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The Vegetable Garden. The late crop of these should be secured, if possible, when the ground is dry, and not before Prepared for the American Farmer, by DANIEL BARKER, the latter part of the month. The digging is
Maryland Agricultural College. tedious work, and throwing out with the ordinary plough an imperfect operation. The potato
OCTOBER'. ploughs now in use are, some of them, very good implements, and will be paid for in digging an The decline of such crops as late peas, beans, acre of this crop.
cabbage, cauliflower, corn, &c., should be fol
lowed by their immediate removal, and no deWe lose much valuable time in feeding by decaying or useless matter of any kind should be laying too long to pen our hogs that are to be allowed to decay and rot upon the ground. All faltened. The mild weather of early Fall is pe- for immediate cropping, should be spaded or
vacant lots and spaces which are not required culiarly favorable to putting on fat, and the sooner such hogs as are intended for the pen are
ploughed for exposure to the ameliorating in
fluence of the weather. The application of put in a course of improvement, the more econom
manure should be governed by a consideration ically they will be fed. A gradual cbange from
of the late and future crops. The lot assigne the range in field and forest is better than a sud
for onions the late spring, will probably hav den shutting up with full feed. They should be brought, therefore, within a small enclosure and received sufficient without further assistance for
a crop of cabbage. Peas and beans impoverish fed moderately till they become accustomed to
the land as much as most crops, and that part of the change, when their supplies may be increased
the garden occupied by them will require a good till they get as much as they will eat. If we would not consult the strictest economy,
coat of barn-yard manure, and might be approbut make the best meat, the fattening skould Be priated to early potatoes next spring; make it a completed in a small grass lot with a running kind go to waste. A convenient place for such
ru!e never to let any vegetable matter of any stream, or other abundant supply of water, and a shelter open to the South, where they may be all refuse should be taken, and a sprinkling of
things may be found outside the garden, where always dry. There is very great economy in the ashes or charred refuse should be placed over use of well ground grain, and cooking increases each layer, by which a valuable manure heap the value of the food very much. If, in addition
may be formed. to this, erery pair be put into a sty, raised from the ground and well protected from weather, the strictest suggestions of economy will be observed. and an adequate quantity of seed collected for In this case the bottom of the pen should be open the yearly sowing. enough to let all the droppings pass freely
BROCCOLI, about the end of the month, should through to litter supplied underneath.
be taken up and laid in by the roots, in a hori
zontal position, in some sheltered place; this The same general principles are, of course, to
will not only protect it from frost, but check be observed in the feeding of cattle for the luxuriant growth, and enable it to withstand butcher. Let it, therefore, be begun early, and the winter. continued moderately, with constant attention to
to Cauliflowers just heading are easily damaged the comfort of the animal in bad weather. Cows by frost. Go over them frequently and tie the and store cattle should be provided with shelter, leaves over the advancing heads. A portion of and protected properly at night and during the less forward may be taken up, and treated as raios. Give them full opportunity to lay on a recommended for broccoli. Continue to prick Winter's store of flesh and fat. An animal that out young plants, and gradually harden off goes into Winter quarters in fine condition, is those which may have required protection. already half wintered.
Plant out in frames to stand the winter.
Cabbage Plantations may yet be made of the The crop of pumpkins should now be gathered strongest from those pricked out last month, and and stored carefully in a sheltered place, where draw some earth to the stems of advancing they may be convenient for feeding. They make crops. Plant out in beds upon sheltered bor. very good food for milch cows in Autumn, add- ders and beds, but use no protection until severe ing to the quantity and quality of the milk. frosts. To protect cabbage and cauliflowers
the Asparagus.--The stems should be removed,
between the plants every few days with coal, soot, the month, which, if the weather does not set in or quick-lime. Keep the ground between the early, may prove useful. rows of growing crops constantly stirred with
SPINACH.-Keep it well thinned and the ground the hoe or cultivator.
well boed and cultivated whenever the weather CARROTS, as soon as their growth is completed, is favorable. In picking the leaves of Winter should be taken up and stored away for use. Spinach, care sliould be taken not to bruise or
COLEWORTS, BORECCOLE, or GERMAN GREENS.- otherwise injure those that remain, as at this Seed may still be sown for Spring greens. season a bruise will invariably lead to decay.
Every leaf should be picked singly.
Tomatoes, in late situations, where they are part may be taken up, and put in trenches about just ripening, should be picked off and ripened two-thirds deep as the plants are long, packing in some warm place, as the least frost is fatal to closely, and leaving the tops exposed until severe
them. Continue to make a good supply of catweather.
sup while the fruit is abundant. Corn.-Save seed from the best kinds and
Sweet Potatoes should be taken up as soon store away from the ravages of rats and mice.
as the tops are killed by frost. After digging
let them be well dried in the sun, carefully ban. CUCUMBERS.---Pick every day those large enough
dled, and pack for Winter use in dry cut straw for pickles.
or cut chaff. ENDIVE.-Continue to plant out in frames and blanch those heads required for use by gathering Winter use, upon the approach of severe frost.
TURNIPS should be taken np and stored for the leaves together and inverting a fower pot over the plant.
SALSIFY AND SCORZONERA will now be fit to LETTUCE.-Plant out in warm borders where
take up for storing. A portion may be left in they may receive protection during severe wea
the ground during the Winter, as the frost will ther-also upon the South side of ridges laid up
not damage it, and it will be more firm and about six inches from the natural level. Those
sweet for Spring use. in frames should be constantly looked over, and Take every advantage to collect together prukept free from weeds, decayed leaves, and if slugs nings of trees, roots, large weeds, &c.; place are troublesome dust the ground with fresh lime. them together and cover with earth, so as partly Where the accommodation can be afforded, a to char, and burn the remainder to ashes. To quantity may yet be planted in frames, which this heap should be brought all the weeds, &c., will insure a regular supply, independent of the collected in the garden and surrounding grounds. weather.
There is nothing settles such things so well as ONIONS.-Continue to look over those that are
burning them. Upon this may be placed sawstored for Winter use, and remove any that are
dust and refuse from the wood yard, which will
become charred. Such a heap will be most valbeginning to decay.
uable for mixing with earth for potting plants, PARSNIPS should now be taken up, and stored dressing the surface of beds for small seeds, &c. for Winter use, but this is not necessary if there is not convenience for doing it, as they will keep in France regarding the influence of iron on
A curious discovery is said to have been made as well in the ground, and will be all the better for frost, only always have some ready for use in is an absence of iron, vegetation has a sere and
vegetables. On the chalky shores, where there the event of the ground becoming bound by withered appearance, which, it appears, is refrost.
moved by the application of a solution of the Potatoes.—Dig and store before frost sets in. sulphate of iron. Harricot beans, watered with Those which have been taken up and stored this substance, acquired an additional weight of should be looked over and sorted; one rotten sixty per cent. Mulberries, Peaches, Pears, potato will very soon infect half a dozen.
Grape Vines and Wheat, derive advantages from RHUBARB.—Remove the leaves from the plank the same treatment. In the cultivation of Clointended for forcing, and keep the crowns free ver, wonderful advantages have been gained by from weeds and slugs. Some roots may be taken the application of the sulphate of iron on soils up and planted in boxes, placing them in any where it is desired to produce an early crop. warm cellar where there are not other conveni-| What becomes of all the scales which fall from ences for forcing.
the apvils in this our land?
The Fruit Garden.
as little delay as possible. Those that have been potted for forcing, should be kept in a sheltered
situation to insure their not being too much satThe principal operations in this department / urated with wet. Strong pricked out plants may will be picking and storing fruit whenever it is still be potted with good success. Look well to in proper condition to do so; making preparathe fruit room, and keep it cool and airy-examtions for filling up vacant places in the orchard ine the fruit frequently and pick out all that are and fruit garden. The preparation of ground decaying. In a well ordered fruit garden every for the reception of currants, gooseberries, straw- | kind of fruit should have its department, and berries, &c., should be completed as soon as pos- instead of being, as they often are, a row of trees sible. The formation of borders for grape vines of all sorts and kinds, mixed up in the most betshould be proceeded with, and stagnant water erogeneous manner, no mixture should be almust be carried off by drains. A stratum of lowed; every kind should hare its allotted place. stones should always intervene between the soil Thus, pears on the quince stock ; the same on the of the border and a cold, adhesive bottom. Al pear stock; apples on the paradise stock ; the same though these precautions may not be strictly
on the wild apple stock; morello cherries on the necessary in all cases, there are but few instances mahaleb stock, to be grown as pyramids, the where they can, with propriety, be dispensed best of all methods. The various kinds of duke with. la planting odd trees between old estab- cherries on the same stock; heart and biggareau lished ones, a hole of considerable dimensions cherries on the common cherry stock. Plumbs should be made for the young tree, and refilled whether as bushes, pyramids, &c., should all be with new and fresh compost. In the preparation separated and planted by themselves, and not of soil for fruit trees we always endeavor to keep planted without regard to system or order, as it as dry as possible, and choose a dry day for they have been and continue to be, in many planting, in order that the soil may be in a fa- places where planting is being done. When our vorable state for the growth of new roots during minds become turned to improved fruit tree culthe Fall.
ture, we shall see all this, and our fruit gardens The present time is very favorable for relifting will then become patterns of order, system and and root pruning such fruit trees as are too lux- profit. Fruit trees grown in pots should now be uriant, and require checking to produce a fruit- taken up from the borders where they have been ful habit. In root pruning we prefer to lift the plunged, the roots which have protruded through tree entirely, unless too large, to cutting off the the bottom of the pots cut off, the branches proroots as they stand. After shortening the roots perly pruned and trimmed, and the pots stowed proportionately to the growth of the tree, we
away in their winter quarters-previous to which spread them out carefully near the surface, and
we prefer to give each tree a top dressing, rather fill in with the fresh compost, on which is spread than to defer it until Spring. The compost we a mulching of partly decayed barn yard manure
use for the purpose, and which has answered our to prevent frost from penetrating the ground.
warmest anticipations, is rotten, or nearly rotten As time permits, haul out rotten dung ready barn yard manure, chopped up into small pieces to go between the rows of strawberries, &c.—and well saturated with strong liquid manure for Whenever the dryness of the ground prevents two or three days, and then used. From two to lifting and transplanting, much may be done in three inches of this top dressing will be amply pruning and thinning the tops, both of trees to sufficient. Form into a neat, shallow basin, the be transplanted and of those which are perma- tree in the centre, so that the applications of nently established. It will be found to be much water given may be retained. To every one of more pleasant to do this now than in the depth our friends who has a garden, however small of Winter—and it will, by the admission of light it may be, we would say, at this season of the and air, tell much upon the fruitfulness of the year plant fruit trees-apples, pears, peaches and tree, and quality of the fruit for years to come. all the small fruits in as great variety as practiCurrants on wire or wooden trellises should now cable. If only space for one tree, or one dozen be well pruned in. Trained in this way they strawberry plants, plant them. The very variety Boon become full of fruit buds, and bear in- of fruit at our tables expands alike our desires, mensely in little room, and are easily protected our minds, and our hearts, and tend to raise us from birds, &c.
in the scale of civilization. The man with so Strawberries.-Continue to clean the beds and few wants that nature alone will supply them, slightly stir the surface, and where new planta- whatever peculiar excellencies he possesses, can, tions are not completed, it should be done with as a man, be little better than a barbarian. We
say nothing against the man-quite the reverse
The Flower Garden. who, well aware of the benefits and the pleasures from variety of food, voluntarily deprives himself of that gratification, in order that, by his frost, the earliest opportunity should be taken to
Cold Frames.—Upon the appearance of hard self-denial and self-effort, he may obtain a desired object. But it will be more than we can accom
remove carnations, pinks, picotees, with other
balf hardy plants to their winter quarters. Cold, plish to make the world believe that Concord grapes are no better than the wildings of the dry frames, raised a few inches upon blocks, 10 wood, or the improved varieties of apples and give a circulation of air beneath and among the pears, than those grown in our gardens fifty plants, is one of the best situations for them, but years ago. The great Creator, in his merciful very little water should be given such plants goodness, has presented us with a wonderful during the winter season, just sufficient to keep variety of the useful and beautiful, that we may
them from wilting; during every fair day addi
tional air should be given by tiltiog up or re* thankfully and temperately enjoy them all. Those wbo are contented with the most com
moving the sashes entirely. Upon the approach
of severe weather, the vacancies around the mon fruits, when their means would command all the most select and desirable, can only of protection given. But during a greater por
frame should be filled up, and a moderate degree secure our respect, when we know the means
tion of the winter no covering will be required, thus saved are devoted to some poble purpose,
as the plants will bear to be frozen without insuch as helping those who, in this, our day, are
jury, if the lights are covered sufficiently to keep in so much need of help.
out the sun rays, when they will thaw gradually
and slowly. McCORMICK'S REAPER IN FRANCE.—By invitation from the Emperor Napoleon a private exbibi- l in Deds and borders. Pot Hyacinths, Tulips,
Bulbs, of all kinds, should now be planted tion of the working of McCormick's reaping Narcissus, Crocus, and Snowdrops, in succession, machine was made recently on the Imperial farm
so as to prolong the season of blooming. near Chalons, at which the Emperor was present, accompanied by Marsbal Niel, Gen. Le Boeuf,
Carnations and Picotees, not yet rooted from and M. Tiperaud, Director-General of the Im- | layers, must be taken off the stools and planted perial Agricultural Estates.
under glasses ; those, with a few fibres, may be The trial was a complete success, and gave so
potted; having inade some root, tbey will soon much satisfaction to the Emperor that he imme gain strength. The good old fasbion clove cardiately gave orders for the purchase of three of nation may be propagated to any extent, from the machines for use on his private farms, and cuttings in the spring. Carnations will often be earnestly expressed the intention of encouraging
found infested with green fly during the close the adoption of the invention throughout France weather, at this time of the year, in which case on account of its great labor-saving properties
, fumigate with tobacco, at once, and again in a and said that he would set the example by put- remain clean till they coinmence to grow again
few days afterwards, when they will probably ting it into operation on all imperia) farms. Such distinguished attention as this has been
in the spring. shown to no other foreign exhibitor, and it is
Chrysanthemums should be looked to so that considered certain that to Mr. McCormick will be they may have a fair chance of making a good awarded the highest bonors of the International bloom; give them clear liquid manure, and tie Exposition.
them up securely, as their blossoms being heary
often weigh down their stems, or cause small COAL SCREENINGS FOR MULCHING FRUIT TREES. stalks to snap with a gale of wind. Those Coal screenings, or slack, is very much used in grown in pots do not put into the house, so long some places, as a mulch for fruit trees of all as they are safe from frost, except any that may kinds. Straw and hay, etc., soon decay, but be required to bloom early. coal-slack will endure for many years, and being Cyclamens-athese beautiful spring flowering a non-conductor of heat, it keeps the soil warm plants should now be taken into the house, and in Winter and cool in Summer. It prevents the have every encouragement to grow for bloom, growth of weeds, keeps the soil from becoming keeping them near the light as possible. baked, and also acts as a fertilizer of considera Fuchsias are blooming most beautifully since ble power. Coal ashes and small cinders may the change from warm, to moist, moderate also be used for a similar purpose with good ef- weather. They may be kept in bloom until fect.
very late in the season, by keeping them close.
Plants going out of bloom should be kept ex Planting Asparagus in the Fall. posed to the sun until danger of hard frost, and
Among the many valuable ideas for which left unpruned till the time for taking them in
we have vanity enough to think the horticuldoors, then cut them in slightly and place them
turist is indebted to the Gardener's Monthly in any moderately dry place, either light or transplanting trees just before, instead of after Jark, until they commence to grow next spring. the leares fall, stands prominent. This is but
Revise the whole stock of plants in pots as opportunities offer, remove worms from pots, / winter planting.
"Fall planting." November setting out is really and renew the drainage where it has got stopped up, and prepare for the casualties of winter.
Every year as we note observations and make Greenhouse plants that have been standing out experimeats, we can see that this early Fall should now be taken into the bouse.
practice will set be applied to many valuable Deciduous trees should now be planted. In purposes we now have little idea of. Within planting them we do not wait for the falling of the past two years we kave watched experiments the leaf, we take them up and dispose of them as
made by several gentlemen on planting Aspararequired ; the transplanting will do them more
gus in August, and the result is a remarkable good than harm. Forest trees, ornamented shrubs, roses, and all such things, should be The ground is prepared as for a crop at any procured and planted at once, and from this other serson, and after cutting off the green tops time every day gained is a real gain for the of the youag seedlings the roots are set precisely future well-doing of the trees, which, if the as in Spring planting. They push new roots at Weather continue warm, will commence to make once, and make eyes so strong that even from roots immediately. But it may grow cooler one year old seedlings, some Asparagus—but any day, and the longer planting is delayed the not, of course, very strong-has been cut the follonger will it require for the trees to make fresh lowing Spring ,-and where t#0 year old roots roots, on which their success next year will de- have been used, a full crop has been cut in the pend. Never plant when the ground is in a
same time—a result no one expects from Spring very wet state, if it does not come to pieces planting. readily, wait a few days. Meanwhile see that In this region the plan has taken strong hold the roots of the trees do not suffer by sunshine of gardeners, and Asparagus planting is likely or drying winds.
to take rank at once with the Strawberry as & Evergreen shrubs may yet be planted, when, regular August operation. if the earth continue warm, and the air moist, It will, of course, be best in such cases to cover they will make fresh roots at once. This is also the beds, after they have once become frozen, the best time to make alterations in flower gar- with some kind of litter, not to keep out frost, dens, hrubberies, &c. Not the least occasion but to prevent thawing and freezing until the as we have said, for the trees to be quite at rest natural Spring season connes; or the plants may before removing them. If they are still growing, be thrown out. and are to be removed, the sooner they are lifted
The same is true of Rkubarb and many root the better, if only to put a stop to their activities. plants. If put in early so as to have time to put
out a few fibres before winter comes they will To Keep Tixes or WHEELS.—Hear a practi- push out very strong next year and a season of cal man on the subject: I ironed a wagon some growth is saved thereby.- Gard. Morth. years ago for my own use; before putting on the tires I filled the felloes with linseed oil; and the tires have worn out and were never loose. A Dr. Trimble stated before the New York My method is as follows: I use a long cast iron Farmers' Club that since the iatroduetion of the heater, made for the purpose; the oil is brought English sparrow, the canker worm in New Haven to a boiling heat, the wheel is placed on a stick, and in other places has disappeared ; also that so as to bing in the oil, each felloe an hour.- the worm has another enemy, a parasite, so small The timber should be dry, as green timber will as only to be seen by the glass, that lays its minot take the oil. Care should be taken that the nute eggs ia the eggs of the canker-worm. Othoil is not made hotter than a boiling heat, or the ers ascribed the decrease of the canker-worm to timber will be burned. Timber filled with oil the cold winds and rains of the past Spring, is not fusceptible to injury by water, and is ren which occurred after the eggs commenced batchdered much more durable by this process. ing.