« AnteriorContinuar »
given, being found too heating, and instead of lbs. of chopped straw, and two lbs. of maltthe beans, a small addition is made to the dust. quantity of oats. Half a pound of salt is giv: It will be seen from the foregoing paragraph en to each horse, divided into two portions; that each horse receives 30 lbs. of food in 24 one given on Saturday night, and the other hours; a quantity which in all cases will be on Sunday, which so given, purges moder found amply sufficient; the addition of two ately.
ounces of salt is necessary to assist digestion. Dr. Sully, of Wivellscomb, Somersetshire, It is known that all herbivorous animals in England, has been very successful in feeding their wild state resort to salt, wherever it horses. He has adopted the following mode is met with. Of the four classes into which of treatment and has persevered in it for 30 Dr. Sully divides the ingredients of his food years. His horses work hard, and are always for horses, those which contain the boiled or in good condition. In his stables there are no steamed potatoes are most recommended. racks to hold bay, as he considers it a waste- It will be then apparent, that, although in ful method of feeding; and that the horses the methods for the feeding of horses here dewhen they have command of their heads, pull scribed, some difference exists in the articles the hay out of the racks and throw considera- made use of as food, yet that they all agree in ble portions of it under their feet, and that 30 | certain essential points, namely; of invariably lbs. of hay, and upwards are often consumed bruising, or coarsely grinding the grain and in this way, and spoiled in the 24 hours; beans, in cutting down the hay or straw-in whereas when it is cut and mixed with a due giving no hay in the rack-in giving salt, and proportion of cut straw and bruised grain 10 in weighing each article separately before mix. Ibs. will be sufficient.
| ture, instead of adopting the fallacious guide In the loft above the stable proportional | of admeasurement.-E.r. quantities of food, sullicient for the daily con.
Butter and Cheese. sumption of each horse are prepared ; a pipe
are prepared ; pipe Butter and cheese factories are located in passes from the lost to each manger, and close vov
New York near the centre of each radius of by the top of the pipe is placed a tube capable
three or four miles wherein grass and cows of containing sufficient food for a horse for 24
abound-usually but one in a township as yet, hours. To prevent the horse from tossing the
though they are being rapidly multiplied. A mixed food out of the manger, cross bars are
mill-stream and water-power osten determine nailed on the top of it, at 12 inches a part.
the site, though we believe a small engine and The cut hay and straw, and also the grain, are
boiler (four to ten-horse) are preferred to a regularly weighed out, and when the ingredi
water-power. A cold and copious spring is ents are prepared, the portions for each horse
well nigh indispensable; a good stock of ice, are allotted. For the sake of variety the in
well stored and saved, is desirable. A large gredients of the food are divided into four
reservoir (like a cellar) is dug in the ground classes, they consist of farinaceous substances
and tightly walled with planks; board platsuch as bruised beans, peas, wheat, barley or
forms extend into this, floating on two or three oats; bran fine or coarse; potatoes boiled or
feet of water, constantly renewed from the steamed; boiled barley; hay cut into' chaff;
spring. In this reservoir, deep pails or cans straw cut into chaff; meal-dust or ground oil
are set and filled three fourths full of milkcake with two ounces of salt in each 30 lbs. of
they sinking and floating in a like depth of feed.
water. The milk remains here twenty-four to The ingredients of the daily ration (30 lbs.) |
thirty-six hours, when the cream is taken off in class 1, consist of five lbs. of bruised oats,
and churned by steam or water-power-six to or beans, etc.; five lbs. of boiled potatoes six
twenty-four churns being operated at once, Ibs. of boiled barley, seven lbs. of chopped hay. I with no draft on human muscle. The butter The ingredients of class 2, consist of five Ibs.
thug made each day, from cream in the very of bruised grain; five lbs. of boiled or steamed highest condition, is of such uniform and potatoes; eight Ibs. of chopped hay; ten lbs. of superior quality as to bring from five to ten chopped straw; two lbs. of meal-dust. Class cents per pound more than fair farm dairies 3—ten lbs. of bruised grains; ten lbs. chopped
will command; and the milk, thus skimmed,
1 is then made into cheese, rather mild in flavor, hay; ten lbs. chopped straw. Class 4 five but palatable, and of very fair quality.-Nevo lbs. of bruised grain; seven lbs. of beans; eight | York Tribune.
In a contribution to the Recue des Deux
..$2 758 3.00 Mondes, M. de Laveleye discusses the history Sound common...............
4.0a 1.50 Middling ............
7.50a U and present state of Prussian agriculture.
Good to fine brown....
10 00als. O Until 1833 Prussian farmers were not very Fancy..........................
17.0022500 Upper country..
3.002.10.00 good cultivators, nor were their farms very Ground les
Ground leaves, new........................ 4.00alv.00 profitable. By a tradition, which can be traced
W00L - Ile quote: Unwashed, 22a 24 cts.; Burry do. back to Charlemagne's time, they let their 14a16 cts : Tub-washed, 30133 cts.; Pulled 22a28 cts.; lands lie every third year in fallow. Those
Fleece 30a35 cts. per lb.
CATTLE MARKET.-Coomon, $5.00a6.c0; Good, $8 CC; who planted potatoes and made hay were in
| Prime Beeres. $8 25a 8.50 per 100 lbs. an insignificant minority. But Stein and his Sheep-83.50a4.50 per 100 lbs, gross. coa ljutors have changed all tliis. Since 1833 llogs-$9.75a10.25; Extra $10.50 per 100 lbs., net. the two year system of cereals, alternated with roots or seeds, has become universal in North
Wholesale Produce Market.
Prepared for the American Hermer by HXWES & WAKXX8, Produce Germany. As a result there has been an enor
and Commission Merchants, 18 Commerce atreel. mous increase of live stock. The farms are
BALTIMORE, December 21, 1867. more thoroughly manured now than ever, and BUTTER - Western solid packed 25 to 35 and Rolled 35 the area of unproductive fallow has fallen | to 40; Glades, 35 to +5; Goshen, 45 to 50.
BEESWAX--38a40 cts. from one-third to one-seventh of the arable
CHEESE.- Eastern, 15%a17; Western, 14a15. land.
Dried FRUIT.-Apples, 7 to 9; Peaches, Sa10.
EGGS-32:136 cents per dozen. Baltimore Markets, Dec. 21, 1867. FEATHERS. -Live Geese, 60 to 80 cents. COFFEE.-Rio, 15a17% ets. gild, according to quality;
LARD.-Western, 13; City rendered, Ha16 cts.
POTATOE8.–31 00al 70 per bushel.
Contents of January Number. Ordinary............
• 13% Good Jo...............................
Work for the Month ..................... 1 3
.... 193 Loiv Middliny ........... .............
The Vegetable Garden ............................. 191 Jiudlink............................... 15%
The Fruit Garden........
.... 195 FERTILIZERS.- Peruvian Guano, $80; California $70 | The Flower Garden ................................ 195 Rodunda Island $30; Patapeco Co's $80; Reese & Co's | The Greenhouse ...............
....... 196 Solubie Pacific Guano, $65; Flour of Bone, $60; G. On the use of Chloroform and Sulphuric Ether ia Ober's (Kettlewells) AA Manipulated, $70; A do. $60; Veterinary Practice........... Ammoniated Alkaline Phosphate, $55; Alkaline Phos. $45; | The Sugar Cane........ Baltimore City Coun pany's Fertilizer, $10; do., Flour of Manure-Concentrated or Special, &c. .............. Bone, $60; do., Ground Bone, $45; do., Poudrette, $20; Turnips for Green Manure............. Baugh's Raw-bone Phosphate. $56; Maryland Powder of Making Mannre ................................... 201 Bone, $50; Rhodes' Super Phosphate, $65; Lister's Bone High Prices of Improved Breeds of Sheep well susLuper-Phosphate $55; Berger & Butz's Super-Phosphate tained........................................ 302 of Lime, $56; Andrew Cue's Super. Phosphate of Lime, Sound Potatoes......
... 204 $60; -all per ton of 2,000 lbs.; Pure Ground Plaster, Rot and Mildew in Grapes........................, $13.50a$14,00 per ton, or $2 50 per bhl. Shell Lime slaked, 6c., unslaked, 10c per bushel, at kilns.
The Small Industries ... FLOUR.-Howard Street Super and Cut Extra, $9.50a Editorial Notices .....
... 2:0 10 00; Family, $12.50a13.00; City Mills Super, 99.50a The Farmer .........
210 10 50; Baltimore Family, $14.50a15.00.
.... 210 Rye Flour and Corn Meal.-Rye Flour, $7.75a8.25; Southern Planter, Credits, &c........
211 Corn Jeal, $8 25.
The Commissioner of Agriculture ..
.... 211 GRAIN.- Wheat.-Good to prime Red, $2 50a2.80; Central Industrial Association of Mississippi.... White, $2.70a2.80.
New Variety of Wheat............................. Rye.-$1.65al.70 per bushel.
Seed Enough ................ .....................
212 Cats.-Heavy to light-ranging as to character from 70 The More Lime the More Manure................... a76c. per bushel.
Specialties in Farming ..............
213 Corn.-White, $1 23a1.25; Yellow, $1 25a1.28 per Nitrate of Lime as a Fertilizer
The Department of Agriculture-Glover Museum... HAY AND STRAW.-Timothy $21a23, and Rye Straw $19 Storing Celery,........
... 217 a 21 per ton.
Silk Plant discovered in Peru..
217 PROVISIONS.-Bacon.-Shoulders, 11 % al2 cts.; Sides, Labor Contracts .......
218 13a13%, cts.; Hams, sugar cured, 17a18 cts. per Ib.
Exhibition of American Poultry Society.... .... Salt.-Liverpool Ground Alum, $2.15a2 20; Fine, $2 80 Our Agricultural Progress ... a $3.10; Turk's Island, 55a60 cts. per bushel.
Culture of Broom Corn ........ SEEDS.--Timothy $2 50a2.75; Clover $8 00; Flax 2.40. Economy in Feeding Horses........................ TOBJcco.-We give the range of prices as follows: | Butter and Cheese.................................
AMERICAN FARMER: Agriculture, Horticulture, and Rural Economy.
about having young, need the greatest care
during this month. The early spring is espe"Ah, passing few are they who speak,
cially trying to the animal system, and there is Yet, though thy winds are loud and bleak,
always hazard to the life both of the dam and Thou art a welcome month to me.
her young, which must be guarded against by "For thou to northern lands again
the utmost watchfulness. The glad and glorious sun dost bring,
oats, And thou hast joined the gentle train,
If the sowing of oats be made the first work And wear'st the gentle name of Spring.
for the ploughs, the comparatively light labor "And in thy reign of blast and storm,
will suit better the condition of the team. It is Shines many a long, bright, sunny day,
of very great advantage to have the crop When the changed winds are soft and warm,
sown early, and the earliest time should be And heaven puts on the blue of May."
taken for it that the ground may be found dry Work for the Month.
enough to work. A bushel and a half to two
bushels of seed should be sown on ground WORKING STOCK.
prepared by last year's cultivation, and put in The horses that are to do the heavy work of with a light furrow. If grass seed is to be the farm need now especial attention to bring sown, sow on the fresh turned ground, and them into the best possible order. Food of unless it be in very good heart, sow with it a the most nutritious kind should be given with hundred weight per acre of some good superregularity. Their grain should be ground and phosphate, and follow with the roller, mixed with cut-straw of good quality, and
BARLEY. well-cured corn blades, or timothy hay, should Barley needs very much the same treatment accompany it. Salt should be given regu-l as oat, and succeeds best on a rich, light larly once a week, mixed in equal quantity | loam. If the ground be not rich, it must be with clean hickory ashes. Clean, dry bedding well manured with some good fertilizers.- . should be furnished them, and the curry-comb
There is no danger to this crop of over-maand brush used once a day at least. Very nuring, as the grain fills out well, even when laborious work should be avoided until they the straw falls. It is a better crop to sow have become gradually accustomed to the grass seeds with than oats. change from the rest of winter. Oxen having
CLOVER SEED ON WHEAT. work to do should be treated with the same
If clover seed have not been sown in Felsregularity and care as horses, though they do
ruary wait now until frost is out of the ground, not demand such expensive feeding.
and it is dry enough for the roller to operate OTHER STOCK.
Sow when the ground is cracked upon the Milch cows, and all animals having, or surface, and before it is dried too much with
the March winds, and follow immediately weather. The corn field should be well turned, with the roller.
| and immediate preparation of the surface folOTHER GRASSES.
| low, just preceding the planting. This matTimothy should be sown in the fall, but may | ter of thorough preparation in advance of be put in in spring, if necessary. Orchard / planting, should not be overlooked. grass is best sown in spring with the clover
The continual deepening of the surface seeds, and should never be sown without. / mould should be kept constantly in mind in Nor should it be sown except on land quite our regular ploughings, as the object of every fertile enough to make a good crop. The seed
one should be the permanent improvement of is expensve, and it makes a poor return from
bis land We should not be satisfied in an poor land. On land of good quality it is most ordinary soil with less than seven inches, and valuable, making a hay crop nearly as val- should aim to approximate twelve. Soils uable as timothy, and a great deal of early which would make an exception to the rule and late pasturage. It is most valuable when
of deep ploughing at once shonld at any rate closely cropped, and makes a firm and peren be gradually deepened. This exception is only nial sod. Two bushels of seeds are necessary
in case of some deleterious principle, which to insure a closely-set turf. It should be sown needs exposure to the influence of the atmosonly when permanent grass is wanted.
phere, and in this case fall ploughing is to be
preferred. TOBACCO SEEDS.
We cannot overestimate the value of a good Let no time now be lost in getting tobacco depth of soil, for our summer crops especially. seeds sown whenever the ground may be dry In the case of the all important corn crop, the enough. After preparing and sowing, as firing and burning which so shortens the crop heretofore directed, have the ground very in a season of protracted drought would cease firmly trod, and covered with oak or other almost to harm it in a sufficient depth of open brush, which may remain until it becomes mould. necessary to pick the grass from the beds. Any well turfed land, except of the very TOBACCO IN THE HOUSE.
lightest kind, will need a three-horse team to
break it well, and provision should be at once The bulks of tobacco in the house will now made for sufficient strength of team for doing need to be frequently examined, that they be the work effectually and in good time. Ploughs, not allowed to get warm. Whenever they are gearing, and every other requisite should be found to be getting very soft in the middle of renewed or repaired, that the season's work the bulk, every bundle should be shaken out | be not delayed unnecessarily. and hung upon sticks in the house until
MANUREB. thoroughly dried, or laid lightly in bulks of
Manures of every description will coinmand two courses. When it has been, in this way,
the attention of the farmer. Composts that well dried, it should be laid again in large bulks,
have been unmoved a long time should be well packed very closely, covered and weighed
turned. Carting out manures and spreading down to exclude the air effectually. It is then
upon the ground where needed should be carin condition to go into the hogsheads. A
ried on at all convenient seasons. Commercial moist season must be taken for this purpose,
| fertilizers that may be needed, including lime, when the leaves are soft, but before the stems
plaster and ashes, should be procured and become soft.
safely stored until needed. We need not urge PLOUGHING SOD LAND.
the importance of the amplest supply that The great work of the season is ploughing, circumstances will allow. and much of the success of the whole year's operations will depend on the thoroughness | Der The London Globe says a man named and completeness with which it is executed. Charlier thinks the notion that horses need The tobacco land should be first broken, and shoes entirely wrong. He himself does not cut a should be so well turned that the turf may be horse's hoof. He merly protects it against thrown down where it will not be reached violent blows and accidents, and against the again during the season. This rotting turf wear and tear of the city pavements, by inwill be a source of moisture as well as nourish- closing it in a thin circle of iron, which wards ment for the crop during the driest summer | it from danger without compressing it.
The Vegetable Garden. CAULIFLOWER.—Plant out the young plants
upon a warm border or moderate hot-bed, and Prepared for the American Farmer, by DANIEL BARKER, protect by mats, &c., during cold days and Maryland Agricultural College.
nights. Make plantation of those which have MARCH
been kept in frames during the winter.
CARROTS.—About the middle of the month The thorough preparation of the soil des- sowing of the early horn, and towards the tined for the various crops should be perse- | end, the long orange and Attringham may be vered in whenever the weather is favourable, made. and the soil dry enough to admit of being CELERY.-Sowings of the early white and trodden upon without being too much con- | red solid should now be made upon slight solidated. This is of great importance in the hot-beds. case of heavy soils; and those who have to HORSE Radish,— Plantations of this most manage such should take advantage of every useful and neglected plant may now be made. dry day. On retentive soils it is advisable to! LETTUCE.-Sow for succession the early defer sowing the main crops for ten or even kinds, and plant out those which have stood more days, but on warm, dry soils, the earlier the winter, for use in April and May. the main crops can be sown the better; as ONIONS.—The main crop should be sown as such soils are liable to suffer from drought, / soon as the condition of the soil, &c., will adshould it occur, and therefore the sooner the mit--and as it is a crop of some importance, crops can be well established, the better they we offer a few words of advice. The ground will be able to resist its effects; and if, on the having been ploughed or trenched during the contrary, the season should be a wet one, they autumn or winter, is allowed to remain in will be in the best possible condition to profit that state until in a good condition to work, by it. To take the best care of the amount when it is leveled down and marked out into of rain which falls upon the earth, and to pre- beds 34 or 4 feet wide, with spaces 18 inches vent the soil from retaining more than is re- wide. Before the seed is sown, the beds are quired by the plants cultivated therein, is of raised somewhat above the ordinary level by great importance in all gardening operations. the soil from the 18 inch spaces, and when This is done by deep ploughing and trenching the surface has become perfectly dry, the seed and by draining tenacions soils and keeping is sown and the beds rolled or trodden down the surface well stirred as often as it becomes until they appear as hard as a gravel walk. hardened. This continued stirring and pul- A thin coating of soil is then strewn evenly verizing the soil should be better understood over the whole, and the roller passed over the than it appears to be at the present day. The beds. The beds being narrow, enables the advantages and benefits thereof were known operator to weed, hoe and clean with facility previous to the time of Jethro Tull
and without injury to the plants. The adGive every attention to the making of hot vantages of the above method of raising beds for raising tomatoes, egg-plants, early onions are: the plants having a greater depth squash, cucumbers, melons, &c.
of soil than usual, they grow with greater ASPARAGUS.-Continue to make new beds, sturdiness than those highly manured upon fork over lightly, and dress the old beds with low ground, while the elevation of the beds salt at the rate of about one pound to the enables the sun to penetrate a considerable square yard.
depth into the earth, thereby slightly checkBEANS.—Towards the end of the munth a | ing late growth, and of course inducing early small sowing should be made of the early | maturity. six weeks or any other kind of the early Peas.-Early in the month sow Dickson's string varieties.
first and best early Daniel O'Rourke or other BEETS.-Sow upon a warm, sheltered bor- early kinds, and towards the end, champion der as early as the ground is in a favourable of England, advancer, &c. condition.
PARSNIPS should be sown as early as pracCABBAGE.—Plant out from the autumn ticable. sown beds and make sowings of the early and PARSLEY.-Sow very early.. true drumhead varieties for late summer and POTATOES.—Plant for the principal crop autumn use.
I not later than the end of the month.