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for setting the example of reportiug as well fail- efficiency, is the great drawback to the business ures as successes. Failing of its peaceful pur- of a farmer. This is greatly lessened, but cannot poses, let us hope it may make for peace by a be wholly superseded, by machinery. There more successful application of its warlike capa- may be said to be two classes who make farming bilities.-Ed. Far.
a paying business. The one, born and brought
up in the country, accustomed to labor, early To the Editor of the American Farmer :
rising and abstemious habits, works with and This plant, in full flower, is presented in your leads his men, ihus getting more labor and at a office. Will you be so kiod as to declare in your low cost. By halil, by inclination, and by nenext issue if it is the Canada Thistle? If not, cessity, he has been taught to look on the paterwhat is it? Information will be thankfully re nal acres as the only source of competency, if cuired by a subscriber.
not wealth, and as affording the only means of The plant left as above is not Canada Thistle,
a settlement on arrival at manhood. Every one but belongs to the Solanum family, and its com can point to hundreds of cases like this, in every mon name is Horse-Nettle.-Ev. Far.
sectiou of the country, where such beginners,
after passing through the ordinary active period The Profits of Farming.
of life, have settled dowu at last in a quiet erenWhile the business of Farming in many re ing and an abundant competency. These men spects differs from all other business, we have started ou the shin of beef, and they can afford never been able to see that in the general princi- to finish off on the rib.” Noney with this class ples on which it is to be conducted, it is excep- is made and saved, and it is also accumulated by tional in character, or differs from all other saving. Their own labor and unremitted attenpursuits more than they differ from each other. tion aad devotion to business, makes up, and These differences are in kind, but not in degree. more than makes up, often, for inadequate and A man may make a successful merchant or an un unscientific culture. The other class ad verted to, successful farmer, and vice versa, and precisely who also make money by farming, consists of the same reasons operate in both cases. Success those who, brought up iu the city, have yet a in any pursuit inplies first that a man must be preference for agricultural life. They cannot interested in it, that he must make himself labor, but they have capital. They invest in thoroughly master of it in principle and in prac- good laud, and, by draining, liming and manurtice, and then that he must attend to it energet- ing, by deep ploughing and through culture, ically and perseveringly.
raise premium crops. Their live stock embraces It is utterly impossible to carre doctors and the best breeds, and yields the largest products. lawyers out of some people, and we know of one If their cows and sheep cost some hundreds of person who failed three times as a dry goods dollars each, they also yield a heavy percentage merchant, and afterwards succeeded, and became or profit on the investment. A cow costing very wealthy, as a machinist. We happen to $350 (a frightful price to many farmers) is conknow of another case, where a person seems to sidered a very profitable investment, if she prohave a dislike to green grass and green fields, re duces a calf which is worth $100 at a few weeks maining in Philadelphia as a matter of choice old, and also yields $50 to $75 worth of milk through the whole of the most sultry season, and butter per anum. often remarking "that nothing looks so green These mea have a working eapitul to expend in and delightful as the red bricks." Let circum- the management of their land, and they charge stances of any kind place this person in posses- it (the land) with the interest of this capital, sion of a fine farm, well ornamented, and stocked and do not saddle the outlay on the annual crop. with the finest cows, sheep, horses, &c., and we We know of cases like these where money to a should soon bear of farming being very unprofi :- pretty large amount has been invested in such able,-of the expenses of fencing, of accidents farming, and where it is considered to pay, to the live stock, of short crops, and everything taking an average of five or ten years, as well working the wrong way. A version to a business as merchandising. of any kind is no more certain to result in want A cow making six pounds of butter only per of success than is ignorance of the proper way week would soon be weeded out and sold to the to manage it; and this brings us to the question butcher, and 150 bushels of potatoes to the acre, of why farming has the standing stigma of being, 40 bushels of corn or oats, 20 of wheat, and one per se, unprofitable.
and a half tons of hay, would be considereil beIt cannot be disputed that in the United hind the times, and as more adapted to the earlier States the high price of labor, no less than its in- ' years of the 19th century, and most certainly
not its last half. These men have been accus- | aecounting for their not advancing. There was tomed to keeping regular book accounts with a difference in the return of the lots of pigs in their business, giving it debits and credits for favor of those fed on cooked food of £1 7 3. profits and losses, and they decline to grow ox Knowing as we do that there is a considerabile eye daisy, wild carrot and other nosions weeds, difference of opinion among farmers upon this because they will not pay, the market for them question, the above is submitted to their attenbeing always a dull ove. For the same rettson tion in the hope that they will give us their own they consider it rather cheaper to stop the liquid views npon the subject, which is one, they will waste from their barnyards than to pay $100 all admit, worthy of consideration.-German per ton for Peruvian guano.-Pradical Farmer. town Telegrapa.
Experiments in Feeding Cattle.
Manuring The Wheat Crop In England everything connected with agri. Manure holds the same relation to the farm culture is experimented in, without regard to ex that steam does to the engine; it is the force pense, in every possible way. In no country has used to accomplish the desired result. Let the the cultivation of the soil been carried to a one fail in the engine and the wheels stop, let the higher state of perfection, or in which it is more other be withdrawn from the soil and its usefu) productive, and as an ocupation, more lucrative products rapidly and constantly diminish. If We always read with pleasure the results of fur- ibe farmer cannot manure every crop, then he ming, and especially the many experiments should consider from which he can best afford to which are tried there with a view to discover the withhold the fertilizers. If he designed growing most successful and profitable way of conducting a crop of oats, followed by one of wheat, it the various operations on the farm.
would not be wise to apply the manure to the The following experiment in feeding cattle oat crop and give none to the wheat. It would with cooked and witb fermented food, was lately not pay as well; the crop af manure sould be tried upon one of the largest estates. It will be sold in a cheap market. So, too, it might be inseen that this experiment suggests the importance judicious to wanure a crop of potatoes and have of great care and cantion in feeding, before a de none to apply to the succeeding grain. The cided opinion is adopted in so nice and delicate a season in which manure should be applied, the subject as the nutrition of animals, the lealth stnge of the crop), and the deptb at which it should and constitution of which is so various.
be placed, are also topics which the farmer should Four heifers were selected, as equal in all re tbiuk much about. Many consider that is maspects as possible : and six pigs were also selected, nure is only buried in the soil it is enough, do from the same family; each lot was divided by matter whether it be deep or shallow, whether the selection, alternately, of an animal. All the subsoil be firm or leachy, if the manure is in were weighed, and at the end of each week the earth the crops, they argue, will get ihe full during the experiment each animal was weigbed. benefit of it—some time or another. But this is
In the first week of the experiment the fer- not always true, and it is certainly more scientific mented food consumed was much less than the and profitable farming to apply manure--not to other, and the increase of the pigs in live weight increase the general fertility of the soil with a is considerable more; and the heifers also seemed view to benefiting several crops in succession to have made rapid advances. The second but to directly augment the yield of a specified week, however, changed the scene entirely. crop. This course will bring the wost profit, Those on cooked food were making steady pro- for products wluich command the highest prices gress, while those on fermented food had pro are thus largely increased. duced scarcely an increase from the preceding Doubtless most farmers will asseat to the asweek. It was then observed that the bowels of sertion that the wheat crop needs manure as the lot usi fermented food had been confined, much as any other one, and pays as vell for iis and had become free in the second. The appa- liberal application. But the profits of this operas rent success in the first week was the result of in- tion may be greatly varied by the manner in digestiou and accumulations of undigested mat which it is done. Plowing in mature deeply ter in the intestines. The experiment continued will not give as good results as placing it on, or for twelve weeks—those on cooked food thriving just uoder, the surface. It is less labor for the and increasing, the others not. On slaughtering farmer to plow in the manure, for it is easier to them, it was found that the intestines of the three haul it on a hard surface than over freshly ploved fed on fermented food were full of worms-thus ground. And then it is out of the way of the
hurrow and the drill; but when buried deep it i stocked ? The answer is, empliatically, No. does not nourish the young plant in its first There are at least a million farms in the whole growth, and impart to it strength and size to en United States, and if all the other nurseries are dure the approaching winter. Nor does it mulch equal in extent to those already mentioned, the surfice and protect the tender plants from which may be the case, then there are only ten heaving frosts and Wighting winds. The rains trees annually, each, for these farms. A farmer in their descent wash the soluble elements down- wants a hundred apple trees, and a hundred Wirds and away from the searching roots. Sur. more others of different sorts, for a fair family face manuring reverse these processes, and is supply of fruit. Twenty years would be remore rational and productive of more immediate quired, therefore, for even this moderate supply, and visible results.
provided every tree lived and grew well. UnWell fermented farm-yard mannre is good der present management, we are sorry to say, enough for any crop, and the best manure for not one-half ever reach successful bearing-thus all, but the trouble is we can't get enough of it. prolonging the designated period to forty years Whether the wheat grower can afford to purchase -by which time, as an average, the whole will and use fertilizers is a question which he must need renewing. It may be, therefore, laid down settle by experiment and observation. Lime as a fact, that the present entire extent of nursemay often be used with great profit; plaster is ries in the United States, is required for supply. beneficial in some seasons, and salt returns a libing the natural decay, to say nothing of planta eral profit if sown on land rich in humus. Fer- ing new orchards op unoccupied lands. tilizers for the wheat plant should be applied be In the preceding estimate, it is intended to fore the seed has germinated, as a general rule. give merely the average plantings for a general at least before the spring growth begins. The supply--although in aetual practice, many landpreferable time is just before sowing.
owners raise large orchards for furnishing fruit
to those who have none. By bringing village New York Nurseries.
and city population into the account, a larger The nurseries which are situated along the supply will of cours be needed.--Co. Gent. line of the New York Central Railroad, have been long famed as among the most extensive in Heading off the Curculio. the country, and in the world. This railroad Ip a recent number of the Ohio Farmer there ships more trees by far than any other line. At was an account of a meeting of the Cincinnati Rochester and Syracuse, and intermediate points, Horticultural Society, at which a letter was read about four thousand tons of trees were distribut- from P. S. Bush, of Covington, Ky., detailing ed during the autumy of 1866 and the spring of his method of heading the curculio froin the 1867—one year's sales. The following statement plum trees. It consists in removing the turf of these shipments, from the priocipal points, from around the trees, if any there be, over a was furnished us by W. G. Lapham, superin space somewhat larger than that covered by the tendent of this division of the ro:d :
top or branches, and covering the ground hilf From Rochester....
... 2449 tons, an inch thick with marble dust, leached ashes, Fairport, (Penfield nurseries)... 108 Macedon.......................
blue clay, or gravel well composted or beaten Newark ........................
down. This forms a coating iippenetrable to Lyons........................
20 Syracuse....................... 210
worms and insects. The experiments tried were Geneva .......................
confined to the gravel and marble dust, used The quantities shipped at other places, will singly, but the other materials mentioned, it is probably run up the amount, on the whole line, supposed, will answer the purpose, Trees, upon to five thousand tons—the net value of which ground thus prepared, have borne a full crop of would be about a million dollars, and the num plums ever siuce. J. W. Rust, residing also in ber of trees probably over five millions. In ad- Covington, saves his plums by burning tobacco dition to this amount, large quantities are ship- stems under the branches of his trees every mornped at Rochester by the Genesee Valley Railroad ing. He was induced to do this by noticing the to the Erie road, and by steamer to Canada; at fact that a plum tree, under whose sbade he was Geneva by steamer south; and at Syracuse by accustomed to enjoy his pipe daily, produced a the Syracuse and Binghamton, and by the Syra- fine lot of fruit, while all the rest cast theirs cuse and Oswego railroads. The question natur from the action of the curculio. Acting on this ally occurs-Will not sucb a vast number soon hint, he fumigated his trees with the smoke of supply the whole country, with all the orchards burning tobacco stems, and saved his plums.--and trees needed, and the market become orer- ! Rural New Yorker,
" Golden Fleece."
Dover Plains on Ilarlem Railroad, and sixteen Our United States neigbors have long over
miles from Poughkeepsie on the Hudson River
Railroad.- Canada Farmer. looked the merits of the long-wooled and mutton breeds of sheep, and have given the greasy little Winter Wheat-Drilling & Manuring. Merinoes a moropoly of their affections Latterly, however, a gratifying change of opinion
Observation, during the past year, has more has been observable, and bere and there enter strongly confirmed our belief that drilling is preprising sleep-men have begun to patronize the eminently the best method of sowing winter Cotswolds, Leicesters and Downs. The founda- wheat. Frequent freezing and thawing during tion of a number of focks has been laid, and we
the late winter and early spring months does
more damage to the wheat crop through the expect in a very few years that Canadian flockmasters will have to mind what they are about, country, than all other causes of harm conubined. or they will find themselves outdone by their Drilling wheat in a proper manner is the best spirited neighbors, in the breeding of long
within immediate and general reach of farmers
to counteract this evil. The drill covers the seed wooled sheep. Among those who deserve honable mention in this connection, is Mr. John D.
at a uniform depth, and it should leave the soil Wing, "Maple Shade” farın, Washington, Dutch-crowning between the rows of grain ; this little ess Co., New York. This gentleman has got ridge is a protection against the cold winds, the together a fine flock of Cotswolds, consisting of lightest snows lodge behind it on the crowns of selected animals from the best flocks of thorough- works from it downward to cover the roots of
the plants, and when the ground thaws, the soil bred sheep in England. They are strictly pure, without a cross, and every sheep bas a reliable
the wheat a little deeper. Other advantages re. pedegree. Mr. Wing bas neither spared expense
sulting from drilling over the method of handnor trouble, bis object being to form a flock of sowing, are, a saving of time, the cultivation
the drill gives the land-equal to one harrowing choice blood, second to none in the world. Most of the sheep composing his flock were bred -exactly the desired quantity of seed per acre by Mr. Wm. Lane, of Broadfeld, a name that
sown, and scattering it evenly. We may add
that the work is finished as the drill passes along, stands among the bighest on the list of breeders on the Cotswold Hills. Others of these choice
which is some importance in case a heavy rain animals were suppiied by Messrs. Garne, of Aldsworth, Hewer, of North Leach, and Fletcher, tion that when manure is applied to winter
We are equally well convinced from observaof Andoversford, all of whom are known as care
wheat, the best way is to put it on the surface, ful and successful breeders. Along with his im
or incorporate it, by using the harrow or gangported sheep, Mr. Wing brought over an experienced Cotswold shepherd, who has charge of plough, with two or three inches of the top soil.
In this position, it affords winter protection to the flock.
the grain, and the soluble parts are readily taken The sheep from this flock have never been
up by the roots of the plants. The best results shown that they have not carried off the highest to the grain crop will be derived from the surhonors, and the prize ram "Golden Fleece,'' was
face application of manure, and if grass follows, shown at the New York State Fair at Saratoga is it generally does, that, also, will receive the last year, where he won the first prize, also at
most immediate benefit. We have seen very Dutchess County Fair with the same result, and large crops of grass taken this season from land at the Auburn Fair of the New York State Sheep of doubtful quality, the result of heavy surface Breeders' and Wool Growers' Association in manuring on the preceding winter grain. MaMay, 1867, when, after taking the first prize in
nure ploughed under deeply is like a rich subhis class, he won the sweepstakes prize. He soil; it is a good thing to underlie a farm, but sheared on this !ast occasion twenty pounds of it costs some labor and takes time before the crops wool. He was bred by Mr. Wm. Lane, sired by receive the full benefit of it. “Cotswold King''-the highest priced Cotswold
One reason, we think, why manure is so often sheep ever sold, viz: $1260 in gold—and bis ploughed under, is the greater labor involved in dam was winner of the prize of the Royal Agri- drawing it on the field after it is broken up; cu!tural Society of England. He is the stock sometimes the manure is so coarse as to obstruct ram, being used in the flock at present, and his the barrow or drill if on the surface. But it is lambs are very promising.
easy to spread the manure from the unploughed Mr. Wing's farm, "Maple Shade" is at Wash on to the ploughed ground, if it is in small piles ington, Dutchess Co., N. Y., about six miles from' and uniform rows.- Rurul New Yorker.
......690 .......... 26
37 170 30
Preparation of Land for Wheat. that its gluten, which contains a large percent
Much wheat is lost every year by being heav- age of nitrogen, is invariably increased by the ed out by frost. This seldom happens except in increased proportion of nitrogen in the manure. light soils, or in land in which the seed has been The composition of wheat varies greatly acsown so late in the Fall that it had not time to cording to many circumstances, such as soil, become firmly rooted before vegetation was mapure, climate, variety, time of sowing, and checked by frost. Shallow ploughing is fre- time of harvesting, &c. The following analysis quently the cause of wheat being heaved out, by Sprengel may be taken as an average: 100,000 also the stagnant water of urdrained soils, for parts dry wheat contains 1,777 of ash or inorthe roots cannot penetrate deep enough to draw ganic matter; the same quantity of wheat straw up those ingredients which are necessary to sus contains 3,518 parts of asb. They consist of the tain the plants, or to acquire a firm hold on the following substances : soil. Soil saturated with water expands consid
Potash.......... erably in freezing, and in doing so, fractures the
2870 has been thoroughly drained, and deepened by Sulphuric acid. subsoiling across the drains.
Chlorine....... Heavy clay lands have generally been denominated “wheat soils," yet some of the most abundant crops of this grain have been raised
One hundred parts of wheat, in its natural on sandy soils, which have been properly tilled state, contains, according to Gregory, the fuland enriched by manure. Previous to the in- lowing ingredients : troduction of the turnip into the busbandry of
Gluten..... England, stiff, clay soil was alone thought suit Starch able for the production of wheat, and it was
Gum, dextrine, pectine and sugar....... 46
Fibre and Husk ameliorated by fallowing and frequent plough
82.31 ings, &c. The introduction of turnips produced a complete revolution in the system of cropping. According to another analysis by the same Naked fallows disappeared and a regular system chenist, the parts were thus divided : of rotation of crops has been established, by
12.9 means of which the land is manured evenly, Organic matter....
1.9 and weeds and destructive insects are banished.
99.01 Soils so light as to come under the denomination of “blowing sands" have been consolidated by We may understand the properties of a magrowing turnips, and folding the sheep to eat nure, and yet not apply it properly. If we make them on the fields; their tranpling and drop- use of an abundance of ammonical manure, the pings being sufficient to make a light soil tena stem and leaves of the wheat plant will become cious. Heavy, ienacious soils have been ameli
so large and succulent that the roots will not be orated by drainage, the adoption of the drill able to support them, they will fall down and system of husbandry, and rotation of crops. fail to produce a crop. We must endeavor lo
Wheat delights in new soil, but it is necessa remedy this evil, by making use of a manure ry that the roots of the grasses and other plants that will give strength to the stem as well as should be decomposed, in order to prevent their weight to the grain. growth, and to furnish food to the wheat plants. It has been well established by repeated analyLand that has been for sometime in tillage and ses that silica forms a considerable part of the then laid down in good heart, and allowed to straw of wheat, and that potash and phosphoric remain for a few years in grass, when broken up acid exist in the grain, and a certain portion of again will generally produce a better crop of lime in both straw and grain. It is evident that wheat than "wild soil," that is soil which has the soluble silica which is absorbed by the straw, never produced a cultivated crop. Nitrogenous should be given back to the soil by turning the manures are best suited for wheat. Professor straw into manure, instead of selling it in the Johnston proved this in his “ Lectures on Agri- markets. One cause of the deterioration of the cultural Chemistry.” If we take a wheat plant wbeat crop is the removal of the straw without and examine the composition of the flour it con compensating the soil for the ingredients which tains, as raised on different soils, and from the have been absorbed by it. application of differeut manures, it will be found Wood ashes contain a considerable quantity