« AnteriorContinuar »
interest will soon cease, and that the whole coun
try will ere long be devoted to the interests of " Thite ermine now the mountains wear,
peace. Not until then can the material interest To shield their naked shoulders bare.
of Southern Agriculture, on which allother inThe dark pine wears the snow, as head
terests are based, be restored to that point from Of Æthiop doth white turban wear.
wbich it may take a start on a new career of
prosperity. The mind of the Southern people is
and embarrassments of their political condition
shall allow it.
Within a year past the people of Maryland 'Tis silence in the earth and air."
have spent a million of money to feed the hungry and clothe the naked of the States of the
South. The voice of protest against their poGossip from the Farm.
litical wrongs which sounds unbroken from the
tops of her Alleghanies to the shores of the Good FARMER : This month of November is a month of elections, and all the country is alive lue than food and clothing. Yours, truly, &c.
Ocean, has a moral worth which is of more vawith politics. What shall a countryman say tben, if something he must say, and shun the ground, for your pages, forbidden. He may re Work for the Month. cord a fact which is very remarkable now, and in long years coming will interest such readers The work for this month on the farm is the as may be conding the record of the past in your closing up the operations of the season generally, then musty pages; it is this, that in this good and making all those necessary preparations, yet old State of Maryland, every county, every towu, unfinished, which conduce to the comfort and every ward, has cast its vote the same way, well-being of all within the circle of the farmer's electing Governor and erery State Official, every
CORN CROP. Senator, every Member of Assembly, every Judge, every Att ey, every Clerk and Register, all The corn should now be got under lock and Sheriffs, County Commissioners, Mayor and City key as quickly as possible. It is by this time Councilmen of Baltimore-all without exception sufficiently cured, and is every day, as the season of that side that, in the belief of her people, advances, more liable to depredations. The caremeans kindness and good will and sympathy and ful manager will always inform himself of the love for our afflicted and helpless brethren of the number of barrels put away, and of the quantity South.
already fed to hogs and other stock, and thus Let it be hoped that it is a harbinger that all ascertain as nearly as possible the yield per acre. division of sentiment on matters vital to their Tbe young farmer who will, every season, care
CARE OF STOCK.
fully estimate his crop by its appearance as it being fed for the butcher may be confined to stands in the field, and then pass it through the their pens, prorided they be fattened off as quickly corn barrel, will soon be able, by such practice as possible and are amply littered. Store sheep in this and other crops, to form a correct judg. should have full liberty in all good weather. ment of the value of land by the growing crops,
Hog8.—Continue the feeding of hogs for besides having the advantage of knowing at slaughter, as heretofore directed, until you get every step of his business, just what he is doing. rid of them. Give them a little salt occasionally, The corn shucks make a valuable fodder, and
or corn soaked in salt water, and charcoal or should be well preserved under cover.
rotted wood, and let them be very quiet. In
slaughtering do not indulge servants in the brutal We have spoken repeatedly of the care of stock practice of bleeding them to death, without first at this season. No time should now be lost in striking on the head; nor do not allow them to making all necessary provision. It is too much
be raced around ip catching them for slaughter.the practice to allow store cattle to shift for them
Such practice is injurious to the quality of the · selves in the fields to so late a period that they meat. Store hogs should be kept in thrifty conbegin to lose flesh before the regular winter feed- dition, and not allowed to sleep about manure ing in the yard begins. This is very bad econo
heaps, or other filthy places. A bed of leaves on my. Experience amply shows that cattle kept
a wooded hill-side to the south, is best for them. well to their flesh in this month are much more
Water.-Have water in your yards if possible. economically fed through the winter, than when the purest is the rain water from a clean roof, allowed to fall off as they soon will do, to a point and it costs little to havycistern and pump. inconsistent with vigorous health. Cows that are to calve in spring are particularly liable to suffer seriously, and their lives are often endan- of being handled without breaking, the work of
Whenever the tobacco is soft enough to admit gered by this sort of carelessness.
stripping off the leaves and tying, in preparation Work Horses.—Work horses and mules, if they for market, should be carried on with no loss of have work to do now, need more than usual
time. Early in the senson, a press of other work Let them have ample stable room and bed- is very apt to cause the stripping to be postding. Let them never be put up without being poned, and if the crop be a large one, the getting rubbed dry, and their feet and legs cleaned.
ready for market is too long delayed. Great Working Oxen.—These should always be fed care should be observed in the proper sorting apart from other cattle. When not at work they and handling. On each plant there will be will drive off the weaker stock from their food, usually three or four sorts, which should be put and when kept out of the yard at work they will each in its separate allotment. In taking down suffer in turn by having their rations interfered the crop for stripping, do not allow the sticks to with.
be thrown to the ground, but handed down with Cows.-Such as are to furnish milk through care. The bundles are to be neatly tied, and the winter should be as well tended as a riding then while held in one hand, pressed by the or driving horse, with warm shelter, good bed, other against the breast of the stripper into the perfect cleanliness, with bran and cornmeal, and shape it is intended to have wben taken out of sugar beet or ruta baga. A good cow pays well the hogshead for inspection. It shows better for the best attention. Cows in calf should be when pressed into a fan-like shape. This is very comfortable and very quiet. Do not make them quickly done by passing the hand over it; then very fat, but keep them in strong condition. the bundle is to be laid down with care, not
Calves.-Calves weaned should be provided thrown down. It is an easy matter to make it with shelter open to south and east, and have keep this shape throughout the preparation for best hay or coro fodder, with little bran or meal market. The value of the crop is much enhanced daily, if you would have them continue to grow. by neatness in handling it, and attention to such Do not suppose it necessary that young animals little matters begels a habit of care very essenshould cease growing now, and take two or three tiat to the successful planter. On the close of a months of spring to fill up their wasted dimen- day's work all done during the day is to be laid sions, before starting for another season's growth. in bulks of two rows, with the tails somewhat They need not be forced, but let them not lose a lapping, and with no weight upon it but a few day of growth.
tobacco sticks. The floor of the house is to be Sheep.—Sheep should have open shelter, and cleared up, the sticks put out of the way, and racks and troughs for feeding. Such as are the tobacco stalks preserved under cover. It is
a common practice, and a most wasteful one, to pose. The most convenient plan is to transfer throw them out of the door, and expose them to it to a hot bed provided with a moderate bottom the washing from the roof. From an estimate heat, by placing about one foot of fresh stable made with some care, we have found the stalks manure and leaves at the bottom, covering with from twenty acres of tobacco worth for manure about six inches of soil, upon which place the abont as much as a ton of Peruvian guano. plant in close proximity, covering the crown
with light soil, and allowing as much sunlight Continue the ploughing of such stiff land as
and air as possible-thus an abundant supply of may be benefitted by exposure to frost. We do this most useful vegetable may be obtained. not recommend fall ploughing except in that CELERY.Take advantage of every favorable case. It is allowable too for the sake of patting opportunity of earthing up the late crops, both forward the spring work.
for the purpose of blanching and protecting it.
ENDIVE-Can be much easier kept and in betAmong the suggestions proper to the season,
ter condition by being taken up from tbe open we should not omit the curing properly the ba- ground and placed in frames, or any open, airy con we have fattened with so much cost. The shed, where it can be protected by a covering of following recipe will make as good bacon as any one may wish to eat:
CAULIFLOWERS— In frames will require all the For one hundred ponnds of meat, take six gal- air possible in favorable weather, and to be kept lons of water, nine pounds of salt, half fine and free from weeds and decayed leaves. If any are half coarse, three pounds of brown sugar, one
plauted in pots for the purpose of protecting quart of molasses, three ounces of saltpetre, and
them during severe weather, they should be careone ounce of potash. Boil and skim it well, fully attended to with water, otherwise in spring and let it stand until entirely cold; then, have
they will be found useless. ing rubbed your meat with fine salt, pour this
LETTUCE.—Those in frames for present use brine over it; let it remain six weeks, and then should be kept dry and free from weeds and hang up and smoke.
dead leaves. The young ones also in frames
should have all the air that can be given them The Vegetable Garden.
in fine weather. Keep them, as well as those in
borders, free from litter of all sorts which is Prepared for the American Farmer, by DANIEL BARKER,
likely to harbor slugs. Maryland Agricultural College.
Osioss.--Look over those which are stored,
and turn them over, seeing that they are all DECEMBER.
sound; remove all that are beginning to decay.
Potatoes-Should be looked over where they The work to be done this month will depend
are placed in a cellar, and all mouldy and deupon the state of the weather. Should it be
cayed ones picked out. damp and wet, keep off the ground by all
RHUBARB.—Take up and pot roots for forcing, If frosty, much work can and ought to be attended to.
if a succession is required; or they may be placed All the cabbage tribe should in a warm cellar and slightly covered with soil. be protected, if necessary. Turnips and pota
SPINACH - In picking the leaves off winter toes should be taken in and placed in the root cellar or other convenient place. Haul on ma
spinach, great care should be taken not to
bruise or injure those that remain, as at this nure, plough and spade up every piece of vacant
season a bruise invariably leads to decay. Eveground, whenever the weather will permit. The
ry leaf should be picked singly. advantages gained by these operations are very great, particularly where the soil is of a clayey nature. During hard frost, the manure for the
The Fruit Garden. whole spring cropping should be hauled out, laying it in heaps either on the spots where it is Orchard trees of large size are much neglected to be used, or as near to them as possible. Wbat in many places, the heads being allowed to becannot be used immediately should be laid in come too thick of wood, so that fruit cannot be heaps and be covered with soil to prevent evapo- expected but from the points of the outside ration,
shoote, and unless trimmed out by accident, the Asparagus.- Where there are conveniences fruit considerably below an average crop, morefor forcing this delicious vegetable, now is a over, being small and very indifferent in quality. good season to take up the root for that pur. The pruning of all sorts of fruit trees, except
peaches, should now be vigorously prosecuted. tions, tulipe, &c The great secret is to keep Leave nothing to the spring which can be done them secure in bad weather, but at all other penow. Every day gained now will give greater riods to have them freely exposed to the action liberty for the many pressing operations in the of the atmosphere, so that they grow up strong spring.
and be enabled to withstand hard weather of orPrune all currant and gooseberry bushes, clear dinary character. Now is the time to secure a off the prunings, and have the ground manured valuable supply of material for enriching the ready for spading or ploughing.
flower beds. Leaves are generally, at this sea. Let standard trees which were removed during son, every where abundant. They should now the fall, or root pruned, be well secured against be collected and put in some out of the way winds, and should the weather remain favorable,
place, with a mixture of light soil and any delet all root pruning and transplanting remaid- caying vegetable matter left to decompose, it ing to be done be executed without delay. The
will become, in a season or two, a most valuaroots of all newly planted trees should be pro
ble compost for potting plants, or for spreading tected by mulching.
upon the beds and borders of the flower garden. Fruit trees are often injured by an accumula
Roses. — The genial and delightful autumn tion of moss and lichen upon their branches;
weather has brought on a healthy and freu where the band cannot reach them, an applica- growth in many kinds of plants which had be tion of fresh lime will effect their destruction.
come almost dormant. This is especially the
case with our roses. We do not remember for Gooseberry and currant bushes, when old, are several seasons past so much autumn growth as frequently covered with moss. A good dusting
at the present time, not only in the production of powdered fresh lime, put on when the bark is moist, will entirely destroy it, rendering the of rigorous wood, but in beautiful flowers—thus
raising our hopes and expectå tions of careful siems clean and healthy.
cultivation in a more than usual degree, longing During favorable weather, if not yet complet
as we do to see the lovely buds of our favorite ed, fork up slightly the space between the straw
“ Teas," but not without apprehension of acciberry rows, and place some decayed barn yard
dent by frost, &c. Our desire is also very strong manure between them.
to obtain early information on the new addition Also surface stir the ground over the roots of
we ought to make to our rosery. dwarf pear trees, and give a mulching of the
For the purpose of satisfying myself as far a same material.
possible on this subject, and to afford assistance Strawberries in pots should now have protec
to the lady friends of the “Farmer," I have tion of some kind, so that they may have shelter taken opportunity to pay a visit to Mr. John from heavy rains and hard frosts. If no other
Saul's gardens, at Washington, whose stock of protection, plunge the pots in the grouud or ashes, and cover with straw mats during wet of them in beautiful bloom.
roses are in fine, healthy condition, and many and very cold weather. A plant in a pot, un
The undernamed are a few which we thought protected, is in a far worse condition, as respects
the most beautiful, several of which have flowcasualties and changes, than if it was planted out in the ground.
ered upon the college grounds.
BEAUTY OF WALTHAM. - This we think a good The Flower Garden.
acquisition. Color, a beautiful crimson, large
and very double. All flower beds and borders should now, Duchess De Magenta.-White, with pink cenwhenever the weather is favorable, be spaded tre. A delicate and beautiful rose. up and neatly put in order for the winter. - GENERAL Washington.- A first rate rose, of a Wberever it is intended to plant dablies, holly beautiful rosy crimson color, and very double. hocks, and other strong growing plants next John HOPPER. - This we consider one of our summer, should be well prepared by deep spad- best roses grown upon the college grounds. It ing and working in some good rotten manure. has continued to bud and bring forth its beautiThere is generally more time to spare now for ful large and exquisitely shaped flowers, from tbis kind of work than at spring time, when so June to the present time, (Nov. Ist.) Its large, much demands our attention in every department. full rosy crimson flowers, and vigorous habit,
At this season of the year attention must be will render it a general favorite. paid to the protection of plants, such as carna MAURICE BERNARDIN-May be considered a very
good rose, both from its brilliant vermillion flow he whole under the hammer of the sheriff. To ers and good habit of growth.
Sell a part to obtain capital wherewith to cultvate Sexateur Vaisse.—This magnificent rose may the remainder, is obviously the true policy; but be described as a brilliant crimson scarlet, of can tbis be done? Can it be of general applicalarge size, and delightfully fragrant. This is tion? We fear not, for where all are sellers, one of the best in our collection,
where are the buyers to come from? Under SOUVENIR DU CONTE Cavour-Has beautiful present circumstances we cannot get them at the dark crimson flowers, large and very double. North or abroad, for neither capital nor labor A No. 1 rose.
will seek a country whose political status is unMADAME Victor VERDIENS-Is one of the very defined. Failing, then, in this, what is the next best. Its flowers are beautiful bright rose, large best course to pursue? Why, clearly to reduce and of most exquisite forin.
the number of cultivated acres to an extent proLord Macauley-One of the gems amongst portioned to the diminished labor, and increase
Its superb, bright dark crimson color, the mowing and grazing land. The system of added to its bold and perfect form, gives it a
enclosures should be done away with entirely, pre-eminence, in company with others, that at- and every man be compelled to take care of bis tracts immediate attention to it. We have had own stock, but if this be too abrupt a change we this brilliant rose in flower during the entire should at least get rid of the cross-fencing by summer and autumn, and it has been more ad-keeping the grazing lands in a permanent pasture, mired than any other kind in our collection. and this, by the way, makes the best grazing.
Here I must stop for the present, and would | The older the sod, the richer the grass, is in say to all our rose loving friends, that they will Europe an agricultural maxim. Another thing be safe in purchasing any or all of the above to be done is to aim at greater diversity of pronamed kinds. D. B., Agricultural College. duction. Southern agriculture has been too [Note by Editor –We will endorse the com
long running in one groove. Why should we mendations bestowed upon these beautiful roses.
confine ourselves to four or five staples when we The John Hopper and Lord Macauley attracted might have a dozen? Let us by stringent legislaour special admiration.]
tion get rid of the thousands of useless curs which infest the land, and we will produce more
and better wool and mutton than the Northern Agricultural Policy of the South. States. The whole of our middle region, along
The opinion here giren of the proper course to the Blue Ridge, is the best dairy region on the be pursued by Southern landhelders may ruffle continent. Most of the Northern States, inthe pride of some, and may conflict with the ideas cluding Wisconsin, are becoming large growers of others, as to the policy to be pursued in the of hops, at remunerating prices, and yet there material reconstruction of the South, but the are hundreds of gardens in Virginia and Marywriter, as one of the sufferers himself, trusts he land in which hop vines have been fourishing may be excused for the utterance of honest opin- from colonial times to the present, without care ions dictated by the deplorable condition to which or atteution. But the great necessity of the the planting States have been reduced, not only moment is labor, and we should seek to obtain by the ravages of war, but also by the industrial it through legislative action. No matter bow paralysis in which they have been held sizce great the debt of the States may be, they should, their subjection.
as Maryland bas recently donc, make liberal apThat the entire agricultural system of fourteen propriation for the introduction of foreign labor. States has been partially, or completely over State Bureaus should be established for the exthrown, and that another, more in accordance press purpose, and capable, well paid agents sent with their future condition is to be adopted, it is abroad to demonstrate the superior advantages mere folly to deny, and the sooner we make up offered the immigrant by the Southern States, our minds to accept the situation, and make the with their superior climate, lands cleared, roads best of it, the better for all.
made, schoolhouses and churches already built, Under the new system, the first, and most and proximity to the seaboard and large growing obvious change to be made is in the extent of markets. The smallest rill diverted Southward landed estates. These in most instances are far from the great tide of immigration flowing to too large, and though it may wound the hon- the wild lands of the West, will soon swell into orable pride of the holder to alienate even a por A great stream of humanity, which will restore tion of his - ancestral acres, he had better part us to more than our ancient prosperity.— Turf, with that portion by bis own act, than to lose' Field and Farm.