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ditching, opening fresh lands, building and Under the changed and unhappy condition repairing houses; and doing any other necesof every thing connected with farm-labor and sary and customary farm-work. farming in our once happy land, it has become That for himself and family, he recognizes as necessary to adopt some form of contract with the hours of labor, ten hours per day, of steady the negro, when hired as a farm-laborer. And work, upon an average of working days the that form should be, as far as possible, uni- year round-that is, that while a fewer number form all over the State.
of hours may suffice during some seasons of Mere engagements for occasional work, the year, to do the needful work, a greater by the day, week, or month will not do upon number may be required at others; as, for cotton plantations. No man can afford to instance, when cutting out, or picking cotton, risk the outlay necessary, unless the labor is etc.; and which shall not be considered as reasonably sure for the year.
| being extra labor, if not exceeding an averWhether hired for money-wages or for a age of ten bours per day, and not even then if portion of the crops, there are certain stipu- the employer deems the extra labor necessary lations which should be rigidly insisted upon. to the saving of crops.
By laws recently enactel-approved......, If however, the laborers are paid money1866—it is provided that contracts made with wages, and are required by the necessities of laborers, for more than one month, may be in the work upon the farm to labor more than an writing; three copies of the contract to be average, the year round, of ten hours per day, made; one for the employer; one for the em- they should be paid for that extra labor at the ployed; who represents himself and his family; rate at which they are hired. and the third shall be filed in the office of the If paid in a share of the crops, a daily Clerk of the County, and by him properly record should be kept of the work done by indexed in a book for that purpose, that it each worker upon the farm, and of the ability of may be easily referred to.
each worker; to be open every Saturday The interests of both employer and laborer afternoon to all who are interested; and to are carefully and fully guarded by the pro- form the basis of a just and fair division visions of this act. The laborer has & lien among the laborers, of their respective shares upon one half the crops for the payment of of the crops. The employer or inanager, his wages, whether payable in money or in where one is kept, should settle all misunderkind. He can be held liable in damages for standings or disputes between the laborers ; breach of contract on his part.
| and in case of any disputes or disagreements An amendment to the Penal Code makes it arising, which cannot be thus settled by ema serious penal offense to tamper with, or per- ployer and manager, such cases should be suade, the employé of another to break his submitted to the arbitration of the County or her contract, and a still more serious offense Judge, whose decision shall be final. The to employ the employé of another while un- question of the final and just division of the der contract. Hence the importance of care- crops, and that of the loss of time from any fully drawn-up contracte.
cause, to be subjects for such adjudication and The laborer should stipulate that he engages final settlement. And any fines or deductions himself and his family to the employer, as for such loss of time, etc., should be divided farm-laborers upon his farm, in such and such between the employer and employed in the a county, to do and perform all of the work same proportions in which the crops are required to be done upon that farm, as directed divided. by the employer, be that work what it may in The employer should engage, on his part, to the regular course of work; including the house the laborers in reasonably comfortable care of stock of all kinds upon the farm, cottages; to supply all of the fuel said family cutting and hauling wood for, and supplying may require, the cutting and hauling of which other like customary and necessary wants of, to be part of the regular work of the farm ; their own and their employer's households; to furnishi to each worker over twelve years carrying on such a system of improvements of age, of said family, one peck of good and as, in the employer's judgment, can be carried sound corn-meal, and three and a half pounds on without detriment to the crops-such as of sound bacon, or seven pounds of fresh beef making and repairing fences, hedging and ' or mutton, at the employer's option, per week ; and might agree to sell to them, at market fact, that as the laborers thus employed are to prices, such flour, sugar, coffee, tea, tobacco, receive as in full compensation for their labor etc., as they may require for their own use, a certain share of the crops made, the labor of not to exceed in amount $............per the lands and teams should not be taken up quarter, to be paid for at the end of the year, in making unusual improvements, or such as out of the proceeds of their share of the crops; would clearly lessen the amount of crops to be to give to said family the use of a milch cow, made; or if, from any cause, they are thus on condition that the calf is properly cared employed, it should be with the consent of the for; and the use, free of rent, of one half of said laborers, and be paid for as extra work. an acre of good land for a garden, convenient. The employer should agree to pay the to their homes; to permit the said family to laborer, for himself and family, in full comraise what poultry they may choose, excepting, pensation for their labor, for each year of the perhaps, geese and turkeys; and to keep a pig, term for which they are employed, such share in a pen, for each worker in the family; but of the one third or other stipulated part of all no other stock whatever.
the crops grown and produced, resulting from The practice of negroes, laborers on a farm, their labor, upon the said farm, as may te keeping upon that farm one or more horses or awarded to him and them, (the said laborer mules, and of dropping work on Saturday at and family,) in the division to be made among noon, no matter what may be the condition of the laborers employed on the farm and laythe crops or of the work, is simply absured, ing an interest in the crops, of the one third and should never be conceded as a right. or other part of said crops at the end of each
No labor should be required or exacied on year. The said division to be regulated and the Sabbath day, except such as is customary controlled by the laborers, by and with the in all Christian communities. And the em- assistance and coun: el of the employer and ployer or manager should designate who are | manager, to take place on the plantation, after to perform those necessary duties, endeavor- the crops are housed, stacked, or ginned and ing to let them fall equally upon each, in his baled, or otherwise ready for market. The or her turn.
laborers to be charged with the cost of the Any disobedience of a reasonable order; bale-rope and bagging required for their any neglect of duty or of work; insolence on portion of the cotton. If, however, in the the part of negroes to their employers, or judgment of the employer, it may be for his other conduct calculated to produce distur- interest and that of the laborers, that the cotbance or difficulty on the farm, should be ton, or any of the other crops' should be sent punished by fines, stipulated in the contract; to market before the close of the year, owing and continued misconduct should be made to the probable conditions of the markets, cause of dismissal, with stipulated forfeiture roads, or rivers, etc., such crops, or portions of of a portion of the wages or of share of crops, may be sent forward and may be sold, crop.
provided the said employer first makes such It should be distinctly provided, as a con- provision for securing to the said laborers the dition in their contract, that no negro shall net proceeds of their share of said cotton, or keep fire-arms on the farm or premises of his other portions of the crops sold, as shall be employer.
approved by them in writing, or before comLet such reasonable conditions as these be petent witnesses. made general, and there will be no difficulty; / Contracts thus drawn up, and recorded or nor is there injustice in enforcing them. filed as provided for by law, would protect
The employer should bind himself, when both employer and employed; the latter from the hands are paid a portion of the crops, to risk of dispute as to rate of wages, privileges, keep the farm supplied, at his own cost, with and provisions, or risk of non-payment of the teams, tools, implements and machines, wages; and the former from the gross imposand with feed for the teams until such feed is ition to which he is now exposed, in loss of produced upon the farm-after which they time, neglect of all kinds of work, and refusal should be fed from the crops before division to do any thing but what the negroes choose -sufficient for the proper and cfficient culti- to look upon as their proper work. As also vation of the farm with the number of hands from that great and intolerable evil and injusemployed upon it; and should recognize the I tice, of every negro on the farm claiming to
own a horse or mule, which is fed as a matter firm, composed of Messrs. Brown, Halsted & of course from the corn and forage of his en-Co., are about to supply what has long been a ployer, and must be cared for, curried and desideratum with farmers and breeders of fancy attended to, no matter how the regular work animals--that is an extensive, reliable breedof the farın might suffer from neglect; besides ing establishment, with an office in the city, being a constant temptation and inducement where purchasers may apply with the certo spending the livelong night in frolic and tainty of being supplied with the very best dissipation.
breed of ail the smaller domestic animals, inThere is no reason whatever, that because
cluding dogs. The high perfection of the vathe negro is no longer a slave, the master rious species of imported poultry exhibited by should take his place. The merest possible
this firm in Thirteenth street is an earnest of justice requires that both parties to a contract
the thorough manner in which they intend to should be equally bound to fulfill their part of
carry out their design. We promise to return it. So long as planters permit themselves to
to the subject when we receive from the sobe entirely dependent upon the free-negro
| ciety the published proceedings of this their labor of the State, they must submit to be first exhibition.-Turf, Field and Farm. dictated to and controlled by it.
The remedy, and the only one, is the intro- Our Agricultural Progress. duction of intelligent white laborers from The Hon. R. J. Walker has recently written other countries, who by their competition and a letter on the national finances, which is at. example, would quickly change the present un tracting marked attention. The figures which natural and unhealthy state of things.— Texas he gives, showing the great increase in the Almanac.
agricultural resources of the nation during
the ten years between 1850 and 1860, will as The Great Exhibition of the American Poultry Society.
tonish many who think our agriculture is not We have rarely enjoyed a public exhibition
progressing as fast as our other sources of naas much as this one on Thirteenth street. We
tional wealth. Mr. Walker says: had but a faint conception until now of the By looking at table No. 36, in the prelimi. immense advances made in that branch of ru- nary report on the eighth census (pages 195 ral economy devoted to the breeding of the to 210, including the additional returns on these smaller domestic animals, both feathered and pages,) the following will be found to be the furred, for use or for ornament.
results, as to agricultural products, from 1850 Guided by Gen. Brown, one of the largest to 1860 :
1850. exhibiters, we were led from surprise to sur
Horses (number)............ 4,336.719 prise. We saw in the highest perfection fowls.
Asses and mules ......
Milch cows, working oxen and of every known variety, from the gigantic other cattle.................
Sheep ................ Cochins and Bramahas down to the Liliputian
30.354.213 Bantams. We saw apparently every known Wheat.
Wheat (bushels)..............100,+85.944 171.18.1
Rye (bushels)................. 14.188.813 20.976.36 species of domesticated duck: the heavy La Indian corn (bushels).........592.071,104 830,451,707
Oats (bushels)................146.584.179 172 557 $$ Platta, the superb Rouen, the beautiful Ayles
Tobacco (pounds)...... .....199.758 6.5 429 390.771 bury, the Cayuga, and our own most beautiful,
Ginned cotton (bales)......... 2,415.793 5,195 077
Wool (pounds) ......... ... 52,516,959 60,511.313 but diminutive, Summer duck. Every variety Peas and beans (bushels)... 9,219,901 15.185,918
Irish potatoes (bushels)..... 65.797,896) 110.571 901 of domesticated goose was there, and chief
Sweet potatoes (bushels).... 38.269,148 among them the Thoulouse and the white Barley (bushels)......... 5.167,015 15.533.119
8,956 912 17.564,914 Embden. We were glad, too, to observe a | Wine (gallons)....
221.249 1.300 OOS collection of the lopped-earned
Butter (pounds)....... .....313.345.3916
13,838,642 19,129.128 much cultivated abroad as a wholesome and Clover seed (bushels) ..... 468.978
Grass seed (bushels).....
416.831 cheap article of diet, and which, so far, have Hemp (tons)......
Hops (pounds)........... been too much neglected by our rural econo
Maple sugar (pounds).... 34 253.436 38.863.864 mists. In Europe, the humblest laborers, who Cane sugar (hhds.) ......... 237 133
12.700 991 23,517.89 are precluded by want of space from breeding Beeswax and honey (pounds).. 14,853,128 96,386,855 poultry, raise their own rabbits, with little
Rice (pounds) -small decrease.
Cheese-slight increase. care or expense, in hutches, which occupy very flax-large decrease.
Flax seed-small increase. little space. We were glad to learn that a silk cocoons-decrease of 4281 pounds. - Peekly Press.
Culture of Broom Corn. but they are attended with more labor. The Good crops of broom corn may be raised, number of plants may be about three times as with proper care and attention, on any clean great as for Indian corn. If a larger quantity fertile land where Indian corn will succeed of seed is plantel, so as to require some thinwell. River flats are particularly well adap- ning out, the crop will be more even and ted to it, provided the nature of the soil or the larger, but will need a greater expenditure of situation gives them a good natural drainage. work. It is common to plant a dozen or more Uplands should be well underdrained if the seeds in each bill, about an inch deep, and thin subsoil is retentive of water. Drained muck out to seven or eight-leaving a larger numbeds are more liable to frost, are not compact ber if the hills stand two by three feet than if enough, and are not well adapted to the cul- twenty Ly thirty inches. Drills are sometimes ture of this crop. As the plants appear small placed only twenty-eight inches apart. Many and feeble at first, and are easily choked by regard the finer and softer brush of thick an over-growth of weeds, it is more impor- growth as best. tant that the soil should be clean than for the The cultivation of the ground should be comculture of common corn; and, as complete menced as soon as the plants make their apsuccess depends on fertility, more pains should pearance. It is very important that they be be taken to have everything just right. A not allowed to become encumbered or crowded crop of broom corn, it is true, may be raised with weeds. Keep the whole surface perfectly with a moderate degree of care and attention; clean from the very start. Continue the horse but the yield will be moderate, and perhaps it cultivation once a week, as long as the size of may prove a losing affair. In order to obtain the plants will admit. This is not generally the highest net profit, let everything be done attended to, but the constant stirring of the in the most perfect manner.
surface and breaking of the crust will make an If the land is not perfectly clean, the best important difference in the amount of the way will doubtles be to plant on a freshly in- crop. verted sod—a clover sod being decidedly the When the stalks have sufficiently grown, or best, especially if the land is inclining to be when the seeds are in the milk state, the breakheavy. The roots of the clover will loosen it ing back is performed. It is done at a convein a better manner than ploughing or barrow- nient height for the operator, generally so as ing alone can accomplish. An excellent mode to leave a loot or two of stalk from the base is to spread old manure, the seeds of which of the brush. Two rows are broken towards have been killed by fermentation, or any oth-| each other; so as to admit a ready passage beer manure that is clear of foul weeds, on the tween the other two. The seed being rather clover the previous summer or early in au- difficult to cure by dying, some cultivators tumn. Late in autumn or early in winter give no attention to saving it, especially as it will be better than spreading in the spring, often fails to ripen at the north except in fathe manure will soak into the soil during the vorable seasons. If the stalks are broken back several months before ploughing, and become a little earlier, they form a better brush. In better diffused than could be accomplished by a few days they are cut, just above the break, any ploughing or harrowing. The time for and laid in bunches to dry. These must itot planting is about the same as for common be opened, to become wet by rain, as this corn-as early as will do to escape spring would injure their value. The seed are refrosts. Before planting, let the soil be made moved by hand, with a sort of coarse comb, perfectly mellow, and if to be in hills, mark where the plantations are not large; but when out so that they may be as near together as the crop is cultivated on an extensive scale, will admit of convenient cultivation. The it is done with a machine driven by horsenearer they are together, or in other words, power. The brush or tops are dried by laythe more evenly and uniformly the plants are ing them on horizontal poles, and successive distributed over the surface, the greater will tiers placed one above the other, leaving spaces be the yield of brush. A common distance of for the air between each. Sheds or lofts hills is two and a half to three feet one way, may be used for this purpose. Temporary and twenty inches to two feet the other. If structures for drying are made of rails, the planted in drills, a larger crop may be obtain-brush being laid on pairs of rails laid horizoned, as a greater number of stalks will grow, I tally, so as to form a structure 12 feet square, or equal to the length of the rails, and each Economy in Feeding Horses. successive tier formed by resting the horizontal The great drawback on the farmer's profits rails on an additional rail placed under each is the consumption of fodder by the all-deof their ends. By selecting the larger rails vouring draft-horse, and too little attention is for one side, this side gradually becomes high- given to the economy of fodder and to the er than the other, and admits a board roof for preparation of it in such a manner that while the top when the height has reached eight or there is as little waste as possible, the food is ten feet. The quantity of brush yielded from given in a shape in which it can be easily masan acre is usually about five or six hundred ticated and reduced to that pulpy mass, which pounds, but, in rare instances, it has reached | can be taken up by the blood vessels, and disas high as a thousand pounds. The price va- tributed throughout the tissues which extend ries from five to ten cents. There is more un- all over the frame. certainty with this crop than with many oth- The expense of feeding horses is generally ers--not on account of the difficulty of rais- so great, as to have a very injurious effect on ing, for with proper care it is reasonably cer- the pecuniary circumstances of the tillage fartain, but from the uncertain or fluctuating mer, and it is a question whether he should character of the market. With the seed, es- be better off without any tillage land. At all pecially, this uncertainty is great. Sometimes events farmers who keep nearly all their land it is sold as high as three or four dollars per in grass for the purpose of raising cattle, or brishel; at other times for not more than fifty sheep, are generally much better off than those cents. The seed may, however, be profitably who keep a large portion of their farms tilled used as food for horses when mixed with oats and are compelled to have a large number of or other grain. When the seed is not allowed | horses to do the work. One thing is certain, to mature, several successive crops have been that if horses are kept, they must be fed, and grown on the same ground without detriment, and the manner of feeding with the least posand with moderate manuring.
sible expense, and the greatest benefit to the We would not advise our correspondent to animals, is a matter of very great importance go largely into the cultivation of broom corn to the farmer. until he has experimented on a moderate In “Hints on the most Economical Manner scale, and ascertained the probability of a of feeding Horses," by S. Menteath, the writer good market. Perhaps, however, he may re
speaks of a variety of articles which are gard a fifty acre crop a moderate experiment,
available for feeding farm horses in a very subwhich he could afford to lose without serious
stantial manner at a reasonable expense. detriment should the result prove unfavorable.
Steamed potatoes are strongly recommended We cannot give the names asked for, nor
as a cheap and useful provender. In feeding state where the seed may be bought.--Coun.
with any kind of grain it should always be try Gentleman.
bruised, or what is better, coarsely ground. the hay should be cut into chaff, that is into
small lengths of from a quarter to a half an Man is an important agency in agricul- inch, mixed with a proportion of straw, cut ture. The vital power may exist in the sced, I in a similar manner. but care and skill are required in the develop- In the “Hints" above mentioned there are ment of it. Although man cannot act direct several examples of successful practice of the ly upon the functions of plants, he can modify economy of forage, founded on long experiand control to a certain extent the influence ence in the feeding of horses. In the stables of other agents upon these plants. Thought, of Hamburg and Trueman, in Spitalfields, as well as hard work, is necessary to make a 82 horses are kept. The animals receive all successful farmer. It is a mistaken idea that their food in the manger; no hay is ever put a good education is of no practical value to in the rack. The whole are in excellent conthe tiller of the soil. Unless he understands dition, evincing the correctness of the managethe principles of science, the influence of at- | ment. Each horse consumes in the 24 hours, mosphere, the chemical properties of soil, etc., 18 lbs. of cut hay and straw, of which the lathe cannot properly develop the vital power ter constitutes one eighth-14 lbs. of bruised of seed, and justly advance the important in oats, one lb. of bruised beans; making in all terests of agriculture.
| 33 lbs. of food. In Summer beans are not