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the depth of twelve inches, and throw out the As soon as the plants are started, give them a / dirt on each side of the intended bed. This dressing of rich compost, or some other fertilizer, trench we fill with leaves from the woods, corn to be repeated every ten days. Their security stalks, or wheat straw-the last being preferred. from the fly is dependent mainly on their vigor- This we hare well trodden down, and put on 008 rowth. When grass and weeds are well top of it fresh stable manure, about six inches started, have the beds very Uioroughly picked, thick, which must also be well trodden and and follow with a top-dressing. The plants be- packed. The sides are then straightened up and ing well up, to dress frequently with small dirt packed against them as high as the manure. applications of manure, and keep them free of We then put on top of the manure about two grass, are the essentials of good management. inches of wood's mould, which being levelled,
the bed is prepared for the slips. Lay these TOBACCO IN THE HOUSE.
cross-wise of the bed, about an inch apart, and Continue to prepare for market, as heretofore
cover with fine wood's mould about an inch in directed, taking care tha: the bulks do not heat
depth. We usually have fine straw on cach side and acquire a bad smell, which no after treat
of the bed, with which we cover up every night, ment will get rid of.
or on the approach of rain, which it is necessary
to keep off till the slips have sprouted well. After CLOVER SEED.
they make their appearance above the covering, Wheat fields, not yet sown with clover, will we add another inch of mould, and after they le benefitted, when not too much crusted, nor appear through this, another still, which is too wet, by barrowing with a heavy drag. Im- enough. mediately after this sow clover seed, and follow with roller. On the oat field, sow clover seeds
The Vegetable Garden. on the surface, after the oats are put in, and
Prepared for The American Farmer, by DANIEL BARKER, follow with roller.
Maryland Agricultural College.
APRIL. this month, on last spring's sowing of clover; Continue to spade into the soil all refuse vegeand on the new seeding, wlien it shows the table matier, and where practicable, strew it over third leaf.
with lime, to hasten the decomposition. It is GATES AND FENCING.
much better to bury all such matter at once, than Let there be no further delay in having these all to lay it on heaps, where it loses all its most ferput in best condition. The safety of crops will tilizing properties. When placed beneath the depend upon them, and the busiest working sea- surface of the soil the greater part of the gases son should not be taxed with what should have will be retained, till again taken up in combibeen much earlier done.
nation with water by the roots of the plants.
Seeds not yet planted should be got in as early SWEET POTATOES.
as practicable, otherwise a whole season may be There is no root crop so profitable, perhaps, sacrificed. Great activity will now be required as the sweet potato, except for the difficulty of
in hoeing and cleaning; weeds will grow apace, preserving it for winter use. Where there is
and the annual grasses, &c., if allowed to gain convenient transportation, or where it may get
the ascendancy now, will scatter much seed and the advantage of the summer and fall market,
be a constant annoyance during the whole of the the price which it commonly brings should make
season afterwards. it a favorite crop, and the refuse may at all times be profitably consumed by cows or hogs.
Asparagus. -The young plants will now be The potatoes from which plants are to be
| in a good state for planting in beds, which, acgrown for future transplanting, should now be
cording to former directions, should be in a good laid down. If convenient to use glass, as it may
state to receive them. be where a small crop is grown, it will bring Beets.-Sow the early Red Bassano, and the them forward earlier ; but this is not necessary.
Castelnaudary for a full crop. A friend near Norfolk, Va., gave us, some years Celery.--Sow on a warm border, which will ago, his method of preparing beds for raising | come up in good time to make good plants for plants for a large crop. We plough up the fall supply. Transplant, upon a bed three parts Mace intended for the bed, six feet wide, running rotten dung and one part loam, the plants from in length east and west; this we plough up to the first sowings.
Cabbage.—A sowing of two or three kinds hot-beds, and whenever water is needed, use it Dow will furnish a supply of useful plants to in a tepid state. Transplant, or pot, egg-plants, oll up rocant plots, as summer crops are taken ! peppers, and tomatoes, and keep them growing off. The Winningstadt is a capital one to sow vigorously. Thin out all advancing crops as now to fill up gaps, as it may be planted as close soon as sufficiently advanced. This sbould ali1s sixteen inches. Premiam, Flat Dutch, Stone ways be done in due time, and at two times; in the Mason, and Drumhead Saroy are kinds that first instance leave double the number you intend should be largely relied upon.
to retain as a permanent crop, to meet accidents CaulifLOWERS.-Continue to plant out thie to which young seedlings are liable, and then strongest plants from the stock kept through the
thin them to the proper distance when such danwinter. Those which have been brought on un- / ger is considered over. der glass will be getting sufficiently advanced to be benefitted by applications of liquid manure,
The Fruit Garden. to keep them in a free growing state. Let the soil be constantly stirred about them.
Where fine fruit is a desideratum, the thinning Beans – The dwarf or bush varieties, such as
out of the branches of peaches, if not previously
done, should be attended to forth with, removing Early Valentine, Early Yellow Six Weeks, and
all the foreright wood shoots. As blossom buds Dun Cranberry may now be sown. Sow also
appear very thick this year, it is very important to a few in boxes or pots to make good any that may miss in the rows. Also, from the first week
take off a portion of those which are ill placed.
As the peach and nectarine advance in age, and in the month, the pole varieties, such as the old
require a full complement of wood and circumRed Cranberry, Scarlet Runner, and Indian
ference alloted them, in order to insure fine fruit, Chief, for stringing; the Large Lima, Horticul
we have found it necessary to pursue the system tural Corn Bean, and Rhode Island Butter Bean,
of thinning out, that the trees may be maintained for shelling.
in a healthy fruit bearing condition, and not LETTUCE-Repeat the sowings of different kinds
weakened by crowding with too much wood. and thin out and transplant those advancing, as wbere disbudding is practiced, it should be prooccasion may require.
ceeded with, more or less, according to the develOnioxs. -Sow the silver-skinned for pickling; opment of vegetation; and this we may expect sow very thickly and tread the ground very will now be rapid. Constant attention will be firmly, using but little soil to cover them. necessary in order that the removal of shoots
Potatues, coming up, should be hoed. Pato- | may be gradual. toes mar still be planted, and any remaining out New plantations of strawberries (in dry weaof the ground should be got in at once.
ther) will require an abundance of water. Hoe PARSLEY.-Sow in a rich border, very thin,
between the rows of old plantations, taking and cover the drills with hemlock or cedar
away, where necessary, some of the longest of Tyranches for about two weeks, then remove the
the litter, &c., which may have been used as a covering, and the young plants will be seen
covering during the winter, then follow with a peeping through. This plan bastens the germi
dressing of lime, using it before an expected nation of the seed, which is generally very slow.
shower, that it may be washed into the ground,
which we have found to be of great benefit in Peas.-The Champion of England, and Dwarf
destroying slugs, and benefitting the plants. Blue Imperial, will be found capital kinds to
Strawberries, in pots, under glass, should have sow now. Hoe between the rows of advancing
plenty of air, (but no cold draughts) a dry atcrops, and draw the earth up each side of the
| mosphere, and to be kept near the glass. Plants rows; put sticks to those that are sufficiently
in fruit must also have plenty of air, in order to forward.
get a full flavor. Top-dress raspberries with RADISHES.—Make successional sowings of the half decayed barn yard manure. Cut down the turnip rooted varieties, to succeed those sown
autumn bearing raspberries, cut away all sucklast month. Small sowings are best, each made ers but two or three, and give them a top-dressing as soon as the other is up.
of manure. These never succeed unless they are SPINACH.-Sow the Round Leaved, to succeed / kept quite thin. Look over grafted trees, and that sown in March. Sow for succession the remove all shoots below the scions. Complete improved long, purple eggplant, the Early York the planting of all fruit trees, strawberry plants, tomato, bellnose pepper, cucumber, melon-squash, &c. Where grape vines, raspberries, blackberearly sweet corn, &c. Give plenty of air to 'ries, &c., are laid down in the autumn, they should now be taken up and secured to stakes, regulate the stems of advanced herbaceous plants, &c. Grafting, if not completed, may be contin- tying them up if they require it. ued during the early part of the month. Use Climbing vines, &c, should be frequently every means to destroy and prevent the attacks looked over and regulated as they advance in of insects upon fruit trees, &c. After high growth. Plant out in beds. gladiolus roots. winds, look to newly planted trees, and have Ixias, Ferravia, or Tiger flower, Tritornias, &c. them well secured to stakes and the earth made Continue to plant evergreens, taking the prefirm around them. Apply soap suds and liquid caution to water them well at the time of plantmanure to strawberry beds, grape vines, rasp- ing, and occasionally, afterwards, to well inuleh berries, peach trees, &c. Any person who has the surface, and, if but a few choice plants, to applied liquid manure to his fruit trees, &c., when sprinkle the foliage orer in the evenings of dry in a growing state, can have no doubt of the days. These attentions will enable late plantel great benefits which they have derived thereby ; ! erergreens to grow well in most cases nevertheless it is surprising bow few there are Grass lawns should now have every neccessary who adopt it.
attention, or the consequences will be a burnt ap
lawn by Jupe, and the predominance of coars The Flower Garden.
grasses. Proper care of grass lawns not only pre crves their beauty for present enjoyment, but in
proves their quality; frequent mowing tending to "Return, Sicilian Muse,
waken the coarse grasses, and encourage the finer And call the vales, and bid them hither cast Their bells and flowrets of a thousand hues.
kinds. A sprinkle of guano where the turf is poor Ye valleys low, where the mild whispers use,
will be very beneficial now. Grass newly froid Of shades, and wanton winds, and gushing brooks, seeds should be bandled very carefully, and not On whose fresh lap the swart star sparely looks, rolled till after it has been once mown. It is a Throw hither all your quaint enamellid eyes,
good plan to mow seed grass as soon as it is strong That on the green turf seek the honied showers, And purple all the ground with vernal flowers."
enough, and leave the mowings on the ground; the turf will look unsightly for a short time, but
it will be immensely benefited by the muleb of All operations in the flower-garden should be its own material. concluded soon as possible; finish, if not already done, the pruning of roses which may have been Dissolving Bones.-Bones dissolved, or reduleft unpruned for the purpose of retarding their ced by any proress, are one of the best manures. bloom. Let all flower beds be prepared when and every faruner can save and dissolve a greai the weather is dry. Bedding plan is, as verbenas, many each year if he will only set about it in geraniums, heliotropes, petunias, &c., should be the following manner: Get a large cask or box exposed as much as possible, night and day. Be - a sugar hogshead is as good is anything-set in no haste to plant out, as we may yet have it out where it will catch all the rain that falls. frosts and cold rains. Pot off plants newly and into this throw your bones and ashes its fas! rooted, and if convenient, give them the benefit as you make them; the ashes should be the of a hot bed frame, to induce new roots to form i greater bulk, so that the bones will be complete Hollyhocks, planted the beginning of the month, ly embedded in the ashes. The rains will keep will bloom well this season; the soil for holly- the mass moist, and the lye will act on the bones, hocks should be deep and rich, and the plants and completely dissolve them in from six to from seeds or cuttings planted last fall. Plant twelve months. Should there not be enough the seeds of annuals, and thin out those sown rain fall to thoroughly moisten the whole mass. in March, and the straggling kinds will be bene- ebamber lye should be added, or water sufficient fitted by topping. There are very few wbo know l poured on to make up the deficiency. There all that may be done with annuals, by giving should be two casks or boxes, so that when the a rich soil, plenty of room, and occasionally one is full it may stand while the other is being pinching out the tops of the leading sboots. I filled, and in the meantime the bones become Pinks and pansies-these should have a rich top- thoroughly dissolved. Some say that a little dressing now, taking care to stir the surface of caustic lime added to the asbes, helps to dissolve the beds before it is applied. Take advantage the bones faster. This I bare not tried, but the of favorable weather for the destruction of weeds, former I have, and know it to be a good thing; &c., and to get flower borders well cleaned, it and would advise all to save and prepare the will be advisable to run the hoe through these, bones on their farms in this simple, easy, and ineven if merely to stir the surface. Continue to expensive way.-E. A. Riehl, in Farmer'4d.
For the - American Farmer."
of real estate within the next twenty years. Intensive and Extensive Farming-Sheep in Without disparaging the propriety of concentrathe Southern States.
| ting capital, skill and industry, on a rather French writers, on rural economy, find it con- limited surface, it may not be amiss to refer to venient to divide practical agriculture into two some of the advantages of improving large equally important systems of cultivation. To tracts of land by sheep raising and wool growone is applied the term intensive farining, as in- | ing in the South. dicating the concentration of capital, labor nad In the first place all must see that we have not fertilizers on a comparatively small surface, capital nor labor lo cultivate, with the plough, while the other is called extensive farming, be- more than a small fraction of the six hundred cause labor, capital, and, sometimes, manure, million acres in the late slaveholding States, and are employed over a wide aren. Under favorable respectfully submit to large land holders and circumstances, botlı systems may be combined, others whether it will not give a better income as a brief review of the subject will satisfy the from Southern soil and labor to cultivate the render.
best perennial grasses that grow in Texas, and The want of good ronds to cities, on which to on the plains east of the Rocky Mountains, as convey grain, bay, vegetables and fruits to needy | well as the Bermuda, Orchard, and Kentucky consumere in walled towns, early led to the blue-grass, (not to name others which the writer more thorough and intense working of the soil knows to be reliable in Georgia and Tennessee,) near them, to avoid famine and the pestilence and raise wool, sheep, and other stock, than to that ever follows in its train. We kuow so little cling to the old system of planting and wearing of these scourges of antiquity that few appreciate out plantations? On all rich lands, planting the necessity for improved farming and garden- would now pay bandsomely with slave labor ing dereloped by the rapid growth of cities But slavery being dead, the important fact can and villages. While the physical wants of neither be concealed nor denied, that all free any given number of people remain the same laborers, whether white or black, naturally pre
fer the easy tasks of shepherds, in the care of gress may call for a much larger supply per cap- sheep and catile, to the prolonged labor in the ita of agricultural products. When one sees field in raising cotton, rice, tobacco, or other wool and cotton made into carpets for the million, | planting staples. In all hot, summer climates, and leather into cushions and covers for carriages, where tropical plants are extensively cultivated, he has occular demonstration of arts and wants, free men and women are found unreliable as whose demands on rural industry are as bound- field operatives, and mainly because they are less as human pride and ambition.
measurably exempt from the stern necessity of In this country, cities and villages grow much being both industrious and faithful to their enfaster than rural population, and as a conse- gagements, which exists in all cold climates. quence, the market price of all articles of food | Instead of complaining of this state of things, for man and beast, and of most raw materials of and sometimes losing money by placing too much manufacture, steadily advance from one decade confidence in the stability of freedmen, it is betto another. The advance would now be much ter to adapt our agriculture to the instincts and larger than it is if ibnt part of the continent idle babits of the persons with whom we have which belongs to the United States were not so to deal, and let them be shepherds and shephighly favored by navigable rivers, lakes, bays, herde sees in our employment, rather than comand by more than thirty thousand miles of work- mon field hands. ing railways. While these facilities for cheap By a judicious selection of grass adapted to transportation giently promote the most exten- one's soii and climate, permanent pastures may sive system of Lillage and husbandry, they are be formed at little expense; and at this time, perhaps still more efficient in building up both fair sheep-say half-blood merino-may be old and new cities, towns and villages, which in bought in the Northern States at about a dolturn create local markets for the products of the lar a head, to be delivered after shearing. There most intensive farming and fruit growing in it costs a dollar a year, or more, to keep a sheep, their vicinity. The Cnited States' Census Oflice while the writer keeps them in East Tennessee estimates our population at the close of this cen- at a cost of some twenty-five cents a head. tury at something over one hundred million Limestone, blue-grass lands are cheap here, and souls; and whether we study human progress in equally well adapted to grazing to the best in Europe or this country, all the indications favor Kentucky. Poor land will pay better in Bermuthe idea of a great advance in the market value da and other grass than in any hoed crop whatever, while rich land pays better in meadows, Farming and Clover in Northwest Georgia. in the South, than in corn or cotton. The fact Editors of American Farmer : should be borne in mind, that many cities like Inclosed find two dollars ($2,) my subscriva Atlanta and Columbia send a thousa:d miles tion for that old and valuable monthly the Amer. for the hay yearly comsumed. With grass and ican Farmer. Pardon me for not remitting the sheep, one may easily recuperate all old fields, money sooner; I have been waiting to get suland soon double the value of alınost any South
scribers is one excuse for the delay, and I hope era landed estate. In making annual crops of
soon to send you some new names, as I have had wool and mutton, sheep operate on the extensive the promise of several to whom t!re paper has system of good husbandry-drawing nourish- been shown. I am anxious to see a large circuiment daily from mountain sides, hills, plains, llation of the Fariner in this country. It will be valleys, and coves. Where they rest at night, of great value to the farmers bere now that they in yards or folds, and drop the residuum of their
have turned their attention to raising grain and food, (on poor land it may be,) they foster the
grasses instead of cotton. most intensive system of tillage in root crops,
Clover grows here to a greater perfection thau grain, or cotton, by supplying largely the best | any place I have ever seen, keeping green and manures, which cost nothing; and where sheep growing all winter, supporting cattle and keepare properly kept, needs no hauling or spreiding. ing them in yood order, with but very little of These bints are probably sufficient to indicate other food. You will recollect that when I rethe fact that either the Southern grasses of Texas moved to this country from Maryland, my and the West Iudia Islands, or those of Europe neighbors tried to discourage me from raising and the Northern States, will grow on nearly clover, alleging that it would not grow in the erery acre of Southern soil, and pay a better South. Nevertheless, I sowed it, and it has far income than planting ever can, take one year exceeded my expectations --- growing on poor with another, and depend on tree laborers.
land as well as rich. In this country it is an Texas has four species of "mesquite," which
evergreen, and grows all the year, and when once deserve a trial in all the cotton States. The sown need not be repeated. The fields I first writer has tried one of these, and Bermuda | sowed are still beautifully set. Though ther grass, in Georgia, with satisfactory results.
have been planted in corn, the culture of the Gap Creek, Knox Co, Tenn. D. LEE.
corn crop has not destroyed its growth. If sown
in wheat in the fall, the clover comes up in the For the "American Farmer."
spring and yields a better sward than when first The Range of Bees' Flight. sown. It far exceeds cotton, wheat, or corn, in This is a subject of great importance to bee value. The crop of hay will bring more than keepers, as it has been supposed that bees fly cither the above named crops. As a pasture, it only about three (3) miles when collecting boney, is equal, and its a fertilizer, it is of more value, consequently there was a fear lest the apiary than anything raised in the South. Many farmight be overstocked.
mers have settled in this couniry, from Virginia Hlaviny ascertained that there was no bees on and other farming States, and I know of no Kelley's Island, (Lake Erie,) in the spring of country that off-r's better inducements to good 1866, we established an apiary of the Italians farmers than Northwest Georgia. You mar there, for the purpose of rearing more Italian bear from me again. queens, and ascertaining the flight of the Italians
Respectfully, for food. In less than a week after they com Kingston, Cass Co., Gu. A. B. BEST. menced flying there, they were at work on the
The above, from a valued correspondent, was, opposite end of the Island, more than five (5)
by accident, mislaid, afier its receipt, and has miles from their bives. This season we shall
just reappeared. This is the gentlemen we bare curry some of the Italians out on the water, in
heretofore alluded to, who, when he went to a bee hunting box, and ascertain just how far
Georgia, determined to sow clover seed “erery they will work to and froin the hives or feed.
month in the year," until he ascertained the We are of the opinion, however, that they will
right time. We hope to hear from bim again, not work as far on the water as on the land,
and often. [Ev.] where there is a continuons supply of flowers to lead them off from the apiary. We will report further at the close of the season.
14 It has veen estimated that the money loss W. A. Fuasprks & Co. | to England by the catile plague has been $17,963 Shelly, Ohio, Feb. 23, 1867.