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capacity of sustaining a thrifty population. If Then it is asserted, that the influence of this a man makes money by the crop, sells out and crop upon the community is quite as disastrous goes to the city, the community loses by the de as it is upon the farm. The tobacco growing preciation the farm has undergone. The value district grows poorer,'' &c. "Other farm crops of its taxable property is all the while diminish- decrease in quantity and quality.” “The lands ing, we apprehend, under the influence of this are decreasing in agricultural value," &c., &c. crop. Other crops, as a rule, bless the farm, and All these are assertions. If they are facts, what tend to make it more productive. They help to do they prove still but that tobacco growers are sustain animal life, and if consumed upon the far less wise in all other matters than they are soil, return more to it than was taken from it. in growing a very profitable crop of Tobacco. But Tobacco is a blight upon the land that raises But the truth is, that all this talk is but a sly it.''
little sermon, by our virtuous contemporary, to "It is not to be denied that a large sum of discourage the growing of Tobacco; the growers money may be realized by it, from a small plot , being considered accessories before the fact, to of ground." This, it is admitted then, is a good the wickedness of using it. He starts out on thing of itself. “But-it ruins all the rest of the moral bearings,” but does not venture a the farm.” How? “By leading the cultivator "moral" word more, until he has proved, as he to neglect it.” Now this only proves that the would have us think, that tobacco growing don't cultivator is a very foolish fellow; for if he real- pay. And as if not quite confident of the force ises "a large sum from a small plot of ground," of his reasoning, he tries to move us further, at the Tobacco manifestly enables him to spend the close, by a hint of "blessing" and the conmore manure and more labour ou the remainder. trary. “Other crops, as a rule, bless the farm."
"It demands large quantities of manure." "But Tobacco is a blight upon the land that What of that, if it pays, too, for large quantities. raises it."
"If the cultivator accumulates funds in the We have been familiar all our lives with the bank, as he may, it is by the ruin of his farm." same manner of argument about Tobacco growNow the Tobacco indeed furnishes the money ing in our own latitude, and have koown always for accumulation, but is it answerable for such that it was very absurd. No crop is so well culaccumulation, to the "ruin of the farm." It tivated, none makes a finer preparation for grass seems to us, it is only the same old folly that is seeds and clover, which should always follow, too common the world over; men prefer invest- and none is less directly exhausting, or tends ing in banks, when they should invest in im more to the general improvement of the farm, if provement of their lands.
the cultivator is wise enough to use properly the "Ten acres may be splendid, but the other hun means it puts at his command. dred have gone to mulleins and burdock." The If any one would make the trial, let bim take ten acres are “splendid" for no possible reason two lots of ten acres each, and put them through but the growing upon them of a very profitable a course of cropping under the same conditions crop, and others gone to ruin, only because this of fertility and manuring, except that Tobacco same profitable crop was not raised on them. Is is grown upon lot and corn on the other, this an argument against tobacco growing? The selling the Tobacco and small grain in one case, argument of the Agriculturist would lie just as and the corn and small grain in the other. The forcibly against any crop that gives large pro- result in dollars and cents, and in the condition ducts per acre, to large quantities of manure and of the land at the close, would determine the skilful cultivation. In any such case, supposing matter. If the money made from the Tobacco ten acres to be the limit of the crop, that extent were spent some where else, and that from the of surface would be heavily manured and a large corn on the land, there would be no proper comamount of labour bestowed upon it, and it would parison of their effects. become, in consequence, “splendid. It would We do not advise beginners to enter on the be also very profitable and furnish the means to cultivation of Tobacco, because it is a crop that make "splendid” other "ten acres.”' Whether demands skill and care, and, to engage in it to the cultivator might choose to do so, or prefer any extent, labour at command. But the cir. putting out his money in banks or otherwise, has cumstances of a great many persons make it surely nothing to do with the matter. He is fur- profitable to them to bring their cultivation nished with the strongest possible practical argue within a smaller area, and to grow such crops ment for investing it in manures, and crops by as may be largely increased, perhaps doubled, which "a large sum of money may be realised by an increase of manures alone; and Tobacco from a small plot of ground.”
is one such crop. These need not, we think, be
deterred by the "moral bearings” of our con- snpply. Much better prices are now obtained temporary, which seems to be, after all, largely than ever before. We could give reasons why involved in the matter of dollars and cents, un we think the business will improve, but space less he can support them by a better show of rea- will not allow us to dwell on the subject. soning.
“Now, all the region of country east of the
Blue Ridge, in proximity to railroads or steamCatalogue.
boat navigation, might be very profitably emWe are indebted to Franklin Davis & Co., of ployed for this purpose. We would say to those the Richmond nurseries, for a copy of their in the tide-water region, plant early varieties, catalogue, from the preface to which we make they will pay you the best; and to the people the following extract:
westward we would say, after supplying your
local markets, plant mostly of winter apples and “A change has taken place in the labor system grapes—you will find it profitable to ship them of the Southern States, and with it comes a
to this and other markets. We have a fine stock change in the pursuits of many of her people. Of trees growing that will be ready for market the Many are looking and are undecided as to what
ensuing fall; and to those who are desirous of they shall undertake. We believe that fruit
planting, or feel an interest in horticulture, we growing offers greater inducements than anything cordially invite you to call and see our stock. See else. Under this conviction we have gone largely
Advertisement. into the business ourselves, and say to others 'go and do likewise;' and if you give it proper attention we will guarantee satisfactory returns.
A Maryland Milk Dairy Farm. “Almost fabulous prices are realized by fruit We have intended for some months past to growers in Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey, take an early opportunity to give a personal inyet we think a much better chance is offered to spection to the Dairy Farm and operations of the people of Virginia. Take James River-say Mr. Ross Winans, with a view to give our readfrom City Point to Fortress Monroe--strawberries,
ers some account of them. Other engagements peaches, apples, pears, &c., ripen there from three have obliged us to forego the pleasure we should to four weeks earlier than they do in the vicinity have taken in doing so, and we find prepared to of New York and the most of New Jersey. These our hand by the intelligent Junior Editor of the fruits can be shipped to New York and other Country Gentleman an articie published in that Northern cities weeks in advance of any compe- journal, from which we make the following extition from their respective localities, which gives tract.—ED. FARMER.] the Virginia fruit growers the exclusive control "At the time the war came on in 1861, amidst of the best market during the best part of the the uncertainty and excitement that prevailed,
To give an instance of what can be done the purchase of land seemed to be about the only in small fruits: William Parry, of Cinnaminson, . mode of investment in order to secure what was New Jersey, sold, in 1864, from 22 acres of land, tangible and substantial in exchange for the $8,896 worth of strawberries, raspberries and money invested. Mr. Winans ascertained that blackberries. In 1865, from the same number property could be had along the Patapsco river, of acres, $9,100 worth. Allowing one-third to possessiog the double advantage of railway and cover all expenses, it leaves a net profit of $11,997 water communication with the city, at a distance from 22 acres for two years, or an annual profit of only five or six miles, and though much imof $272 per acre. This was done, too, in the poverished, naturally of good quality, and in midst of competion-thousands of acres being surface excellently adapted for the use of madevoted in that State to the production of these chinery—beautifully undulating throughout, and fruits. If the New Jersey grower gets twenty affording drainage even where nearest a level. (20) cents per quart for his small fruits, and He obtained one or more farms, to which various two ($2) dollars per bushel for his peaches, he additions have since been made, until the total thinks he is doing well, yet not unfrequently the area now in his possession there, is not far short the berries shipped from Norfolk bring from $1 of seven hundred acres. He had previously to $2 per quart, and peaches $6 to $8 per bushel. owned and carried on for several years, a farm The question is often asked, will not the markets of not quite an hundred acres near the city. At soon be overstocked with fruit? We say, em- first keeping but one or two cows to supply his phutically, no! While the production of fruit own family with milk, he was induced to spare has been greatly increased in the last twenty small quantities as a favor to friends, and had years, the demand bas been greater than the kept slowing increasing the number until, with
out any previous design, it occurred to bim that that this purpose has been subserved; and the milk business was carried on in a way open though, as we shal} see, in itself a satisfactory to many objections, and he began to make expe- undertaking, Mr. Winans has now passed the riments and plans in the direction of entering limits of three score years and ren, and naturally upon it in a more systematic and thorough-going desires to avoid for himself and household the way. At the same time other business having superintendence and labor involved in the proper been deranged by the war, he disconnected bim- management and daily sale of 400 to 425 gallons self with former undertakings, and was at lib- of milk in the various lots demanded by customerty to devote his time to the subject.
The system at present adopted has thus been The fact that one chief end of the stock was to the gradual outgrowth from four or five years of contribute, as just stated, toward the recuperation constant experiment. I must speak of generali- of the farm, did not induce so close a thinker to ties just now, but have prepared some sketches neglect their welfare, or content himself with to appear with fuller details hereafter. And, other results of an inferior or even mediocre first, as regards the land :
character. While they were to be in his hands, In early life Mr. Winans was bimself a farmer, he determined to solve the problem of combining and from experience then, as well as reasoning, their highest comfort and largest productiveness he had full confidence in the power of liberal -two objects, indeed, in his opinion, as in that manuring to compel the land to give up its stores of good farmers generally, that are indissolubly of plant food at man's bidding. There was a connected. And as he proposes soon to go double object to be accomplished—the produc- abroad for some time, and, just now, beef is tion of a better sod which would make a crop of relatively higher than milk, he is gradually hay worth the cutting, and the destruction of working of his stock, and it is thus the more the weeds with which the land was overrun. desirable that the experiments be las carried out Both these ends were to be brought about, he should be placed on record for the benefit of oththought, by such a liberal application of ma And while, as I said, the sale of milk is nure, accompanied by abundant seeding, that believed to be remunerative under the managethe ground would yield its utmost product of ment we are to describe, I must, in sincerity, add valuable berbage, while valueless intruders would that, as a business for one who is accustomed to be stified out through the greater strength of the the high standard of complete integrity in all his grass, and its ability to thrive under repeated cut- dealings, this has one serious and very untings which they cannot bear. I have before me pleasant drawback. The custom of diluting a schedule of cash payments for stable manures milk is so universal that the honest man is, as it purchased of the various railways and express were, driven out of all connection with a discompanies and others, including items of from honest traflic. Mr. Winans, for example, dis$1000 to $2500 at a time, and aggregating an poses of his milk, of course, to retail dealers, amount which would frighten most beginners. / and he has never sold to them at less than 30 Bought in so wholesale a way, of course the cost cents per gallon. They can buy of others at 25 price was lower than it would bave been for cents, but have preferred to pay him bis price, smaller quantities, but the cash tbus paid out because they could water a pure article more than was less than the transportation and labor of one that was already somewhat diluted. No regetting it on to the land, so that the sum total, sponsibility for their acts can rest on his shouldtogether with expenditures for plaster, lime and ers, it is true; but when any pursuit is carried ashes, altogether amounts to more than the orig-on, at least partially for mental and physica) inal price paid for the farm. This was, on an recreation, one likes to avoid all connection, average, not quite $75 per acre.
however remote, with anything that is not open It was not sufficient to buy--Mr. W. per- and above-board. This unsavory reputation does ceived the importance of making a heavy stock adhere to the trade in milk, and to that reason of manure beside. When, therefore, the project in all likelihood, we may ascribe the fact that it of keeping a milk dairy on a large scale came is in the hands of a class of dealers in very low up, it was embraced as the best means offering, position, bath morally and pecuniarily. and as a temporary expedient in bringing the I said that though rendered somewhat familiar
1 land up as a hay-farm, which was believed to be by correspondence, with what Mr. Winans has the best purpose to which it could ultimately be done, I did not realize it as I have come to do by devoted, involving the least personal supervision personal examination for a few days past. Le: in future years, and ensuring a reasonable return me illustrate by a few figures I am permitted to for the outlay required. And I may say here' copy from his books:
SALES OF MILK BY MR. WINANS FOR ONE YEAR 320 tons were sold or left over-which would acTO MAY Ist, 1867.
count for an average consumption of less than
25 lbs. hay per bead per day. Now, as to the Month of May, 1866..
$ 3.421 45 June....
surface on which this crop was grown: The two July
farms together have about 760 acres, of which August
2.371 03 September
2,194 75 there is one considerable patch that is still wet October....................
3,047 56 November..............................
and not in order, leaving, with other deductions, December
3,104 60 less than 700 acres to mow-probably not over January, 1867
3,086 26 February
3,020 78 650—so that the crop, at the lowest figures, was March....................................
over two and a half tons to the acre. So much April..............
for liberal manuring! Total sales of milk for twelve months.......$37,630 71 Sales of cows and calves for same period.... 11,986 08
This year three more barns are to be put up,
and it is hoped that the crop will be nearly or
$49,616 79 Purchases of cows and heifers, same time... 9,098 66 quite two thousand tons.
The stables are in the city, and contain stalls $40,518 13
for 220 cows. I shall give a drawing and It is only since the first of May, (and therefore description hereafter, but cannot forbear sending not included in the foregoing statement,) that
on a few figures now, in order to draw attention Mr. Winans has begun to reduce his stock, and
to what may follow. The number of cows actuthe sales given only include the usual surplus of ally milked has varied from 180 to 200 for two the year. Moreover, although no count or in- years past, while nearly 100 more are kept at the ventory was taken at the two dates referred to, farm to draw upon as circumstances require. it is estimated that the number of cattle on hand
The average yield of milk per cow per day, was 15 or 20 greater May 1st, 1867, than May when tested, has been about two and one-tenth 1st, 1866. Their value is to be added to the gallons, but no record has been kept showing the above figures, as is also that of 100 tons hay average nunber of days in the year which each sold at $38 per ton, ($3,800,) and about 220
cow has been milked. It may be computed from tons estimated now on band-so that it is easy
the facts that are satisfactorily ascertained, howto see that the aggregate production of the year ever, to be very nearly 315 days; and, upon this may be safely put down at $50,000. The cost of basis, we shall make an average yearly yield of feed, mainly bran or shorts and Indian corn, 2,637 quarts per cow, which for an establishment and that of labor on the farm and in the
of such extent, I need not say is exceedingly stables and dairy, are of course to be deducted. | large. Most of these calculations, I should add, If we add the value of the manure produced,
are my own, from the data furnished by Mr. Wiand charge it over to the cost price of the farm, nans' books, and they are not made up with any it will somewhat increase the latter, and so much other view than to get at the exact facts of the enlarge the yearly profit. Indeed the present case. Many of the cows very much exceed the value of the 700 acres may be fairly rated at
average, and I copy the following from the re$200 per acre, and this is just about what has cords of a number which attracted my attention been invested—say $50,000 in the cost of land, as we passed through the stalls : $67,000 in manures and fertilizers, purchased Average daily yield of milk of several cows, from and produced, including transportation and la
a record kept of the amount they gave at intervals bor, $20,000 in buildings, and $3,000 in fencing.
of about three times per month-in quarts and these are round numbers, hut will serve the pur
hundredths : pose of illustrating the scale on which the opera
No. 30, cow fresh May 8, 1866, to May 10, 1867....11.37 tion has been conducted.
Jun. 27, 1866, to 11, 1867....11 49 On visiting the two farms, we found them in
Apr. 20, 1866, to 4, 1867....12 22 No. 101,
Nov. 21, 1866, to excellent condition. The standard grass crop, No 215,
Nov. 28, 1866, to 9, 1867....13.85 No. 122,
Dec. 17, 1866, to 2, 1867....12.65 though backward, (mowing begun May 20th in 1866,) bids fair to exceed that of last year. And These six cows has thus averaged a fraction as to last year's crop, I can only say that it filled over 12 quarts each per day for periods varying forty-five barns, rated at 40 tons each, being an from about 5 months in the last (No. 122) up to aggregate of eighteen hundred tons—the largest two days over a full year in the first (No. 30.) hay crop I remember to have seen on record cut of the fresher cows I might add a list of 16, hy an individual in a single year! The estimate which dropped their calves at intervals during can be tested in this way: 300 head of cattle and January and February, and up to March 13th, 30 horses were fed on hay all the year round, and I which have averaged over 16 quarts of milk daily
1. 1867.... 10.96
to each cow. A third list might include 14
Straw for Feeding. heifers, with their first calves, which have now been in milk from one to six months, and have attributed to Dr. Dadd, the veterinary surgeon
· We find in the papers the following paragraph, averaged 13 quarts per day each.
of Boston : I must drop the subject here for the present. But it should be stated that all Mr. Winans'
"I have often noticed," he says, “that sick farming, the construction of his buildings, and horses will eat oat straw in preference to any
other kind of fodder. Oat straw contains a rast the selection of his cattle, have been done with a purely practical aim, nothing is anywhere amount of nutrimental matter, and some phosspent for ornament or effect, but everything for phates, and when converted into a sort of bran, utility, and the design has been to adapt one
by means of millstones, is a very nourishing thing to another, so as to yield the best return
diet. This sort of aliment is very useful when from a given source. As to his stables, I have
combined with ground oats, for animals whose never seen cows apparently in better health and systems lack the requisite amount of phosphates,
&c." condition, and more thoroughly at their case, even in our best herds of breeding cat:le; as to
What the doctor remarks of sick horses be his farm, I do not recall a case in which I have might have extended as well to horses in health, found an equal aren more free from weeds, or
and to other animals; with all of which, withyielding a heavier product.
out exception, so far as we know, it is a favorite
fodder. Both oat straw and wheat straw are Dunn's Rock, N. C., June 13, 1867.
much too commonly slighted as articles of fod
der, and thought to be fit only for litter. This Editor of American Farmer :
observation was forced upon us many years ago Dear Sır: Your experience is necessarily of when inspecting the beautiful short horns of Mr. that kind which may be termed "reliable, and Beltshoover, near Baltimore, which many of our I should be glad to avail myself of it for myself readers may remember. With racks well filled and one or two friends, on the subject of Texas.
with the best timothy, they might be seen to turn Would it be presuming too much to ask you to
to the clean oat straw thrown under them for litinsert a few lines in the July number of the
ter; indicating to the host of the Fountain Inn, "Farmer” with special reference to the follow that as be, at his own table, as we noticed the ing particulars :
same day, even in the presence of turkey and The most healthy part of Texas.
beef, did not despise the bacon and greens, so did The average summer temperature.
not they despise the change made by the straw The price at which a desirable tract of land
from their daily dainties of best hay and steamcould be bought, with improvements or without. ed grain. If the country is in as depressed a condition
We think it very extravagant to say that oat as the South generally is.
straw contains “a vast amount of nutrimental In a word, any information that would be use
matter." No working animal can be maintainful to families contemplating a permanent settle- ed on it for any length of time without grain; ment in Texas.
but with a due amount of grain, it furnishes, Would sheep farming be profitable?
with some nutriment, the bulk required to make I have examined carefully the back numbers the best food a horse can have. We know good of the “Farmer," and can find little or no in- horse-masters, too, who, feeding moderately on formation on the subject of Texas, and think that
corn in winter, do not care to have other long you may not, perhaps, object to the introduction food than clean wheat straw. into your columns of a few remarks, that I know
The suggestion of grinding the straw "into a will be acceptable to some of your subscribers.
sort of bran" is very absurd, and based, we MELROSE.
suppose, on the extravagant estimate of the nuAs we are not sufficiently informed to make a triment it is designed to develop. It does not satisfactory reply to the above, we refer it to our appear that either horses or cows fail to digest friend, Thos. AMeck, Esq., or some other Texan, the straw in its natural state. The act of mastiwho may favour us with the information sought. cation so essential to digestion, seems quite suffi- Editor Farmer.
cient for its proper reduction. If it were not,
the cost of grinding would, under no ordinary Jay The Fair of the New Hampshire State circumstances, be compensated by the increased Agricultural Society is to be held at Nashua, power of nutrition. It would be worse than the Sept. 10, 11 and 12.
extravagance, which some years ago sacrificed