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interest, and affording, at the same time, great
The Agricultural College. pleasure to all who are favored with the privilege We take pleasure in being able to say, that at of perusing its pages.
a meeting of the Board of Trustees of the ColYou will please accept my best wishes for a lege, held on the 6th of June, it appeared from more extensive circulation of your paper, and the report of the Registrar, that every dollar of believe me to be
the indebtedness of the Institution was provided Very respet’ly your ob't serv't, J. S. L. for, and, notwithstanding that a corps of ProP.S. Should you think fit to continue sendo fessors larger and better paid than ever before ing me a copy, I will, if life Jasts and nothing was engaged, the Board found itself able to beprevents, remit you the amount of subscription gin at once a plan of improvement at the College after awhile. Truly, &c., J.S.L.
consistent with the designs of the Institution.
and capable, when completed, of answering all In every such case we will take pleasure in
its needful purposes. These improvements are continuing the Farmer.
W. & L.
already begun, and consist first, of all necessary AMUERST Court House, Va., repairs of the College Building, with such changes
June 19th, 1867. as experience has suggested, especially for thoEditors American Farmer :
roughly warming it; and all necessary refurDEAR SIRS : You will, I trust, pardou my de-nishing and refitting. lay in forwarding my subscription for the far- The Farm improvements, the necessary buildmer," which I have read with so much profit; 1 ings, the addition of suitable stock, and a syshope, however, I am “bringing up the rear tem of cultivation, land improvement, planting, guard,”' and that when you issue the July num- &c., are already in operation to an extent that ber all of your subscribers for the past year will will mark the present season as the beginning of have liquidated their indebtedness. Your kind a new career. We do not mean to say that every ness in forwarding the " Farmer" to your old / thing is to be done at once that may be desired, subscribers, after so many years of fierce and for that, present means do not allow; but that cruel war has swept over and devastated our be- a judicious plan of operations is to be executed loved country, makes an irrisistible appeal to all wi:h energy, and to the full extent of the finanwho have received it to aid you in your noble cial ability of the Board. Such a plan well beenterprise. I hope your subscription list may gun now, will answer present purposes, and its increase an hundred fold. Any one having only | prosecution, through several years to come, will a garden to cultivate cannot invest $2.00 better be matter of interest and instruction to agriculthan by subscribing for your old and valued tural students. journal. The information given under the head It should be understood, as the published cirof "Work for the Month” is more than worth the cular indicates, that this Institution is to be subscription.
what its name implies, a Maryland College. Its With many kind wishes for your future suc standard of instruction is to be not below that cess, I am truly yours,
G. A. R. T. of other colleges in or out of Maryland. A Pre
paratory School is not embraced in its scheme,
and no student admitted under fourteen years of Kinds of Grass and Quantity of Seeds per acre. ago, unless fully prepared for the Freshman -A. E. W., Wilmington, N.C., will find his in Class. If it may be deemed expedient in the quiries as to quantity of seeds per acre, answered beginning to allow the College Faculty to preon another page.
pare for the Freshman Class such as are not fully The best and only grass seeds that it is worth up to its requirements, these cases would be exwhile to sow on "wet lands" is "Red Top," ceptional. called here commonly Herds' Grase. Timothy There are two distinct Courses of Instruction. and Orchard grass are the best for hay on dry | The Academic Course, which is that of other land. All may be sown at the time of wheat colleges, embracing the Ancient Classics, Modern seeding in the fall, but in this latitude Orchard Languages, Mathematics, &c. And, The Agrigrass is usually sown in spring, with clover seed. cultural Course, which embraces “thorough in. Clorer is especially valuable for pasturage and struction in the Schools of English, Mathematics, land improvement.
Agriculture, with the Sciences applicable to it, Orchard grass and clover may be cut twice on and one or more modern languages." These very rich land, but it is better to give the land courses will run parallel, and as far as practithe benefit of the after growth, moderately cable be combined, but any student make take grazed.
The President elect, Charles L. C. Minor, Esq.,
Ville's Chemical Manures. of Hanover Co., Va., visited the College in the
M. Ville, who bas been largely encouraged in past month, and co-operated with the Resident
his researches in vegetation by the Emperor of Faculty in the preparation of the Course of
France, has classified manures under four general Study, and on the invitation of the President of
heads. He represents these by 1, pitrate of soda the Board of Trustees, attended its meeting on
or sulphate of ammonia; 2, quicklime; 3, superthe 6th of June. He will enter upon the duties
phosphate of lime, and 4, carbonate of potash. of his responsible position in September, having
When he has an untried soil before bim, he dithe fullest confidence of the Board and his asso
vides it into four parts, to each of wbich he adds ciates of the Faculty, and their heartiest support.
one of these substances. The result of the crop We shall scrupulously abstain from one word
shows him wherein bis soil is deficient, and how that may look like puffing the College into fa
to rectify that deficiency. His complete, univervour, but we will bespeak for it, from the com
sal manure is a mixture of these substances. munity, a generous confidence, which we believe
Recently some experiments bave been tried op its future will justify. We ask especially that
this principle, and the results are quite striking. Marylanders will give it the support due to a
M. A. Cavalier divided a hectare (2.471 acres) peculiarly Maryland Institution, and help those
into six parts, and manured them as follows: engaged in the good work, to build up a seat of sound learning within her borders, which, as
There were added to Part I II III IT V TI
or Sulphate of Ammonia.11% 11% 11% 0 11% 0 lbs. such, will do honor to the State, while it shall
of Phosphate of Lime.... 5% 5% 5% 5% 0 0 lbs. foster and elevate the pursuit which was first in or Commercial Potash... 5% 5%D 5 % 5% 6 lbs. the thoughts of its founders, We are not working for the present, only, but for a long future;
The crop cultivated was beet root, and the not for ourselves and our sons only, but for their quantities obtained were calculated to the becsons, and the generations to come of Marylanders. ' lare.
From part II.
less Lime........ 47.445 From part III.
* less Potash .......25 36 An interesting experiment, which shows the
From part IV.
Jess Ammonia....36.8:24 From part Y.
less Phos. Lime...37.881 service rendered to agriculturists by moles, and From part VI. Without any manure.............25.558 the impolicy of destroying these little quadru
Thus the complete manure gives an increase of peds, has been made. In a commune of the can
25% tons of beets, doubling the crop. The cost ton of Zurich, the municipal council were lately!
of the manure is 395 francs per hectare, so that about to proceed to the selection of a mole
the profit is 115 francs. catcher, when M. Weber, a distingnished natu
On repeating the experiment ou two plots of ralist, laid before the board the following facts :
2} acres each, he gave to the M. Weber had carefully examined the stomachs
SECOND. of fifteen moles, caught in different localities, but
Sulphate of Ammonia ......1360
900 pounds. failed to discover therein the slightest vestige of Phosphate of Lime..........2000
Carbonate of Potash ........ 500 plants or roots; whereas they were filled by the
Lime....................... 509 remains of ascaris or earth-worms.
And the product was, of bees roots, perfectly M. Weber, not satisfied by this fact, shut up several moles in a box containing soda of earth,
cleaned and leaves and fibres cleaned off, from
the on which fresh grass was growing, and a smaller case of grab and earth-worms. In nine days First plot.....
Second plot........ two moles devoured three hundred and forty-one white worms, one hundred and pinety three M. Leroy, al Varcsne, (Oise,) got the followearth-worms, twenty-five catterpillars, and a ing results : mouse, skin and bones, which had been enclosed
Tons per hectare. Complete manure...
...............62.37 while alive in the box.
without phosphate...............45.33 M. Weber next gave them raw mcat, cut np in
potash ........ ......42.59
ammonia ..... .....28.35 small pieces, mixed with vegetables; the moles With Phosphate of Lime alone................ ....18.90 eat the meats and left the plants. He next gave With lime alone................................... 9.45 them nothing but vegetables ; in twenty-four hours two moles died of starvation.
That During the last two months, R. L. MaitAnother naturalist calculated that two moles destroy twenty thousand white worms in a single
| land, of New York, has sold two Alderney cows year. Evidently farmers ought to endeavor to at $500 each ; five at $300; one at $250; and multiply moles rather than kill them.
three at $200 each.
.................. 45.325 tons.
The "Moral Bearings" of Tobacco Culture.
The American Agriculturist suggests to its The SMALL Fruit CULTURIST, by Andrew S. readers, that over-production of Tobacco during Fuller. Practical Horticulturist, Bridgewood, N. the war having led to unprofitable prices, “it is J., beautifully illustrated. Published by Orange a good time for the growers to pause and conJudd & Co., New York. This little work will sider the moral bearings of the crop, and its ingive valuable assistance to the multitude now frence upon other products of the farm." engaging in small fruit culture. The author is If the Prince of Darkness should take occasion an intelligent cultivator of much experience, and to address himself personally to bringing Amerihis book may be relied on as a guide. He treats cans to his way of thinking, we are very sure he of the Barberry, Strawberry, Raspberry, Black would find it politic to present any given subject, berty, Dwarf Cherry, Currant, Gooseberry, Cor- in the beginning, in its "moral bearings." That selian Cherry, Cranberry, Huckleberry, Sheperdia,
much our good opinion of ourselves demands, and Preparation for Gathering Fruit.
and such concession to our virtue being made,
we take what follows easy enough. We confess Ax ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON AMERICAN GBAPE
to a growing repugnance to this mode of treatCULTURE AND Wine Making, by Peter B. Mead.
ment prima facie, and our obserration has long Illustrated with nearly 200 engravings drawn ago satished
ago satisfied us, that preachers should do all from Nature. Harper & Bros., N. York. The
the preaching, and stick to it, and other people author professes that "indulging in no theorizing should study to do their own business in quietspeculations, and introducing nothing of doubt
ness, and rely upon a wholesome example to do ful verification” he has treated "of all the facts
the share set them in evangelising the world. and principles involved in the subject, laying
We eschew, therefore, these moral bearings,'' them clearly in order before the student, and
and do not propose to reply to our contemporary linking them together with just so much of the
on that score. theory as is necessary to explain lucidly their
But the influence of Tobacco growing upon relation to each other.”
other products of the farm," and upon the conThe work is handsomely bound and printed,
dition of the farm, is another matter. Let us as its intrinsic worth merits.
give the argument of the Agriculturist on these points at large, and condemn his reasoning out
of his own mouth. It is just the sort of remark THE MARYLAND EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL--pledged
RNApledged we have all our life beard from careless observers, to no party or system--a School and Family
amily or shallow thinkers, about the destruction done Monthly, devoted to popular Instruction and
by Tobacco to Maryland and Virginia lands. Literature,--printed and published in Baltimore
He says: "The current of opinion as elicited hy E. S. Zevely, at $1.50 a year; aided editori
at the last meeting of the Ct. Board of Ag., at New ally by a committee of prominent educators.
educators. Haven, was decidedly against the crop, on ecoSpecimen copies 15 cents. No. 114 West Balti
nomical grounds. It is not denied that a large more street--business and editorial office at Cum
sum of money may be realized by it, from a smal: berland, Md., where all letters, exchanges, &c.,
plot of ground. But the general confession is, should be addressed. Number of P. 0. box, that it ruins all the rest of the farm, by leading the Baltimore, 1072-Cumberland, 214.
cultivator to neglect it. It demands large quanIt gives us pleasure to notice the appearance
tities of manure, and all he can make goes to the of such a Journal in Maryland, and hope it will
Tobacco patch, and he buys a good deal besides. receive such support as will insure its success.
The meadows run out, the pastures become barIts appearance and contents indicate the deter
ren, the orchard fruitless, and if the cultivator mination of those engaged in it to make it worthy
accumulates funds in the bank, as he may, it is of the all-important work of public education.
by the ruin of his farm. Ten acres may be
splendid, but the other hundred have gone to THE Fazmer's Home JOURNAL is a handsome, | mulleins and burdock. and ably edited weekly, published at Lexington, "The influence of this crop upon the community Ky., by Miller & Marrs. $3 per annum. The
is quite as disastrous as it is upon the farm. The first number was issued Ist of May.
tobacco growing district grows poorer. Other
farm crops decrease in quality and quantity.Jo The Rural World says that until the 4th Less stock is raised, less beef, pork, butter, and of May there was no rain in the vicinity of St. ! other necessaries of life. The lands are all the Louis during the entire spring.
while decreasing in agricultural value, and in its
capacity of sustaining a thrifty population. If Then it is asserted, that "the influence of this å man makes money by the crop, sells out and crop upon the community is quite as disastrous goes to the city, the community loses by the de- as it is upon the farm. The tobacco growing preciation the farm has undergone. The value district grows poorer," &c. "Other farm crops of its taxable property is all the while diminish- decrease in quantity and quality." "The lands ing, we apprebend, under the influence of this are decreasing in agricultural value," &c., &c. crop. Other crops, as a rule, bless the farm, and All these are assertions. If they are facts, what tend to make it more productive. They help to do they prove still but that tobacco growers are sustain animal life, and if consumed upon the far less wise in all other matters than they are soil, return more to it than was taken trom it. in growing a very profitable crop of Tobacco. But Tobacco is a blight upon the land that raises But the truth is, that all this talk is but a sly
little sermon, by our virtuous contemporary, to "It is not to be denied that a large sum of discourage the growing of Tobacco; the growers money may be realized by it, from a small plot i being considered accessories before the fact, to of ground.” This, it is admitted then, is a good the wickedness of using it. He starts out on thing of itself. “But-it ruins all the rest of the moral bearings," but does not venture a the farm." How? "By leading the cultivator "moral" word more, until he has proved, as he to neglect it.” Now this only proves that the would bave us think, that tobacco growing don't cultivator is a very foolish fellow; for if he real. pay. And as if not quite confident of the force ises "a large sum from a small plot of ground," of his reasoning, he tries to move us further, at the Tobacco manifestly enables him to spend the close, by a hint of "blessing" and the conmore manure and more labour on the remainder. trary. "Other crops, as a rule, bless the farm."
"It demands large quantities of manure." "But Tobacco is a blight upon the land that What of that, if it pays, too, for large quantities. raises it."
“If the cultivator accumulates funds in the 1 We have been familiar all our lives with the bank, as he may, it is by the ruin of his farm." , same manner of argument about Tobacco growNow the Tobacco indeed furnishes the money ing in our own latitude, and have known always for accumulation, but is it answerable for such that it was very absurd. No crop is so well culaccumulation, to the bruin of the farm." It tivated, none makes a finer preparation for grass seems to us, it is only the same old folly that is seeds and clover, which should always follow, too common the world over; men prefer in vest- and none is less directly exhausting, or tends ing in banks, when they should invest in im- more to the general improvement of the farm, if provement of their lands.
the cultivator is wise enough to use properly the "Ten acres may be splendid, but the other hun- means it puts at his command. dred bave gone to mulleins and burdock.” The If any one would make the trial, let him take ten acres are splendid' for no possible reason, two lots of ten acres each, and put them througb but the growing upon them of a very profitable | a course of cropping under the same conditions crop, and others gone to ruin, only because this of fertility and manuring, except that Tobacco same profitable crop was not raised on them. Is is grown upon one lot and corn on the other, this an argument against tobacco growing? The selling the Tobacco and small grain in one case, argument of the Agriculturist would lie just as and the corn and small grain in the other. The forcibly against any crop that gives large pro- result in dollars and cents, and in the condition ducts per acre, to large quantities of manure and of the land at the close, would determine the skilful cultivation. In any such case, supposing matter. If the money made from the Tobacco ten acres to be the limit of the crop, that extent were spent some where else, and that from the of surface would be heavily manured and a large corn on the land, there would be no proper comamount of labour bestowed upon it, and it would parison of their effects. become, in consequence, “splendid." It would We do not advise beginners to enter on the be also very profitable and furnish the means to cultivation of Tobacco, because it is a crop that make splendid” other “ten acres." Whether 'demands skill and care, and, to engage in it to the cultivator might choose to do so, or prefer ) any extent, labour at command. But the cirputting out his money in banks or otherwise, has, cumstances of a great many persons make it surely nothing to do with the matter. He is fur- profitable to them to bring their cultivation nished with the strongest possible practical argu- within a smaller area, and to grow such crops ment for investing it in manures, and crops by as may be largely increased, perhaps doubled, which "a large sum of money may be realised by an increase of manures alone; and Tobacco from a small plot of ground.''
is one such crop. These need not, we think, be
deterred by the "moral bearings" of our con- snpply. Much better prices are now obtained temporary, which seems to be, after all, largely than ever before. We could give reasons why involved in the matter of dollars and cents, un- we think the business will improve, but space less he can support them by a better show of rea- | will not allow us to dwell on the subject. soning.
“Now, all the region of country east of the
Blue Ridge, in proximity to railroads or steamCatalogue.
boat navigation, might be very profitably emWe are indebted to Franklin Davis & Co., of
ployed for this purpose. We would say to those the Richmond nurseries, for a copy of their
in the tide-water region, plant early varieties, catalogue, from the preface to which we make
they will pay you the best; and to the people the following extract:
westward we would say, after supplying your "A change has taken place in the labor system
local markets, plant mostly of winter apples and of the Southern States, and with it comes a
grapes--you will find it profitable to ship them
to this and other markets. We have a fine stock change in the pursuits of many of her people.
e of trees growing that will be ready for market the Many are looking and are undecided as to what
ensuing fall; and to those who are desirous of they shall undertake. We believe that fruit
planting, or feel an interest in horticulture, we growing offers greater inducements than anything
cordially invite you to call and see our stock. See else. Under this conviction we have gone largely
Advertisement. into the business ourselves, and say to others 'go and do likewise ;' and if you give it proper attention we will guarantee satisfactory returns.
A Maryland Milk Dairy Farm. "Almost fabulous prices are realized by fruit [We have intended for some months past to growers in Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey, take an early opportunity to give a personal inyet we think a much better chance is offered to spection to the Dairy Farm and operations of the people of Virginia. Take James River-say Mr. Ross Winans, with a view to give our readfrom City Point to Fortress Monroe--strawberries, ers some account of them. Other engagements peaches, apples, pears, &c., ripen there from three have obliged us to forego the pleasure we should
four weeks earlier than they do in the vicinity have taken in doing so, and we find prepared to of New York and the most of New Jersey. These our hand by the intelligent Junior Editor of the fruits can be shipped to New York and other Country Gentleman an articie published in that Northern cities weeks in advance of any compe- journal, from which we make the following extition from their respective localities, which gives tract.—ED. FARMER.] the Virginia fruit growers the exclusive control "At the time the war came on in 1861, amidst of the best market during the best part of the the uncertainty and excitement that prevailed, season. To give an instance of what can be done the purchase of land seemed to be about the only in small fruits : William Parry, of Cinnaminson, mode of investment in order to secure what was New Jerses, sold, in 1864, from 22 acres of land, tangible and substantial in exchange for the $8,896 worth of strawberries, raspberries and money invested. Mr. Winans ascertained that blackberries. In 1865, from the same number property could be had along the Patapsco river, of acres, $9,100 worth. Allowing one-third to possessing the double advantage of railway and cover all expenses, it leaves a net profit of $11,997 water communication with the city, at a distance from 22 acres for two years, or an annual profit of only five or six miles, and though much imof $272 per acre. This was done, too, in the poverished, naturally of good quality, and in midst of competion-thousands of acres being surface excellently adapted for the use of madevoted in that State to the production of these | chinery-beautifully undulating throughout, and fruits. If the New Jersey grower gets twenty affording drainage even where nearest a level. (20) cents per quart for his small fruits, and He obtained one or more farms, to which various two ($2) dollars per bushel for his peaches, he additions have since been made, until the total thinks he is doing well, yet not unfrequently the area now in his possession there, is not far short the berries shipped from Norfolk bring from $1 of seven hundred acres. He had previously to $2 per quart, and peaches $6 to $8 per bushel. owned and carried on for several years, a farm The question is often asked, will not the markets of not quite an hundred acres near the city. At soon be overstocked with fruit? We say, em- first keeping but one or two cows to supply his phatically, no! Wbile the production of fruit own family with milk, he was induced to spare has been greatly increased in the last twenty small quantities as a favor to friends, and had years, the demand has been greater than the i kept slowing increasing the number until, with