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Remarks on a New Mode of Curing Tobacco. closer the tobacco will sweat, and be much Continued from May number.
injured notwithstanding the fire. Here I I now come to one of the most important close my remarks upon this branch of the parts in the management of this valuable crop, subject, as persons purchasing the furnace viz: curing. This is usually done by putting will receive circular with minute directions it in the house directly from the field, 6 or 8 for managing the same, amount of heat replants to the stick, and stick 10 or 12 inches quired at the different stages of curing, &c. apart in the building, trusting to the uncer STRIPPING AND ASSORTING.–This operatainty of the weather to dry it. If the fall tion is one of great importance, and should prove favorable a fine crop may be saved in be done with care and judgment. The difThis way, but if on the contrary (which is not ferent qualities and colors must be separated unusual) the weather should be wet and forgy, carefully; the leaves in a bundle ought to be from one-third to one-half of the year's work very nearly the same length, and the bundles in pounds, which is very nothing of the loss
is very thing of the loss a little above the size of a man's thumb; burnt tobacco (as the phrase is) is much color,
tied with a leaf corresponding in lighter than a sound article. Owing to the part the end of the stems. This gracealein great uncertainty, which always attends the neat appearance and adds to its value. After curing in the natural way, I adopted several tying, the bundle should be opened and placed years ago, Bibb & Co's Tobacco Curing Ap- against the breast of the stripper, smoothed paratus, with which I have been entirely down with one hand and laid straight by his successful, not only saving my whole crop side. Tobacco should never be thrown in a from injury, but greatly enhanced if not common pile (as some do) and necessarily doubled its value. The "Furnace" is so ar- tangled, but ought always to be kept straight. ranged in a barn, as to take up but little room, I arrange my hands for stripping in this the pipes running so near the floor, the hands way: those that I appoint to cull, after taking walk over them without difficulty, enabling off the trashy leaves near the butts, throw all the planter to fill every part of the building, stalks containing yellow in one pile, all bright except a small space near the apparatus. or red, in a second, and all dull in a third. The heat is distributed very uniformly I then place the other strippers, at the ditthroughout the barn by means of two distinct ferent heaps according to the care with which sets of pipes--one set conveying the smoke they assort and tie. The man who strips yelto the chimney or smoke stack, and the other | low, takes off all leaves of that color, and if distributing hot air, drawn off from under a there should remain any bright on the stalk, jacket thrown over the “ 'furnace.” This throws it to the one stripping that quality ; jacket answers the double purpose, of pro- and in like manner the bright stripper, throws tecting the tobacco from scorching overhead, to the man stripping dull. By this arrangeand holding for distribution the surplus heat ment every one has his own work to do, and at the furnace-end of the building. Either the owner (whether at the barn or not) can wood or coal may be used in firing with this by making an examination of the different arrangement. My plan is to use wood (of lots, see who assorts properly. I have found any kind well seasoned) during the day and some difficulty at first in breaking the “ freedup to bed time, when two or three bushels of men” to my manner of doing this work, but coal are thrown in, which insures ample heat by carefully instructing them, and thus excitfor the night, the door of the barn may then ing their pride, at the same time assuring be locked and the fireman retire.
them that under no circumstances, would I The only care necessary on the part of the allow my stripping to be done in any other planter, is to see that the fireman does his way, have succeeded in some short time to duty. I am governed entirely by a ther- my satisfaction. mometer, making a rule to examine this CONDITIONING.-I find from experience several times a day, and if not up to the fired tobacco is much more easily conditioned prescribed heat, call the attention of the opera- than air cured, and in consequence, have tor to the fact, requiring him to be more abandoned the old system of sticking and attentive. The time required to cure a house- hanging up to dry after stripping; as this ful (being previously yellowed) is four or five yery much disfigures the bundles, and in very days. The fire should be then suffered to go damp weather not unfrequently changes the out, the doors and windows opened, and by color, and the tobacco is otherwise injured the first or second morning thereafter (the from its exposed condition. First cover with night being calm) it will be sufficiently soft to tobacco sticks the tier immediately over head, remove to an adjoining barn or tight-sheds and on this wind-row the tobacco in round and closely stowed away. The planter may heaps about four or five feet in diameter. The then proceed to fill as before. I would here bulker standing in the centre, the tobacco is caution those who intend using the furnace passed to him, three bundles at a time, by an the coming season, not to put more than six assistant, he lays it down straight with heads or eight plants on a stick, nor put the sticks out and tails in, forming a circle around himcloser in the house than eight or ten inches self, and so continue until the heap is about apart, unless previously scaffold and kilned three feet high, and then draws himself out by the sun; in that case, six inches will be by a tier pole over head. Next he proceeds cnough. I have found by experience if put to cover (if fine) with a single course of in
ferior tobacco, or what is better, corn blades;
Cranberry Culture. upon which a few sticks are laid—this secures
Very few fruits so well repay the enterprise it from dampness or dust.
In these wind-rows it remains until the first of the skilful farmer as the cranberry; cerwarm weather in spring, when it is examined, tainly none will bear for a long term of years and is found too soft, is shaken out and with so little manure; in fact, none is ever changed to another place; but if found sufficiently dry and sweet (which is usually the given them except what they get by the ancase) the first damp time thereafter, it should nual inundation which their culture requires. be put in large four or six course bulks and The land best fitted for the growth of cranheavily weighted, when it remains soft and berries is a peat meadow. It must be so loin proper condition for packing.
cated that it can be drained 18 inches below PACKING.–There are different modes adopted by planters of doing this work, all of the surface, and flood the same depth above which may have some advantages. The plan the surface. If not situated so that these conI pursue is the old four course system. The ditions can be obtained, it would be useless to packer, after removing his shoes, gets in the
expend money on any attempt to reduce it to sistant Areceiving the tobaccotside course, cranberry meadow. But where these condilaying down one bundle at a time straight and tions can be commanded, and a good supply smooth, with end of heads in contact with of fine gravel, or sharp finty sand is near at the siding; when this is completed, a second course is placed in like manner with the heads hand, we have the necessary conditions; and upon the shoulders of the first; he then turns operation may safely be commenced. The and does the same upon the other side; the first thing to be done is to prepare the land cask is then lined with a single bundle all for the crop, which is done by draining by around as a protection and completes the first ditches about two feet deep, running entirely layer. He then crosses the first at right angle, with courses laid down as before and so con around the land to be used. The surface must tinues until the hogshead is full. Not more be broken up, and made mellow; if covered than 600 or 700 pounds of fine tobacco should with grass and hassacks or bushes, they must be put in one cask. I would advise planters to select moderately warm, and calm days to be thoroughly eradicated by one or two years' do this work, as tobacco should be packed as cropping with potatoes and cabbage, or by soft as possible, without running the risk of carting off the sod and bushes. The land bruising; if harsh and windy days are chosen, must then be graded to a uniform slope from the article will dry to some extent after being broken out of bulk, and the samples will have the field toward the ditches, just sufficient to a coarse and rough appearance, when taken allow the surface-water to run off and not from the cask, which materially affects the stand in pools. Any slope greater than this price. In packing fine, bright and yellow to will require increased depth of water in floodbacco, the bulks should be overhauled, and bundles not coming fully up to the standard, ing, and should be avoided. The sand is must be thrown out, and bad leaves in good spread on in depth from two to six inchesbundles, should be carefully removed, for this the deeper the peat the deeper should be the is a fancy article, and in order to command sand—and the land is ready for the plants, the highest price, the samples must be as near perfection as it is possible to have them.
which should be planted in May or early in I have thus, Messrs. Editors, in an humble June. The land is marked out with a comway, given you, what I conceive to be, some
mon garden marker in rows a foot and a half of the most important points, in the manage asunder, and the cuttings are stuck in by hand ment of this great staple of our State; omitting many of decided utility, with which the about three or four inches apart; the water is readers of your valuable journal, in the to- kept eighteen inches below the surface until bacco growing section of Maryland are fa- November; the sand is frequently hoed meanmiliar. That some will object to my method, while, and kept scrupulously clean of all on account of the apparent care and trouble I take, I entertain not a doubt, but
experience weeds. In November the sluice in the dam is las proven conclusively to my mind, that the shut, and the water raised to at least eighteen more care and neatness, in managing this inches over the surface. If less depth of water valuable crop, the more money is realized is used, there is danger that the ice will freeze from the outlay.
I would suggest to planters of Maryland to into the plants, and a freshet might lift the select the best soil on the farm for the growth whole bed up by the roots, ice and all together. of fine tobacco; plant not more than 12,000 The water is drawn off in May, the following or 15,000 hills to the hand, manure well, culti- year, and the hoeing and weeding followed vate thoroughly-pay particular attention to Curing, Assorting and Packing, and they will up industriously through the summer. No be handsomely rewarded. G. W. DORSEY. crop need be looked for this season, the vines
having hardly taken hold of the peat. Flood The Man and the Pear Tree.. ing is repeated in the same way as the first We crave pardon of the Philosopher, we winter, and, on the third year from planting, know not who he is, to whom we are indebted we may expect the vines to have considerable for the following, that we have done some growth, and a small crop to be taken. Some damage to his talk “About Pear Trees,” as weeding will be needed, as the vines do not first published in Putnam's Monthly, by taking get full possession of the land until the fourth it to pieces in such manner, as to make it suityear; after which they need no labor and no able to the limit of our pages. We should manure, and no care except to flow and drain have been glad to preserve it here in its comthe meadow as above mentioned. The reason pleteness, but for the demand upon us for the for flowing the meadow in winter is to protect more directly practical and paying.- Editor the vines from severe weather; and is kept on Farmer. in spring to drown out the cranberry-worm, “Many people hold, that pear trees are to which makes its appearance in May. Where be desired, because they bear pears, and that the meadow is so situated as to be flowed sud-pears are to be valued for the palate hoc denly, it is a great advantage, as it enables the they are richining sed vencious—for so they owner to draw off the water early in spring certainly are. That is the notion which has to give the vines a good start; and then if possessed some brains, and I cannot deny that the worm should appear in May it can be it is plausible; yet it is mainly a mistaken one drowned out by raising the water for a few
-a narrow and carnal view. days, which does no harm to the vine. An
“Whoever, I continued, whoever prizes simother great advantage in being able to com- ply his existence—who thinks highly of his mand the sudden flowage, is the control which presence, values his deportment, and is conit gives us over the harvesting of the crop; | tent with being '-in other words, whoever sharp frosts often occur in October, just as the believes life is an end rather than a means, fruit ripens, which renders the berry soft and and, therefore, is content to be, rather than to almost worthless. Where we cannot cover
do-he may think himself happy; but he is our meadows at short notice on a frosty even
mistaken. ing, we must pick the crop before frost comes
"So it is with pears—they, too, are a means, even if not quite ripe; but, where sudden
not an end. flowage can be attained, the meadow is put
“Whoever, having grown a fine pear, is under water at the approach of frost and clated, and lays much stress upon the temptdrained next day to allow the berries to ripen ing fruit, is in danger of sorrow and disapand the pickers to go to their work. Cran-pointment—he may be laying up for himself berry meadows once established, continue
a future grief. Yet I must allow, that, if the fruitful almost indefinitely; some on Cape fruit had been nipped by an untimely boy, or Cod have been in constant bearing over twenty arrested by a summer blight, before its juicy years. After several years' growth, the vines flesh had been ripened to perfection, my own need pruning, which is done with a long sharp
sense of propriety would have been shocked; knise, one man cutting the sod, while another for all things work toward completeness, and rolls it up like a carpet as fast as it is sheared thus minister to our satisfaction. Satisfaction, off. The crop is variable, but often reaches
my dear friend--not happiness—is the end one hundred and fifty barrels per acre, and and aim of true existence. Consider what it sells quickly at present for about fifteen dol- is which satisfies, when we look upon a daisy lars per barrel.-- Amer. Jour. of Hort.
or violet blooming in the shelter of a rugged
rock; upon the cedar, the oak, or the beech, A correspondent of the Country Gentle- spreading its broad branches over the shadowy man writes to that paper on the way to have plain ; upon the field of grain waving in the pure cisterns, as follows: This spring my cis- light of the golden sun; upon the succulent tern got quite filthy, and a great many angle- asparagus, pushing through the dark, damp worms in it, and we could scarcely use the earth—these all come to the fulness of perfecwater. I procured a couple of live fish and tion, and we are satisfied with them, for they put them in the cistern, and since that time it are complete. It is so with the wood-duck, has been free from worms and dirt, and smell. diving and sporting in the still waters of an The fish will live and grow finely.
inland lake; with the robin, that sings out his
soul to his mate brooding on the sky-blue they kiss one another; and plant not too deep, eggs; with the slow and stalwart ox, who but so as to cover with an inch of earth, the drags the plough along the fertile furrow; neck whence the roots branch; then sustain with the hound who courses the wily fox, and the stem with a slender stake and the work is with the fox who outwits the chasing hound done. Whoever has done this will value the —these all satisfy us, for they are complete; warm April sunshine, and the soft Apri) show. they do well, what they are made to do. Is it ers, and he will watch in the last of the month not so with men, my friend? We find no fault till he shall see the unfolding buds; and then with a man, or a woman, who does a thing the expanding leaves, and the lusty shoots, well—but are satisfied; and he who makes a wagging in the wind, will give him hope. In perfect pair of shoes, does as complete a thing another year he will wait for blossoms, and as he who sets well on a king's throne, or de- when they come he will be thankful. He will cides justly on a judge's bench.
see to it, that no marauding caterpillars fatten “It is therefore desirable that there, that no curculio whets his tooth in that men and women should do that well which first fruit; for he will walk in the garden in they can do, and find out as soon as possible the fresh morning, in the shimmering noonwhat they can do best, and not waste too tide, and at the shady evening, and will feel much time in tears and complaints because that he has something to live for. He will be they cannot do something else. The man who the providence of his pear tree, and a worthy raises good potatoes is eminently worthy as is he who makes good verses, busts or coaches, and either of them may be a complete man
Castor-Oil Bean. (and so, great), and satisfactory to himself and
Intimations of a revival of interest in the his fellow man. It is not the thing done, but production of the Ricinus communis (or Palma the spirit of the man who does it, that God Christi) have been received from the Southloves.
west particularly, with assurances of its “Now it will be clear, therefore, that, to the attempted culture as a field crop. Mississippi, pear tree, it is necessary to bear pears, for that Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas are peculiarly is its vocation, its purpose. It was for that, adapted, in soil and climate, to its profitable that the brown seed was dropped into the culture; and many persons in the Southwest earth;
that when the warm, bursting spring propose to engage in the business this spring. came, it sent down its delicate root, and pushed In Illinois and St. Louis, where a successful up its tender top, and unfolded its leaves, and farm product has been made of it, the followstretched forth its branches, and, when the ing varieties are grown: Ricinus communis, time came, elaborated its juices into buds en early, four feet in height; R. Spectabilis, dark folding blossomsfragrant promises of future green leaves, five feet: R. Sanguineus, fruit fruit.
red, in clusters, stalk dark red, seven feet; R. "It is right therefore for the pear tree to Lividus, stems brilliant red, fruit green, five
feet; R. Leucocarpus, dwarf, three feet, white “But, for a man, his duty is to furnish the fruit, an African variety; R. Brasiliensis, tree with every possible facility and conveni- brownish yellow fruit, five feet high. ence necessary for it to perfect its purpose; In South Carolina it was reported, years for the tree cannot do this for itself. He is to ago, growing twelve feet high; in the vicinity see that there is good soil, and that it is in of Vicksburg, Mississippi, it has been made a good heart (not made over rich), and well dug very profitable crop; in Texas it produces and broken, so that the rays of the fructifying plants of great size and height. From thirty sun can enter it, and the gentle dews sink into tu one hundred bushels of beans per acre it; then he is to plant the tree in it. And let have been obtained in different locations, and him do that well—for trees are grateful; they two gallons of oil, or twenty-five per cent., like not to have their roots crowded into a obtained per bushel if the seed are good; but small hole dug in a hard soil-no well-bred twenty to twenty-five bushels are an average pear tree will submit to such indignity, and yield in Illinois and Missouri. The R. Lividus many will die if so treated—but rather into is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and the mellow earth; spread out the roots, and will thrive in a variety of soils of different press them among the genial mold, so that I elevations. In the tropics it is planted singly
ten or twelve feet apart. In poorer soils or
Salmon Eggs all Right. more northern localities, a less distance would
The experiment which has been undertaken do. In its native clime the plant bears the by the New Hampshire Commissioners of first season, grows continuously for four River Fisheries, of stocking the Connecticut years, and continues to yield for many seasons. river with salmon, bas so far succeeded well. The seeds are gathered when the pods begin Of the impregnated eggs deposited at the to turn brown.
Cold Spring hatching works, at Charlestown, It is a common crop in all parts of India. N. H., over 99 19.20 per cent. have hatched, The oil is there extracted by boiling in water and have become healthy and very lively and skimming off the oil—a very crude and young salmon. It is the intention of the wasteful mode, and the oil thus obtained is commissioners to rear them artificially, till used exclusively for burning.
they are ready to go to the sea, which will be St. Louis has heretofore been the centre of a year from next spring.
In the fall of next production in this country, and the principal year, 1869, they will return, seeking the place of manufacture. The culture required sources of the river, and will then weigh, it is is very much like that given to com, and the estimated, from three and a half to ten soil should the best of corn land; the plant- pounds, which weight they will soon double ing should be done with the first warming and quadruple. It is hoped that before that of the soil, after danger from frosts is over; time all obstructions at the mills on the Conthe hills should be five or six feet apart, and necticut river will be removed, and that even seven or eight if the soil is sufficiently nothing will prevent the salmon from ascendrich to make the requisite growth; the dis- ing the river as high as they like. tance should be greater in the South than in If the present plans are carried out in regard more Northern locations. As with corn or to stocking this river, a million or more of anything else, thorough culture pays best. young salmon will be put in every year, and The receipts at St. Louis last year are estimated of such a size, that they can safely go to the at 50,000 bushels. The Prairie Farmer says, sea and return; and judging from data obconcerning prices and profits:
tained by experiments tried in English waters, The market price is variable. During the we are authorized to suppose, that by this past winter the beans in the St. Louis market means, the productive wealth of the Connechave ranged from $3.90 to $1.25 per bushel. ticut river will be increased millions of As the cost of growing does not differ mate-dollars annually, as any one can easily see for rially from that of corn, the approximate himself, by calculating the value of a million profits can be calculated. At the present de- salmon of ten or twenty pounds weight. pressed condition of the market, an acre of Great credit is due in this matter to Dr. beans would yield about $25, leaving but Fletcher of Concord, who out of several that little margin for profit. The oil is quoted at made the attempt, was the only one who $2.10 to $2.25 per gallon. As the yield of oil succeeded in procuring salmon spawn for the is about sixty-eight gallons per acre, the man- New England rivers. It should be known ufactured oil would amount to about $150 per also, that the merit of this undertaking, of acre. This gives four dollars to the manu- obtaining salmon eggs for these rivers, is due facturer and one dollar to the producer-a to the New Hampshire Commissioners, acting division which cannot be regarded as equita- independently, and not to the New England ble.- Monthly Report Department Agriculture. Commission generally, as has been before
stated. Should the promise of the present be HILLING UP POTATOES.-The Cottage Gar
only one-half fulfilled, the time will come dener, of London, says earthing up potatoes before long, when salmon will be a common diminishes the produce and retards the ripen- article of food, and together with the vast ing of the tubers. Long experiments in Eng quantity of shad which are expected in a land have proved this fact, that hilling up the few years from our rivers, will very perceppotato will reduce the crop one-fourth. Our farmers must, however, remember that the and enable the poor man to have every day
tibly reduce the cost of living in New England, correctness of this theory depends on the nature of the soil. The potato likes not wet
on his table, food that has long ranked with feet. If there is that danger, better plant us among expensive luxuries.—Mass. Ploughshallow, and hill up.