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The Fruit Garden.

as little delay as possible. Those that have been potted for forcing, should be kept in a sheltered

situation to insure their not being too much satThe principal operations in this department

urated with wet. Strong pricked out plants may will be picking and storing fruit whenever it is

still be potted with good success. Look well to in proper condition to do so; making prepara

the fruit room, and keep it cool and airy-examtions for filling up vacant places in the orchard ine the fruit frequently and pick out all that are and fruit garden. The preparation of ground decaying. In a well ordered fruit garden every for the reception of currants, gooseberries, straw

kind of fruit should have its department, and berries, &c., should be completed as soon as pos

instead of being, as they often are, a row of trees sible. The formation of borders for grape vines

of all sorts and kinds, mixed up in the most hetshould be proceeded with, and stagnant water erogeneous manner. no mixture should be almust be carried off by drains. A stratum of

lowed; every kind should have its allotted place. stones should always intervene between the soil

Thus, pears on the quince stock; the same on the of the border and a cold, adhesive bottom. Al near stock: apples on the paradise stock: the same though these precautions may not be strictly

on the wild apple stock; morello cherries on the necessary in all cases, there are but few instances

mahaleb stock, to be grown as pyramids, the where they can, with propriety, be dispensed best of all methods. The various kinds of duke with. la planting odd trees between old estab cherries on the same stock; heart and biggareau lished ones, a hole of considerable dimensions cherries on the common cherry stock. Plumbs should be made for the young tree, and refilled whether as bushes, pyramids, &c., should all be with new and fresh compost. In the preparation separated and planted by themselves, and not of soil for fruit trees we always endeavor to keep

planted without regard to system or order, as it as dry as possible, and choose a dry day for they have been and continue to be, in many planting, in order that the soil may be in a fa places where planting is being done. When our vorable state for the growth of new roots during minds become turned to improved fruit tree culthe Fall.

ture, we shall see all this, and our fruit gardens The present time is very favorable for relifting

will then become patterns of order, system and and root pruning such fruit trees as are too lux

profit. Fruit trees grown in pots should now be uriant, and require checking to produce a fruit

taken up from the borders where they have been ful habit. In root pruning we prefer to lift the

plunged, the roots which have protruded through tree entirely, unless too large, to cutting off the the bottom of the pots cut off, the branches proroots as they stand. After shortening the roots

perly pruned and trimmed, and the pots stowed proportionately to the growth of the tree, we

away in their winter quarters—previous to which spread them out carefully near the surface, and

we prefer to give each tree a top dressing, rather fill in with the fresh compost, on which is spread

than to defer it until Spring. The compost we a mulching of partly decayed barn yard manure use for the purpose, and which has answered our to prevent frost from penetrating the ground. warmest anticipations, is rotten, or nearly rotten

As time permits, haul out rotten dung ready barn yard manure, chopped up into small pieces to go between the rows of strawberries, &c. and well saturated with strong liquid manure for Whenever the dryness of the ground prevents two or three days, and then used. From two to lifting and transplanting, much may be done in three inches of this top dressing will be amply pruning and thinning the tops, both of trees to sufficient. Form into a neat, shallow basin, the be transplanted and of those which are perma- | tree in the centre, so that the applications of nently established. It will be found to be much water given may be retained. To every one of more pleasant to do this now than in the depth our friends who has a garden, however small of Winter-and it will, by the admission of light it may be, we would say, at this season of the and air, tell much upon the fruitfulness of the year plant fruit trees-apples, pears, peaches and tree, and quality of the fruit for years to come. all the small fruits in as great variety as practiCurrants on wire or wooden trellises should now cable. If only space for one tree, or one dozen be well pruned in. Trained in this way they strawberry plants, plant them. The very variety soon become full of fruit buds, and bear in of fruit at our tables expands alike our desires, mensely in little room, and are easily protected our minds, and our hearts, and tend to raise us from birds, &c.

in the scale of civilization. The man with so Strawberries. Continue to clean the beds and few wants that nature alone will supply them, Blightly stir the surface, and where new planta- / whatever peculiar excellencies he possesses, can, tions are not completed, it should be done with as a man, be little better than a barbarian. We say nothing against the man-quite the reverse

The Flower Garden. who, well aware of the benefits and the pleasures from variety of food, voluntarily deprives him

Cold FRAMES.—Upon the appearance of bard self of that gratification, in order that, by his self-denial and self-effort, he may obtain a desired

frost, the earliest opportunity should be taken to object. But it will be more than we can accom

remove carnations, pinks, picotees, with other

balf hardy plants to their winter quarters. Cold, plish to make the world believe that Concord

dry frames, raised a few inches upon blocks, 10 grapes are no better than the wildings of the

give a circulation of air beneath and among the wood, or the improved varieties of apples and

plants, is one of the best si tuations for them, but pears, than those grown in our gardens fifty

very little water should be given such plants years ago. The great Creator, in his merciful

during the winter season, just sufficient to keep goodness, has presented us with a wonderful variety of the useful and beautiful, that we may

them from wilting ; during every fair day addi

tional air should be given by tilting up or re thankfully and temperately enjoy them all.

moving the sashes entirely. Upon the approach Those wbo are contented with the most com

of severe weather, the vacancies around the mon fruits, when their means would command

frame should be filled up, and a moderate degree all the most select and desirable, can only

of protection given. But during a greater porsecure our respect, when we know the means

tion of the winter no covering will be required, thus saved are devoted to some poble purpose,

as the plants will bear to be frozen without insuch as helping those who, in this, our day, are

jury, if the lights are covered sufficiently to keep in so much need of help.

out the sun rays, when they will thaw gradually

and slowly. McCORMICK'S REAPER IN FRANCE.-By invita

Bulbs, of all kinds, should now be planted tion from the Emperor Napoleon a private exbibi

in beds and borders. Pot Hyacinths, Tulips, tion of the working of McCormick's reaping

Narcissus, Crocus, and Snowdrops, in succession, machine was made recently on the Imperia) farm

so as to prolong the season of blooming. near Chalons, at which the Emperor was present, accompanied by Marsbal Niel, Gen. Le Boeuf,

Carnations and Picotees, not yet rooted from and M. Tiperaud, Director-General of the Im

layers, must be taken off the stools and planted perial Agricultural Estates.

under glasses; those, with a few fibres, may be The trial was a complete success, and gave so

potted ; having inade some root, they will soon much satisfaction to the Emperor that he imme

gaid strength. The good old fashion clove cardiately gave orders for the purchase of three of

nation may be propagated to any extent, from the machines for use on his private farms, and

cuttings in the spring. Carnations will often be earnestly expressed the intention of encouraging

found infested with green fly during the close the adoption of the invention throughout France

weather, at this time of the year, in which case on account of its great labor-saving properties,

fumigate with tobacco, at once, and again in a and said that he would set the example by put

few days afterwards, when they will probably ting it into operation on all imperia) farms.

remain clean till they commence to grow again

in the spring. Such distinguished attention as this has been shown to no other foreign exhibitor, and it is

Chrysanthemums should be looked to so that considered certain that to Mr. McCormick will be

they may have a fair chance of making a good awarded the highest bonors of the International

bloom; give them clear liquid manure, and tie Exposition.

them up securely, as their blossoms being heary

| often weigh down their stems, or cause small Coal SCREENINGS FOR MULCHING FRUIT TREES. stalks to snap with a gale of wind. Those Coal screenings, or slack, is very much used in grown in pots do not put into the house, so long some places, as a mulch for fruit trees of all as they are safe from frost, except any that may kinds. Straw and hay, etc., soon decay, but be required to bloom early, coal-slack will endure for many years, and being / Cyclamens--these beautiful spring flowering a non-conductor of heat, it keeps the soil warm plants should now be taken into the house, and in Winter and cool in Summer. It prevents the have every encouragement to grow for bloom, growth of weeds, keeps the soil from becoming keeping them near the light as possible. baked, and also acts as a fertilizer of considera- Fuchsias are blooming most beautifully since ble power. Coal ashes and small cinders may the change from warm, to moist, moderate also be used for a similar purpose with good ef- / weather. They may be kept in bloom until fect.

very late in the season, by keeping them close. Plants going out of bloom should be kept ex- Planting Asparagus in the Fall. posed to the sun until danger of hard frost, and

Among the many valuable ideas for which left unpruned till the time for taking them in

we have vanity enough to think the horticuldoors, then cut them in slightly and place them

turist is indebted to the Gardener's Monthly in any moderately dry place, either light or

transplanting trees just before, instead of after Jark, until they conimemce to grow next spring.

the leares fall, stands prominent. This is but Revise the whole stock of plants in pots as

"Fall planting." November setting out is really opportunities offer, remove worms from pots,

winter planting. and renew the drainage where it has got stopped up, and prepare for the casualties of winter.

Every year as we note observations and make Greenhouse plants that have been standing out

experimeats, we can see that this early Fall should now be taken into the bouse.

practice will get be applied to many valuable Deciduous trees should now be planted. In

purposes we now have little idea of. Within planting them we do not wait for the falling of

the past two years we kave watched experiments the leaf, we take them up and dispose of them as

made by several gentlemen on planting Aspararequired; the transplanting will do them more

gus in August, and the result is a remarkable good than harm. Forest trees, ornamented

sucoess. shrubs, roses, and all such things, should be

The ground is prepared as for a crop at ang procured and planted at once, and from this other serson, and after cutting off the green tops time every day gained is a real gain for the of the young seedlings the roots are set precisely future well-doing of the trees, which, if the as in Spring planting. They push new roots at weather continue warm, will commence to make | once, and make eyes so strong mat

once, and make eyes so strong that even from roots immediately. But it may grow cooler one year old seedlings, sone Asparagus—but any day, and the longer planting is delayed the not, of course, very strong-has been cut the follonger will it require for the trees to make fresh lowing Spring ,-and where to year old roots roots, on which their success next year will depend. Never plant when the ground is in a same time—a result no one expects from Spring very wet state, if it does not come to pieces planting. readily, wait a few days. Meanwhile see that! In this region the plan has taken strong hold the roots of the trees do not suffer by sunshine of gardeners, and Asparagus planting is likely or drying winds.

to take rank at once with the Strawberry as a Evergreen shrubs may yet be planted, when, / regular August operation. if the earth continue warm, and the air moist, | It will, of course, be best in such cases to cover they will make fresh roots at once. This is also the beds, after they have once become frozen, the best time to make alterations in flower gar with some kind of litter, not to keep out frost, dens, abrubberies, &c. Not the least occasion but to prevent thawing and freezing until the as we have said, for the trees to be quite at rest natural Spring season coines; or the plants may before removing them. If they are still growing, be thrown out. and are to be removed, the sooner they are lifted the same is true of Bhubarb and many root the better, if only to put a stop to tbeir activities.

plants. If put in early so as to have time to put

out a few fibres before winter comes they will To KEEP TIRES ON WHEELS.-Hear a practi

push out very strong next year and a season of cal man on the subject: I ironed & wagon some

growth is saved thereby .- Gard. Morth. years ago for my own use; before putting on the tires I filled tbe felloes with linseed oil; and the tires have worn out and were never loose.- A Dr. Trimble stated before the New York My method is as follows: I use a long cast iron Farmers' Club that since the introduction of the heater, made for the purpose; the oil is brought English sparrow, the canker worm in New Haven to a boiling heat, the wheel is placed on a stick, and in other places has disappeared ; also that B0 as to hing in the oil, each felloe an hour.- the worm has another enemy, a parasite, so small The timber should be dry, as green timber will as only to be seen by the glass, that lays its minot take the oil. Care should be taken that the nute eggs in the eggs of the canker-worm. Othoil is not made hotter than a boiling heat, or the ers ascribed the decrease of the canker-worm to timber will be burned. Timber filled with oil the cold winds and rains of the past Spring, is not eusceptible to injury bs water, and is ren- which occurred after the eggs commenced batchdered much more durable by this process. ing.

For the "American Farmer."

on the surface, has been thoroughly soaked by s Surface Manuring.

rain, its capability for fermenting is gone.

Many of our farmers certainly bare observed CLIFTox, Fairfax Co., Va., Aug. 22, 1867.

the looseness of their soil several weeks after Messrs. Editors :

they have turned under fresh mazure, a sigo Rainy days, I think, are not only an improve that the fermentation of the manure under the ment to the farm, but also to the farmer's mind. surface of the soil has co-operated with the soil At least I, whenever such a day makes its ap- to its benefit. Wbat I have said above is with pearance, am always tempted to pay particular regard to fresh manure. The article referred to attention to the spiritual part of our business, says: “Sbould the plain, practical farmer want reading over my agricultural journals and books. any further proof that tbere is no loss by ferDoing so to-day, as it is raining, I came acrossmentation of any of the valuable constituentsthe July number of the “Farmer" from 1866, what he considers the strength of the manure and found a decidedly able written article on the vastly greater effect of, and benefit received "Surface Mapuring,' although I cannot endorse from rotten manure, ongbt to be more than it fully. I remember now distinctly that, when enough for his satisfaction." Has the writer of I read the article, more than a year ago, I felt this article bore in mind, how mueb fresh tempted to make some remarks, and not baving manure it takes to procure one load of rotten? done it then, I determined, at once, to do it now. Manure, by being put in a pile, loses, in 81 days, Before advocating " surface manuring," a thing 26 7-10 per cent.; in 254 days, 35 7-10 per cent.; important for some sections of the country, but in 384 days, 37 5-10 per cent.; and in 393 days, dangerous for others, all the advantages and 52 8-10 per cent. Take an average of 37 per disadvantages, in regard to location, climate cent. lost before it is applied to the land, and atmospherical influences, ought to be well con- you can make your calculation. By using the sidered and set forth to the public. The state. fresh manure from the stable, you would have ment in the article, that surface manuring is been enabled to manure three times the area as practiced to a great extent in England, proves if retained for rotting. I do not pretend to say, the correctness of my remark in regard to at that the durability of the fresh manure is equal mosphere, as the air of England is naturally to rotten, but being enabled to produce as good very moist. If you go to the interior of France a crop on thrice the area with fresh manure, the and Germany, you will find surface mapuring material for mapure is increased and you enabled mostly confined to meadows. We must not to return it to your soil every oiber year, where forget to bear in mind, that our climate is en- as, by allowing your manure to rot away, you tirely different from that of the old country in would not be able to manure oftener than every general, our soil being subject to a hot sun, sixth year. The view taken in the artiele resevere droughts, and torrents of rain not known ferred to, about turning under mabure, is not in Europe. It is with "surface manuring” as correct. It states : “It also appears that when with most everything in farming, it is subject to manure is ploughed into the soil, there is commodifications, according to different agencies paratively little chance for it to be thas preacting differently under peculiar circumstances pared and brought to the plant, bat that the present at the different sections of the country. roots have to find and use it as they best can. The advocates of surface manuring will mostly Hence it will be seen that, when manure is be found to reside near coasts of large bodies of ploughed under, the roots of plants cannot as water, or in such sections of the country where soon, nor as throughly receive the benefit of it, the air is mostly damp. I agree with them, that as when diffused through the surface soil by the under the peculiar advantages they have in at- rains; while being covered with several inches mospherical respect, the system of surface manu- -often six or eight-of soil, there is compararing in the fall, and turning it noder in spring, tively little chance for rains to dissolve, bring it is practical and to advantage, although I contend to, and diffuse it through the surface soil, that, the earlier the manure can be turned where it is mostly needed." Now, if it is desired under, shallow, the better it is. It certainly is to manure for a crop, the soil has to be well better to have the process of fermenting and de prepared by deep ploughing and harrowing. If composition take place under the surface of the this has been done, haul and spread your manure soil, then on top. · We avaid at the same time and turn it uuder, not more than three inches, any loss by beavy rains, which cannot be pre- sow and harrow. The writer is mistaken if he vented, even if the land is perfectly level. Fur- considers manure necessary for the first start of thermore, as soon as the fresh manure, spread' the young grain. The proof of this assertion

you will find by sowing any kind of seed in the you will see that I am not all an opponent to most miserable, poor soil. By moisture and surface inanuring, if judiciously applied, but that atmospherical influence it will germinate and I strongly object to this practice, as a general grow quite brisk for a certain period. This thing. proves, that manure is not essential for germina Yours respectfully, L. A. Hansen. ting and the first growth. But as soon the roots require more nourishment than they find in

The Selection of Dairy Cows Again. the surface, they will extend downwards in

Messrs. Editors : search of it, and find it in the manure turned under. Our object should always be to induce

The article in your last number, from the downward tendencies of the roots by manure

American Stock Journal, contains truths about and subsoil ploughing, as this enables the plants

selecting cows, which can be disputed by no to withstand drought and other bardships. A

man. There is, mean wbile, one thing not menplant, persuaded by manure to run its roots

tioned, viz. : the system of Guenon in selecting near the surface, never will have the capacity to

and judging cows. This system is comparativeendure unfavourable seasons as well as the other.

ly very little known in our country, and still it Nevertheless, there are circumstances under

is of the bigbest importance, for everybody who which surface manuring is advantageous. For

keeps cows, to be familiar with it. Also, in instance, on meadows, not subject to inunda

this assertion, I am led by experience. In 1852, tion; on young grass after the grain has been

the Danish government sent a gentleman of the removed ; and on wheat, if circumstances have

veterinary department to France, to be instructprevented manuring before seeding. In the first

ed on this subject. After returning, the governcase there is comparatively a small waste, as

ment sent him through the country, from dairy to meadows generally are moist, and the manure

dairy, to instruct such gentlemen as might debeing applied in the fall, the moisture of the

sire to obtain information on the subject. I ground, and the dampness of the atmosphere

then happened to be travelling in Europe and combined, retain the greatest part of the fertil

in Denmark at the time this gentleman made izing agents. In the second case, it depends

his round. He stopped at a friend of mine, entirely upon the season how much of the fer

where I was visiting, and during one week made tilizing qualities are retained. Excessive drought

excursions to various otber estates where large will carry off the greater portion by evaporation,

dairies were kept. It was my good luck to but if tolerably wet season sets in, it will be

accompany him, and being present at the exmostly preserved for the young grass. The ad

amination of about five hundred cows. It was, vantages to the young grass is so great, that we

indeed, astonishing to see how close he was able are justified in running the risk. In the third

to tell the yield of milk of each cow, according case, it is even desirable on level land, if the

to the signs of the Guenon system. Ever since, wheat is tall enough to cover the ground, and

I have made this system my guide, and I can thereby preventing any great waste of the ma

say that I very rarely have been mistaken. The nure by washing. The advantage by surface

only trouble is, that it requires considerable manuring wheat is, that you are enabled to haul

study to acquire the necessary knowledge, if your fresh manure as it is made and spread it.

every one has to teach himself by book; whereBy this process you are enabled to manure a

as, if a teacher, master of the subject, was sent much larger area, and have the benefit of ma by the government through the country to give nure produced after seeding. I cannot close my

instructions, any man, with good common sense, remark on the article without mentioning the

by being present at the examination of two or final point put forth, “that surface manuring is

three hundred cows, would be able to gain the nature's mode." There are thousands of things,

knowledge, required for his own private use, in nature's mode, which have been improved by

one week. sciences. Nature, and all that is found within

Our government spends millions in bricks and the world, was created for the benefit of man.

mortar, and, I think, it might be able to spend Man was created with endowments above all

a few thousands on a thing of só great importe other creatures, and everything was made sub

ance to our agricultural fellow-citizens. ject to his free will and judgment. If we had

L. A. HANSEN. contented ourselves to follow nature's mode, we

Clifton, Fairfax Co., Va., August, 1867. would to-day be savages and not a civilized people.

14 It is said there are 2,548 acres in hops in Well, gentlemen, in spite of all my remarks, Sauk county, Wis. Last year there were but 888.

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