Imágenes de páginas

even at the risk of tediousness and repetition this alone, Mr. Glover las received. And to those already acquainted with the facts. what has the Department obtained ? Some twelve or fourteen years ago, Mr Glo The information connected with the birds ver, who was then in the employ of the Agri- alone, and learned almost at a glance, would cultural Bureau of the Department of the In- require extensive research through libraries terior, sold to that Department his entire col- and forests, for here you have not only the lection of model fruits, amounting to over classification and labels bearing the names 2,000 specimens, for $10,000. These speci- and references to authors, but the character of mens, instead of being “such as image ped- the bird, its habits, and whether injurious or dlers carry about on their heads and idle girls beneficial to the fariner or merchant, and the manufacture at boarding schools," are fac contents of its stomach proving its tastes and similes of fruits grown in clifferent localities, habits. The insect world, colored to the life showing the effect of soil, climate and culture in the plates covering the walls of the museum, upon them, and with the help of the accompa- embodies a wonderful amount of patient toil nying catalogue of descriptions, enabling the and close study. These have all been done farmer or orchardlist to select at once such out of office hours, and number over one varieties as are best adapted to his wants and hundred and fifty plates, containing from location. Hundreds who have by this means twenty to sixty or seventy insects each, showbeen saved years of vexation and fruitless cx- ing all their transformations, giving their periments can attest the utility and value of names, food, and reference to authors by whom this system; and when perfected as the inten- they were described. Thus any person bringtion is, it will be infinitely more valuable than ing or sending an insect to the Department now, embracing, as it will, specimens from all may at once identify it and learn its whole the States and of all new and improved va- history, whether it is the farmers' friend or rieties as fast as they are introduced. The enemy, and is the latter, the best means known $10,000, then appropriated by Congress for for its destruction. The many letters of the purchase of the models, was never received inquiry constantly received and answered in by Mr. Glover, but was drawn and used by this line have fully tested the use and beauty the officers of the Department during his ab- of the plan, as any one with a moderate sence in South America on official business. knowledge of the English language can trace For nearly six years thereafter Mr. Glover was out the entire insect history with nearly the employed at the Maryland Agricultural Col- facility and all the correctness of an expert in lege, and had no connection with and received entomology. Thus the Department has the no salary whatever from Government. Dur- | information to impart whether the Professor ing this time he commenced the engravings be absent or present, and an idea of the for his projected work on American Ento- pecuniary value of the plates may be had mology. After the organization of the De- when it is understood that not one of all the partment of Agriculture in 1862, he was cm thousand of insects represented could be given ployed as Entomologist and Naturalist for the in the perfection they are short of from three Department.

to five dollars each, and some would cost even Conceiving the idea of creating a National more, making the plates themselves average agricultural and economical museum, he again one hundred dollars apiece. Of course the placed his models on exhibition, and spent purchase by the Government does not include over a thousand dollars of his private means

the original copper plates and the copyright in procuring specimens of natural history and of the work; these are Mr. Glover's private furnishing the rooms to illustrate his idea. property, being purchased with his own Adding to these his valuable collection of money and engraved in his own time, partly American insects, and a colored copy of his when at the Agricultural College, and the reinsect plates, he offered the whole to Govern- mainder after office hours, and could not be ment for $15,000. After several years of afforded in connection with the museum for waiting, during which the Department had anything like the price given. The Departthe free use of his beautiful and useful col- ment, however, will have a complete colored lection, another appropriation of the original copy of the work when finished, and has sum, $10,000, was made. This amount, and meanwhile the use of the plates as fast as


The collection, classification, and arranges perfection that it does not keep well through ment of silk producing insects and their the winter-sometimes it withers, but oftener products, fibers, and the manufactures from rots. It is recommended by some that it them, seeds, grains, and cereals of all kinds is should be preserved in the rows where it in itself no small labor, and requires daily care grows, and that removal always more or less in attending to new specimens, labeling, ex• ; injures it. Where the plant is grown in soil plaining, etc.; and, take it altogether, the of a dry nature, it may be kept well enough results of years of intense application and en in the row, but we deny most emphatically ergy here concentrated are invaluable, espe- ; that removal injures it in the slighest parcially when it is considered that this is but the ticular. beginning of what is to be.

We pursue two modes and find both to anCombined with this general collection there swer well. The first is to remove the celery are to be divisions for state museums where to high and dry ground, dig a trench spade the products and manufactures of each State deep, stand up a row of plants, then three are to be shown, and an economic muscum on inches of soil, then another row, and so on a still more extensive plan, embracing the until about a half dozen rows are finished, productions and manufactures of all countries. then commence another bed, and so on. The But for a full explanation of this, reference is soil should be packed in firmly and banked made to page 94 of the Agricultural Report up, so that the tops of the celery are just cov. for 1865.

ered, then spank off roof fashion to turn the For his exhibition of insects, plates, and his rain. Over this two wide boards, nailed tosystem of agricultural instruction by means of gether, should be placed, as a security against a museum, arranged as an object library, Mr. moisture. For remember, it is water, not Glover received the large gold medal of the frost, as some say, that rots celery. Frost Emperor Napoleon at the entomological Ex- adds to its tenderness. position in Paris in 1864, and officers and

Another plan is to sink barrels into the delegates from both American and Canadian earth, so that the tops are two or three inches societies who have examined the collection below the surface, then stand them compactly and the plan have uniformly spoken in the full of celery, without any soil, but close or highest terms of both, and considered the tight covers upon them, so as to exclude all Government fortunate in securing them and moisture, and then a couple of inches of soil. the services of the originator at any price. By this mode, somewhat more troublesome

The museum, as sold to the Department, than the other, ours kept well for the last cost Mr. Glover from six to eight thousand three or four years until all was consumed, dollars in money and nearly twenty years of which was late in the spring.Germantown close labor and scientific research. The above Telegraph. description gives but a faint idea of the amount

SILK PLANT DISCOVERED IN PERU.--The of information here at the service of the

Department of State has received information public. Judge then if the price paid was too high, especially considering that the $10,000 from the U. S. Consul at Lambayeque, Peru, now received was due to Mr. Glover twelve made in Peru, of the silk plant. Preparations

that an important discovery has recently been years ago, that his museum is worth more

are being made to cultivate it upon a more exthan double what it was then, and that he accepted the amount without interest after all tensive scale. The shrub is three or four feet those years of waiting.

A. B.

in height. The silk is inclosed in a pod, of which each plant gives a great number, and is

declared to be superior in fineness and quality Storing Celery.

to the production of the silk worm. It is a We have said a great deal heretofore about wild perennial, the seed small and easily sepathe cultivation of celery; and now, as the crop rated from the fibre. The stems of the plants must be pretty well grown, we shall proceed produce a long and very brilliant fibre, supeas usual at this season, to give some reliable | rior in strength and beauty to the finest woven direction for preserving it through the winter. thread. Small quantities have been woven in

Many people complain of their celery-one the rude manner of the Indians, and the texof the most difficult garden crops to raise in Iture and brilliancy are said to be unsurpassed.

Labor Contracts.

ditching, opening fresh lands, building and Under the changed and unhappy condition repairing houses; and doing any other necesof every thing connected with farm-labor and sary and customary farm-work. farming in our once happy land, it has become That for himself and family, he recognizes as necessary to adopt some form of contract with the hours of labor, ten hours per day, of steady the negro, when hired as a farm-laborer. And work, upon an average of working days the that form should be, as far as possible, uni- year round-that is, that while a fewer number form all over the State.

of hours may suffice during some seasons of Mere engagements for occasional work, the year, to do the needful work, a greater by the day, week, or month will not do upon number may be required at others; es, for cotton plantations. No man can afford to instance, when cutting out, or picking cotton, risk the outlay necessary, unless the labor is cxc.; and which shall not be considered as rreasonably sure for the year.

being extra labor, if not exceeding an averWhether hired for money-wages or for a age of ten bours per day, and not even then if portion of the crops, there are certain stipu- the employer deems the extra labor necessary lations which should be rigidly insisted upon. to the saving of crops. By laws recently enactel-approved.....

If however, the laborers are paid money1866—it is provided that contracts made with wages, and are required by the necessities of laborers, for more than one month, may be in the work upon the farm to labor more than an writing; three copies of the contract to be average, the year round, of ten hours per day, made; one for the employer; one for the en- they should be paid for that extra labor at the ployed ; who represents himself and his family; rate at which they are hired. and the third shall be filed in the office of the If paid in a share of the crops, a daily Clerk of the County, and by him properly record should be kept of the work done by indexed in a book for that purpose, that it each worker upon the farm, and of the ability of may be easily referred to.

each worker; to be open every Saturday The interests of both employer and laborer afternoon to all wlio are interested; and to are carefully and fully guarded by the pro- form the basis of a just and fair division visions of this act. The laborer has a lien among the laborers, of their respective shares upon one half the crops for the payment of of the crops. The employer or inanager, his wages, whether payable in money or in where one is kept, should settle all misunderkind. He can be held liable in damages for standings or disputes between the laborers; breach of contract on his part.

and in case of any disputes or disagreements An amendment to the Penal Code makes it arising, which cannot be thus settled by ema serious penal offense to tamper with, or per- ployer and manager, such cases should be suade, the employé of another to break his submitted to the arbitration of the County or her contract, and a still more serious offense Judge, whose decision shall be final. The to employ the employé of another while un- question of the final and just division of the der contract. Hence the importance of care crops, and that of the loss of time from any fully drawn-up contracts.

cause, to be subjects for such adjudication and The laborer should stipulate that he engages fina) settlement And any fines or deductions himself and his family to the employer, as for such loss of time, etc., should be divided farm-laborers upon his farm, in such and such between the employer and employed in the a county, to do and perform all of the work same proportions in which the crops are required to be done upon that farm, as directed divided. by the employer, be that work what it may in The employer should engage, on his part, to the regular course of work; including the house the laborers in reasonably comfortable care of stock of all kinds upon the farm, cottages; to supply all of the fuel said family cutting and hauling wood for, and supplying may require, the cutting and hauling of which other like customary and necessary wants of, to be part of the regular work of the farm ; their own and their employer's households; to furnish to each worker over twelve years carrying on such a system of improvements of age, of said family, one peck of good and as, in the employer': judgment, can be carried sound corn-meal, and three and a half pounds on without detriment to the crops-such as of sound bacon, or seven pounds of fresh beef making and repairing fences, bedging and ' or mutton, at the employer's option, per week;

and might agree to sell to them, at market fact, that as the laborers thus employed are to prices, such flour, sugar, coffee, tea, tobacco, receive as in full compensation for their labor etc., as they may require for their own use, a certain share of the crops made, the labor of not to exceed in amount $....... ..per the hands and teams should not be taken up quarter, to be paid for at the end of the year, in making unusual improvements, or such as out of the proceeds of their share of the crops; would clearly lessen the amount of crops to be to give to said family the use of a milch cow, made; or if, from any cause, they are thus on condition that the calf is properly cared employed, it should be with the consent of the for; and the use, free of rent, of one half of said laborers, and be paid for as extra work. an acre of good land for a garden, convenient The employer should agree to pay the to their homes; to permit the said family to laborer, for himself and family, in full com. raise what poultry they may choose, excepting, pensation for their labor, for each year of the perhaps, geese and turkeys; and to keep a pig, term for which they are employed, such share in a pen, for each worker in the family; but of the one third or other stipulated part of all no other stock whatever.

the crops grown and produced, resulting from The practice of negroes, laborers on a farm, their labor, upon the said farm, as may le keeping upon that farm one or more horses or awarded to him and them, (the said laborer mules, and of dropping work on Saturday at and family,) in the division to be made among noon, no matter what may be the condition of the laborers employed on the farmi and hav. the crops or of the work, is simply absured, ing an interest in the crops, of the one third and should never be conceded as a right. or other part of said crops at the end of each

No labor should be required or exacied on year. The said division to be regulated and the Sabbath day, except such as is customary controlled by the laborers, by and with the in all Christian communities. And the em assistance and coun: el of the employer and ployer or manager should designate who are manager, to take place on the plantation, after to perform those necessary duties, endeavor- the crops are housed, stacked, or ginned and ing to let them fall equally upon each, in liis baled, or otherwise ready for market. The or her turn.

laborers to be charged with the cost of the Any disobedience of a reasonable order; bale-rope and bagging required for their any neglect of duty or of work; insolence on portion of the cotton. If, however, in the the part of negroes to their employers, or judgment of the employer, it may be for his other conduct calculated to produce distur- interest and that of the laborers, that the cotbance or difficulty on the farm, should be ton, or any of the other crops' should be sent punished by fines, stipulated in the contract; to market before the close of the year, owing and continued misconduct should be made to the probable conditions of the markets, cause of dismissal, with stipulated forfeiture roads, or rivers, etc., such crops, or portions of of a portion of the wages or of share of crops, may be sent forward and may be sold, crop.

provided the said employer first makes such It should be distinctly provided, as a con- provision for securing to the said laborers the dition in their contract, that no negro shall net proceeds of their share of said cotton, or keep fire-arms on the farm or premises of his other portions of the crops sold, as shall be employer.

approved by them in writing, or before comLet such reasonable conditions as these be petent witnesses. made general, and there will be no difficulty; Contracts thus drawn up, and recorded or nor is there injustice in enforcing them. filed as provided for by law, would protect

The employer should bind himself, when both employer and employed; the latter from the hands are paid a portion of the crops, to risk of dispute as to rate of wages, privileges, keep the farm supplieci, at his own cost, with and provisions, or risk of non-payment of the teams, tools, implements and machines, wages; and the former from the gross imposand with feed for the teams until such feed is ition to which he is now exposed, in loss of produced upon the farm--after which they time, neglect of all kinds of work, and refusal should be fed from the crops before division to do any thing but what the negroes choose -sufficient for the proper and cfficient culti- to look upon as their proper work. As also vation of the farm with the number of lands from that great and intolerable evil and injusemployed upon it; and should recognize the tice, of every negro on the farm claiming to

own a horse or mule, which is fed as a matter firm, composed of Messrs. Brown, Halsted & of course from the corn and forage of his em- Co., are about to supply what has long been a ployer, and must be cared for, curried and desideratum with farmers and breeders of fancy attended to, no matter how the regular work animals--that is an extensive, reliable breedof the farm might suffer from neglect ; besides ing establishment, with an office in the city, being a constant temptation and inducement where purchasers may apply with the certo spending the livelong night in frolic and tainty of being supplied with the very best dissipation.

breed of all the smaller domestic animals, inThere is no reason whatever, that because cluding dogs. The high perfection of the vathe negro is no longer a slave, the master rious species of imported poultry exhibited by should take his place. The merest possible this firm in Thirteenth street is an earnest of justice requires that both parties to a contract the thorough manner in which they intend to should be equally bound to fulfill their part of carry out their design. We promise to return it. So long as planters permit themselves to

to the subject when we receive from the Sobe entirely dependent upon the free-negro ciety the published proceedings of this their labor of the State, they must submit to be first exlıibition.-- Turf, Field and Farm. · dictated to and controlled by it. The remedy, and the only one, is the intro

Our Agricultural Progress. duction of intelligent white laborers from The Hon. R. J. Walker has recently written other countries, who by their competition and a letter on the national finances, which is at. example, would quickly change the present un tracting marked attention. The figures which natural and unhealthy state of things.- Teras he gives, showing the great increase in the Almanac.

agricultural resources of the nation during

the ten years between 1850 and 1860, will asThe Great Exhibition of the American Poultry Society.

tonish many who think our agriculture is not We have rarely enjoyed a public exhibition progressing as fast as our other sources of naas much as this one on Thirteenth street. We tional wealth. Mr. Walker says: had but a faint conception until now of the By looking at table No. 36, in the prelimiimmense advances made in that branch of ru- nary report on the eighth census (pages 198 ral economy devoted to the breeding of the to 210, including the additional returns on these smaller domestic animals, both feathered and pages,) the following will be found to be the furred, for use or for ornament.

results, as to agricultural products, from 1850 Guided by Gen. Brown, one of the largest to 1860 : exhibiters, we were led from surprise to sur Horses (number)........... 4,336.719 7,503,972 prisc. We saw in the highest perfection fowls


Milch cows, working oxen and
of every known variety, from the gigantic
Cochins and Bramahas down to the Liliputian Swine..
Bantams. We saw apparently every known

Wheat (bushels).
Rye (bushels).....

species of domesticated duck: the heavy La Indian corn (bushels)
Platta, the superb Rouen, the beautiful Ayles- Tobacco (pounds).........

Oats (bushels)....

........146.584,179 bury, the Cayuga, and our own most beautiful, Ginned cotton (bales) ......... 2,405,793

Wool (pounds)

....... 52,516.959 but diminutive, Summer duck. Every variety Peas and beans (bushels)...... 9,219.901 of domesticated goose was there, and chief

Irish potatoes (bushels)....... 65,797,896

Sweet potatoes (bushels)...... 38,268,148 among them the Thoulouse and the white Barley (bushels).....

Buckwheat (bushels).......... Embden. We were glad, too, to observe a Wine (gallons)... collection of the lopped-earned rabbits, so

Butter (pounds)..............

Hay (ton-), much cultivated abroad as a wholesome and Clover seed (bushels)

Grass seed (bushels). cheap article of diet, and which, so far, have Hemp (tons)...... been too much neglected by our rural econo

Hops (pounds).

Maple sugar (pounds). mists. In Europe, the humblest laborers, who Cane sugar (hhds.)

Molasses (gallons). are precluded by want of space from breeding Beeswax and honey (pounds).. 14,853,1 28 26,356,855 poultry, raise their own rabbits, with little

Rice (pound-) - mall decrease.

Cheese-slight increase. care or expense, in hutches, which occupy very Flax-large decrease. little space. We were glad to learn that a

Silk cocoons-decrease of 4281 pounds.- Weekly Press,



Asses and mules..


other cattle.... Sheep..


21,723.220 ......... 30.354,2!3



..199.758 6 5

28.987,346 24.823,371 80,023,472 171.183.91

20.976,256 830,451.707 172.554 OSS 429 390.771

5.198 077 60,511.343 15,188,013 110.571.001 41.600,302 15.631,119 17.661.914

1,300.009 460,100.854 19.129.12


8,956 912

313 345.306



3.497.029 ..... 34 253,436

237 133 12,700 991

104.490 11.010.012 35.8638

302,305 25.517.499

Flax seed - small increase.

« AnteriorContinuar »