« AnteriorContinuar »
the March winds, and follow immediately weather. The corn field should be well turned, with the roller.
and immediate preparation of the surface folOTHER GRASSES.
low, just preceding the planting. This matTimothy should be sown in the fall, but may ter of thorough preparation in advance of be put in in spring, if necessary. Orchard planting, should not be overlooked. grass is best sown in spring with the clover The continual deepening of the surface seeds, and should never be sown without mould should be kept constantly in mind in Nor should it be sown except on land quite our regular ploughings, as the object of every fertile enough to make a good crop. The seed
one should be the permanent improvement of
We should not be satisfied in an is expensve, and it makes a poor return from his land poor land. On land of good quality it is most ordinary soil with less than seven inches, and
Soils valuable, making a hay crop nearly as val- should aim to approximate twelve. uable as timothy, and a great deal of early which would make an exception to the rule and late pasturage. It is most valuable when of deep ploughing at once shonld at any rate closely cropped, and makes a firm and peren- be gradually deepened. This exception is only nial sod. Two bushels of seeds are necessary in case of some deleterious principle, which to insure a closely-set turf. It should be sown
needs exposure to the influence of the atmosonly when permanent grass is wanted. phere, and in this case fall ploughing is to be
preferred. TOBACCO SEEDS.
We cannot overestimate the value of a good Let no time now be lost in getting tobacco depth of soil, for our summer crops especially. seeds sown whenever the ground may be dry In the case of the all important corn crop, the enough. After preparing and sowing, as firing and burning which so shortens the crop heretofore directed, have the ground very in a season of protracted drought would cease firmly trod, and covered with oak or other almost to harm it in sufficient depth of open brush, which may remain until it becomes mould. necessary to pick the grass from the beds. Any well turfed land, except of the very
lightest kind, will need a three-horse team to
break it well, and provision should be at once The bulks of tobacco in the house will now made for sufficient strength of teanı for doing need to be frequently examined, that they be the work effectually and in good time. Ploughs, not allowed to get warm. Whenever they are gearing, and every other requisite should be found to be getting very soft in the middle of renewed or repaired, that the season's work the bulk, every bundle should be shaken out be not delayed unnecessarily. and hung upon sticks in the house until thoroughly dried, or laid lightly in bulks of two courses. When it has been, in this way, the attention of the farmer. Composts that
Manures of every description will coinmand well dried, it should be laid again in large bulks, have been unmoved a long time should be well packed very closely, covered and weighed turned. Carting out manures and spreading down to exclude the air effectually. It is then in condition to go into the hogsheads. A ried on at all convenient seasons. Commercial
upon the ground where needed should be car. moist season must be taken for this purpose, fertilizers that may be needed, including lime, when the leaves are soft, but before the stems plaster and ashes, should be procured and become soft.
safely stored until needed. We need not urge PLOUGHING SOD LAND.
the importance of the amplest supply that The great work of the season is ploughing, circumstances will allow. and much of the success of the whole year's operations will depend on the thoroughness en The London Gwbe says a man named and completeness with which it is executed. Charlier thinks the notion that horses need The tobacco land should be first broken, and shoes entirely wrong. He himself does not cuta should be so well turned that the turf may be horse's hoof. He merly protects it against thrown down where it will not be reached violent blows and accidents, and against the again during the season. This rotting turf wear and tear of the city pavements, by inwill be a source of moisture as well as nourish-closing it in a thin circle of iron, which wards ment for the crop during the driest summer ! it from danger without compressing it.
TOBACCO IN THE HOUSE.
The Vegetable Garden. CauliFLOWER.—Plant out the young plants
upon a warm border or moderate hot-bed, and Prepared for the American Farmer, by DANIEL BARKER, protect by mats, &c., during cold days and Maryland Agricultural College.
nights. Make plantation of those which have M ARCH.
been kept in frames during the winter.
CARROTS.—About the middle of the month The thorough preparation of the soil des- sowing of the early horn, and towards the tined for the various crops should be perse-end, the long orange and Attringham may be vered in whenever the weather is favourable, made. and the soil dry enough to admit of being CELERY.-Sowings of the early white and trodden upon without being too much con- red solid should now be made upon sliglat solidated. This is of great importance in the hot-bede. case of heavy soils; and those who have to HORSE RADISH.- Plantations of this most manage such should take advantage of every useful and neglected plant may now be made. dry day. On retentive soils it is advisable to LETTUCE.-Sow for succession the early defer sowing the main crops for ten or even kinds, and plant out those which have stood more days, but on warm, dry soils, the earlier the winter, for use in April and May. the main crops can be sown the better; as ONIONS.—The main crop should be sown as such soils are liable to suffer from drought, soon as the condition of the soil, &c., will adshould it occur, and therefore the sooner the mit—and as it is a crop of some importance, crops can be well established, the better they we offer a few words of advice. The ground will be able to resist its effects; and if, on the having been ploughed or trenched during the contrary, the season should be a wet one, they autumn or winter, is allowed to remain in will be in the best possible condition to profit that state until in a good condition to work, by it. To take the best care of the amount when it is leveled down and marked out into of rain which falls upon the earth, and to pre- beds 3} or 4 feet wide, with spaces 18 inches vent the soil from retaining more than is re wide. Before the seed is sown, the beds are quired by the plants cultivated therein, is of raised somewhat above the ordinary level by great importance in all gardening operations. the soil from the 18 inch spaces, and when This is done by deep ploughing and trenching the surface has become perfectly dry, the seed and by draining tenacious soils and keeping is sown and the beds rolled or trodden down the surface well stirred as often as it becomes until they appear as hard as a gravel walk. hardened. This continued stirring and pul- A thin coating of soil is then strewn evenly verizing the soil should be better understood over the whole, and the roller passed over the than it appears to be at the present day. The beds. The beds being narrow, enables the advantages and benefits thereof were known operator to weed, hoe and clean with facility previous to the time of Jethro Tull
and without injury to the plants. The adGive every attention to the making of hot vantages of the above method of raising beds for raising tomatoes, egg-plants, early onions are: the plants having a greater depth squash, cucumbers, melons, &c.
of soil than usual, they grow with greater ASPARAGUS.- Continue to make new beds, sturdiness than those highly manured upon fork over lightly, and dress the old beds with low ground, while the elevation of the beds salt at the rate of about one pound to the enables the sun to penetrate a considerable square yard.
depth into the earth, thereby slightly checkBEANS.—Towards the end of the month a ing late growth, and of course inducing early small sowing should be made of the early maturity. six weeks or any other kind of the early PEA8.-Early in the month sow Dickson's string varieties.
first and best early Daniel O'Rourke or other BEETS.-Sow upon a warm, sheltered bor- early kinds, and towards the end, champion der as early as the ground is in a favourable of England, advancer, &c. condition.
PARSNIPS should be sown as early as pracCABBAGE.—Plant out from the autumn ticable. sown beds and make sowings of the early and PARELEY.-Sow very early. true drumhead varieties for late summer and POTATOES.—Plant for the principal crop autumn use.
not later than the end of the month.
SPINACH.-Sow to succeed that sown in the the state of the weather. After the buds are autumn.
well broke, the surface of the beds should be SALSIFY.-Scorzenera and radish should be covered with slats, to keep down excess of sown as early as circumstances permit. heat and steam. When it is necessary for
At the time of stirring the soil between any stopping and thinning the shoots and fruit, of the crops, strew a little soot close to the the sash can be taken off. stems of the plants, which will prevent slugs When danger of frost is over, fig trees and insects harboring there and eating them should be neatly pruned, in order that they off under the surface of the soil, which they may not be crowded with wood. Finish the are very apt to do in the early part of the planting of raspberries, currants, gooseberries,
Use the hoe and cultivator between &c. Destroy all insects before the trees bud. the winter standing crops, and keep every Prepare for grafting. Commence with plums part of the garden clean and free from litter. and cherries and finish with apples and pears.
The Fruit Garden.
The Flower Garden.
Premising that all pruning, cleaning, train
Where lawns are in a bad state and difficult ing, &c. of fruit trees and bushes to be now
to mow in summer, they should now be topcompleted and the ground ploughed or forked dressed with some light, rich soil, composed up between them, attention should be directed of decayed vegetable mold and good decom to the strawberry plantations, which should posed barn-yard manure, and some white be cleaned of weeds, the covering removed Clover sown upon it. In the formation of from the plants and a dressing of good rotten
grass lawns, there are two modes pursued manure spread between the rows, which may the one by sowing a selection of grass seed, afterwards be forked in very lightly, so as not the other by laying down turf. The former to injure the roots. In doing this, place a is done much more expeditiously and ecolittle soil up by the crown of the plants, which nomically. In selecting the seed, great care will assist the growth of the surface roots. should be taken in choosing only such as are Last autumn's plantations should be gone over of a short and compact growth, such as crnoand those plants made firm in the soil which surus cristatus, alopecurus pratensis, anthoxhave been thrown out by the action of the anthum adoratum, sestuca tenuifolia and white frost; after which, the surface should be well Dutc' clover. This is a good time for premulched. Continue to make new plantations paring the ground for the purpose. Ploughi of the best kinds.
or spade it carefully over, pick out all roots GRAPE VINES.—To obtain good early grapes of weeds, shrubs, &c.; drag and rake the surfrom vines in the open ground, all that is ne- face to the required level, and then roll with cessary is, established vines, a common hot-bed a good heavy roller. After which give the frame or two, a load or two of stable manure ground a slight stir with the rake. Sow the and leaves and a few slats. If the vines are seed and finally roll. pruned, (which they should be before this Where the family is resident the greater time,) make a bed about two feet from the part of the year, herbaceous plants should almain stem of the vine, of the dung and leaves, ways form a principal feature in the garden, of the size of two frames, about two feet high, as they give a succession of flowers from early using short dung for the top, putting on the spring "until nipt by death's untimely frost." frame immediately. After the violent heat We would recommend for the farmer's garhas somewhat subsided, cut notches in the den a selection of the more showy phloxes, back of the frame and bring in the branches delphinums, campanulas, liliums and other of the vines. A trellis should be fixed inside hardy herbaceous plants. For planting among about six inches from the glass, to which the shrubs they are very valuable and ought to vines should be tied. When this is completed be in more general cultivation, particularly close the frames, and let them so remain, un- where cut flowers are essential. less the beds are very hot, when a little air Sweep and thoroughly clean walks and must be given until the beds begin to push. lawns and give them a good rolling with a After which, they must have air according to I heavy roller, If any alteration remain un:
finished, every available hand should be con Loss of Appetite in Horses. centrated so as to complete it as early as pos.
Written for the "American Farmer" by G. H. DADD, sible. Stir the surface soil of beds planted
V. S., Baltimore, Md. with bulbs, so as to keep it open and friable
Loss of appetite sometimes arises from over and to give it a neat, clean appearance.
exertion; occasionally it is the result of over
feeding or overcrowding the stomach with The Greenhouse.
food, thus impairing the function of this or
gan. In such case the stomach needs rest Proceed as diligently as possible with the from its labors, and cessation of appetite is repotting of such plants as require it, so as to the very best accident that could happen. afford them every chance of making a vigor
Should the appetite fail without any assignous growth. Endeavor to keep the newly able cause, a change in the quality or kind of potted plants by themselves as much as pos- food might prove of benefit. It is well known sible, keeping the house rather more moist that inferior hay, oats, &c. disgust the appethan usual.
tite and is unprofitable fodder. Pelargoniums, geraniums, cinerarias, should
Young horses, while teething, oft refuse have plenty of space and be kept free of in- to masticate, in consequence of the pain they sects. Give air freely upon every favorable suffer at this period, which is then often atopportunity, but do not allow cold winds to tributed to "lampas." The pain does not blow over the foliage and distigure it. While arise from “ lampas,” but from the pressure on the variable weather which usually character- the dental nerve by the fang of the tooth, and izes March continues, attention must be di- then instead of burning the palate or bars of rected in maintaining a steady and uniform the roof of the mouth, the tooth or teeth, as temperature. The heavy showers and bois- the case may be, should be liberated from their terous gales which frequently occur at this imprisonment by making a crucial incision season, succeeded by intervals of mild weather through the mucous membrane or gum. The and brilliant sunshine, render some manage- crown of the tooth being thus exposed, relief ment necessary.
is immediate; yet a loathing of food may, for
a short time, exist, in consequence of inflamCANDLEING Eggs.—This operation of look- matory or sympathetic fever. In such case, ing through an egg by means of a candle the cliet ought to consist of cooked food, complaced behind it, is called candleing an egg, posed of boiled carrots, rice, oats; and hay by poulterers, who have taken advantage of tea will serve as the best drink. Under this its transparency in order to ascertain its treatment, the desire for ordinary diet, unsoundness. From a mere trade practice it cooked, will soon return; but should the it has risen to the dignity of a scientific ma mouth feel hot and appear inflamed, then nipulation, and a more perfect apparatus has keep a bucket of cold water before the colt, been made for detecting the changes going on so that he may cool his mouth and quench in the eggs, at different periods of incubation; thirst at the same time. also in assisting in researches on the forma The appetite, when faulty, may be imtion of monstrosities by coating portions of proved by giving, each morning, for a week the shell. Carbonnier's apparatus consisted or ten days, two ounces of tincture of genof a hollow cylinder, in the centre of which tian; the food to be of the best quality and was powerful light. The Bulletin de la Societe only a little at a time offered. Should any d'Acclimatation has lately published the des- remain in the manger, at the period of the cription of another plan, which consists in a next feeding time, let it be removed, and keep screen sliding in a groove cut in a block used the patient hungry for awhile, and see that as a pedestal. This screen, which is of wood, cleanliness prevails in the rack, manger and has a longitudinal slit in a vertical direction, stall. It is customary in some stables to cram behind which is a lamp, the light of which is the filthy straw, or whatever bedding may imprisoned so as to fall on the egg placed in have been used, under the manger, thus comfront of the slit. In large egg-hatching es- pelling the animal to respire vapors which tablishments, eggs are generally candled on must ultimately impair his health and pervert the tenth day of incubation.
the appetite. No wonder that the appetite is
For the "American Farmer."
“lost;" it is more wonderful that it was not his life instead.
The Law of Inclosure. A good and uniform appetite may be very MR. EDITOR: Are the laws of Maryland, desirable, especially when the animal is needed with respect to stock and enclosures, similar for constant hard work, yet over-indulgence to those of Virginia, and most, if not all, of the leads to the high road of disease and death. Southern States? If so, is there no hope that Some horses thrive and work well on shorter the people of these States can be brought to rations than others; but the facts in the case do not form any objection to the establislıment entire change of these laws?
see the necessity of some modification, if not of a fixed allowance, so that we take into con
The laws of Virginia permit all kinds of sideration age, size, the kind of work demanded of the animal, and the capacity of his domestic animals to run at large and devolve digestive functions. In some stables-say, upon the farmer the heavy burden of protectcontaining from twenty to fifty horses—there ing his crops with a fence of specified dimenmust exist diversity in size, weight and diges- sions. It is true that since the close of the tive capacity; hence some must require more
war, the Legislature has empowered the food than others, yet it often happens that the County Courts, within their respective coun“ feeder” serves all his equine guests alike ties, to require the owners of all, or particular
kinds of stock, to restrain them upon their out of the same measure. In such establish
own premises, or make compensation for any ments I have often known disease and death
trespassing upon the premises of others, but to run riot.
such is the prejudice against change that comA great proportion of the diseases occur- paratively few of the Courts have accepted ring among both men and horses owe their the provisions of this law. It is a subject exciting, if not direct cause, to overtaxing the upon which the people want information and stomach; thus it is said that "some men dig
are naturally unwilling to abandon long estheir graves with their teeth," and the carcase tablished usage until they can be made to see of the equine often brings up at the glue fac- clearly that their interest will be thereby protory from a similar cause; therefore loss of moted. The difficulty is to bring the subject appetite is not always so deplorable an event to their attention, as the great body of them as some persons might suppose. The evil do not read newspapers or agricultural publiconsequences of overseeding are not always cations. It is however a subject of pressing apparent; sometimes they are so insidious as
importance; with a revolution in our agricuito escape notice, yet disorder is almost sure, tural system, a modification of our laws of sooner or later, to occur. A horse when stand inclosures has become a necessity, which ing idle in the stable for a day or more, is al
sooner or later, our people will recognize, and most sure to get more food than he needs. by deferring which we are doing ourselves This creates, often, a morbid appetite. The vast injury. Perhaps it would be unwise to atbest way of correcting this is to dip a lighter | tempt to introduce a sweeping change at once, hand in the meal bag, or, if the season per- but I think a great deal would be gained by mits, prescribe a short run at grass, which will the introduction of a partial change. I propose not only beneflt the animal, but prevent a suggesting, in a brief way, some of the advangreat waste of food.
tages which would result from a law by which
the owners of the smaller domestic animals, "In France, milk is packed in small tin such as hoge, sheep and goats, should be recans, easily moved by one man, and by a simple quired to restrain them upon their own premcontrivance the stopper screws close down up- ises, or be made responsible for trespassing on the contents of each can, so that the motion by them upon the premises of others. Whatof the railway cannot churn the milk in ever differences of opinion there may be as to tarnsitu. The cans are then placed in covered other animals, I think there can be no doubt, wagons, and in summer are wrapped in cloths, that the interests of every part of Virginia, which are watered from time to time so as to at least, would be promoted by a general law promote coolness by evaporation. The result to this effect. of this care, which costs but little, is that the I am satisfied that more than half the cost milk supply of Paris is proberbially excellent. I of fencing is caused by permitting hogs to run