed it with turnips, rutabaga,
of labor, as it will certainly require more force, peals and buckwheat, to be fed off by stock pur
both of manual and animal, to conduct the chased next summer or fall. Then flush up all
operation of three farms, euch containing two of my own and my tenant's corn land, and seed
i's corn land and seed hundred acres, than it will to conduct one to oats; then the oat lands to be flusbed up, ma
farm, containing six hundred acres; and I nured, with guano, and put in wheat and the
find it less trouble to secure hunds sufficient grasses; my wheat, oats and grass, to be cut by
to conduct the larger farm than it is the horse power, which I have. What grass I can
smaller ones, for the reason that the negroes not cut nor graze, will be left to fall upon and
will be left to fill upon and I prefer to have a number of hands together, fatten my lands. In this way, I think I can do than to work in smaller numbers. with much less labor and realize better profits, The expense of carrying on the operation of until labor shall become niore reliable. Without the larger farm is also considerably less in proa better system of labor than the one now among portion to the number of acres in cultivation, us, I deem it utterly impossible to keep up our and the number of bushels of grain or nett sales outside enclosures and the dividing fences. Ow pro rata or per hand. The owner or overseer ing to our miserable system of law making, and can manage the larger force at the same time law enforcing powers, we are compelled to keep that it would require him to oversee the opera. up, as best we can, our outer enclosures, to keep tion of the smaller force. To work the farm of out a few worthless, wandering stock, and I have two hundred acres would require at least six been thinking perhaps it might be better for us horses, as it is necessary to have a spare one, at to see after our outside enclosures, and keep our least, for the use of the family, whilst twelve own stock in an enclosed lot, or field, or wood will conduct all the operations of the larger one, lot, (of which I have a very largo one, of some whilst it would require nearly the same amount tiiree hundred and fitty acres, now well enclosed,) of farm implements for the smaller as it would having a lane to our barn or stable lois, where the larger farm, unless they would depend on we might so aid the deficiencies of our lots, by hiring reaper, drill, threshing machine, &c., as soiling, as to keep them in good condition cheaper, needed, which is rather an uncertain way of se. and better than by hiring to keep up all of our curing a crop. inside fences; and then watch our stuck at night! What we need in our section of the country, I