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SPINACH.--Sow to succeed that sown in the the state of the weather. After the buds are autumn.
well broke, the surface of the beds should be SALSIFY.-Scorzenera and radish should be covered with slats, to keep down excess of sown as early as circumstances permit. heat and steam. When it is necessary for
At the time of stirring the soil between any stopping and thinning the shoots and fruit, of the crops, strew a little soot close to the the sash can be taken off. stems of the plants, which will prevent slugs! When danger of frost is over, fig trees and insects harboring there and eating them should be neatly pruned, in order that they off under the surface of the soil, which they may not be crowded with wood. Finish the are very apt to do in the early part of the planting of raspberries, currants, gooseberries, season. Use the hoe and cultivator between &c. Destroy all insects before the trees bud. the winter standing crops, and keep every Prepare for grafting. Commence with plums part of the garden clean and free from litter. and cherries and finish with apples and pears.
The Fruit Garden.
The Flower Garden.
Premising that all pruning, cleaning, train-1 Where lawns are in a bad state and difficult ing, &c. of fruit trees and bushes to be now to mow in summer. thes should now be torn completed and the ground ploughed or forked dressed with some light, rich soil, composed up between them, attention should be directed
of decayed vegetable mold and good decom to the strawberry plantations, which should
posed barn-yard manure, and some white be cleaned of weeds, the covering removed clover sown upon it. In the formation of from the plants and a dressing of good rotten
grass lawns, there are two modes pursuedmanure spread between the rows, which may the one by sowing a selection of grass seed, afterwards be forked in very lightly, so as not
the other by laying down turf. The former to injure the roots. In doing this, place al is done much more expeditiously and ecolittle soil up by the crown of the plants, which nomically. In selecting the seed, great care will assist the growth of the surface roots.
should be taken in choosing only such as are Last autumn's plantations should be gone over
of a short and compact growth, such as crnoand those plants made firm in the soil which
surus cristatus, alopecurus pratensis, antioxhave been thrown out by the action of the
the anthum adoratum, festuca tenuifolia and white frost; after which, the surface should be well
Dutc' clover. This is a good time for premulched. Continue to make new plantations
paring the ground for the purpose. Plough of the best kinds.
or spade it carefully over, pick out all roots GRAPE VINES.—To obtain good early grapes of weeds, shrubs, &c.; drag and rake the surfrom vines in the open ground, all that is ne face to the required level, and then roll with cessary is, established vines, a common hot-bed a good heavy roller. After which give the frame or two, a load or two of stable manure ground a slight stir with the rake. Sow the and leaves and a few slats. If the vines are seed and finally roll. pruned, (which they should be before this Where the family is resident the greater time,) make a bed about two feet from the part of the year, herbaceous plants should almain stem of the vine, of the dung and leaves, ways form a principal feature in the garden, of the size of two frames, about two feet high, as they give a succession of flowers from early using short dung for the top, putting on the spring until nipt by death's untimely frost." frame immediately. After the violent heat We would recommend for the farmer's garhas somewhat subsided, cut notches in the den a selection of the more showy phloxes, back of the frame and bring in the branches delphinums, campanulas, liliums and other of the vines. A trellis should be fixed inside hardy herbaceous plants. For planting among about six inches from the glass, to which the shrubs they are very valuable and ought to vineg should be tied. When this is completed be in more general cultivation, particularly close the frames, and let them so remain, un- where cut flowers are essential. less the beds are very hot, when a little air Sweep and thoroughly clean walks and must be given until the beds begin to push. lawns and give them a good rolling with a After which, they must have air according to I heavy roller, If any alteration remain un:
finished, every available hand should be con-| Loss of Appetite in Horses. centrated so as to complete it as early as pos
Written for the "American Farmer" by G. H. DADD, sible. Stir the surface soil of beds planted
V. S., Baltimore, Md. with bulbs, so as to keep it open and friable
Loss of appetite sometimes arises from over and to give it a neat, clean appearance.
exertion ; occasionally it is the result of over
feeding or overcrowding the stomach with The Greenhouse.
food, thus impairing the function of this or
gan. In such case the stomach needs rest Proceed as diligently as possible with the from its labors, and cessation of appetite is repotting of such plants as require it, so as to the very best accident that could happen. afford them every chance of making a vigor- / Should the appetite fail without any assignous growth. Endeavor to keep the newly able cause, a change in the quality or kind of potted plants by themselves as much as pos- food might prove of benefit. It is well known sible, keeping the house rather more moist that inferior hav, oats, &c. disgust the appethan usual.
tite and is unprofitable fodder. Pelargoniums, geraniums, cinerarias, should Young horses, while teething, often refuse have plenty of space and be kept free of in- ! to masticate, in consequence of the pain they sects. Give air freely upon every favorable suffer at this period, which is then often atopportunity, but do not allow cold winds to
tributed to "lampas." The pain does not blow over the foliage and disfigure it. While
arise from “lampas,” but from the pressure on the variable weather which usually character
the dental nerve by the fang of the tooth, and izes March continues, attention must be di- then instead of burning the palate or bars of rected in maintaining a steady and uniform the roof of the mouth, the tooth or teeth, as temperature. The heavy showers and bois
the case may be, should be liberated from their terous gales which frequently occur at this imprisonment by making a crucial incision season, succeeded by intervals of mild weather
through the mucous membrane or gum. The and brilliant sunshine, render some manage
crown of the tooth being thus exposed, relief ment necessary.
is immediate; yet a loathing of food may, for
a short time, exist, in consequence of inflamCANDLEING EGGS.—This operation of look- matory or sympathetic fever. In such case, ing through an egg by means of a candle the diet ought to consist of cooked food, complaced behind it, is called candleing an egg, posed of boiled carrots, rice, oats; and hay by poulterers, who have taken advantage of tea will serve as the best drink. Under this its transparency in order to ascertain its treatment, the desire for ordinary diet, unsoundness. From a mere trade practice it cooked, will soon return; but should the it has risen to the dignity of a scientific ma- mouth feel hot and appear inflamed, then nipulation, and a more perfect apparatus has keep a bucket of cold water before the colt, been made for detecting the changes going on so that he may cool his mouth and quench in the eggs, at different periods of incubation; thirst at the same time. also in assisting in researches on the forma- The appetite, when faulty, may be imtion of monstrosities by coating portions of proved by giving, each morning, for a week the shell. Carbonnier's apparatus consisted or ton days, two ounces of tincture of genof a hollow cylinder, in the centre of which tian; the food to be of the best quality and was powerful light. The Bulletin de la Societe only a little at a time offered. Should any d'Acclimatation has lately published the des- remain in the manger, at the period of the cription of another plan, which consists in a next feeding time, let it be removed, and keep screen sliding in a groove cut in a block used the patient hungry for a while, and see that as a pedestal. This screen, which is of wood, cleanliness prevails in the rack, manger and has a longitudinal slit in a vertical direction, stall. It is customary in some stables to cram behind which is a lamp, the light of which is the filthy straw, or whatever bedding may imprisoned so as to fall on the egg placed in have been used, under the manger, thus comfront of the slit. In large egg-hatching es- pelling the animal to respire vapors which tablishments, eggs are generally candled on must ultimately impair his health and pervert the tenth day of incubation.
I the appetite. No wonder that the appetite is “lost;" it is more wonderful that it was not
For the "American Farmer." his life instead.
The Law of Inclosure. A good and uniform appetite may be very
MR. EDITOR: Are the laws of Maryland,
Me Eperoni desirable, especially when the animal is needed
with respect to stock and enclosures, similar for constant hard work, yet over-indulgence
to those of Virginia, and most, if not all, of the leads to the high road of disease and death.
Southern States? If so, is there no hope that Some horses thrive and work well on shorter
the people of these States can be brought to rations than others; but the facts in the case
see the necessity of some modification, if not do not form any objection to the establishment
" entire change of these laws? of a fixed allowance, so that we take into con
The laws of Virginia permit all kinds of sideration age, size, the kind of work de
domestic animals to run at large and devolve manded of the animal, and the capacity of his
| upon the farmer the heavy burden of protectdigestive functions. In some stables-say, containing from twenty to fifty horses—there
ing his crops with a fence of specified dimen
sions. It is true that since the close of the must exist diversity in size, weight and diges
war, the Legislature has empowered the tive capacity; hence some must require more
County Courts, within their respective counfood than others, yet it often happens that the
ties, to require the owners of all, or particular "feeder" serves all his equine guests alikeout of the same measure. In such establish
| kinds of stock, to restrain them upon their
own premises, or make compensation for any ments I have often known disease and death
trespassing upon the premises of others, but to run riot.
such is the prejudice against change that comA great proportion of the diseases occur
paratively few of the Courts have accepted ring among both men and horses owe their
the provisions of this law. It is a subject exciting, if not direct cause, to overtaxing the
upon which the people want information and stomach ; thus it is said that "some men dig
are naturally unwilling to abandon long estheir graves with their teeth," and the carcase
tablished usage until they can be made to see of the equine often brings up at the glue fac- clearly that their interest will be thereby protory from a similar cause; therefore loss of
moted. The difficulty is to bring the subject appetite is not always so deplorable an event to their attention, as the great body of them as some persons might suppose. The evil
do not read newspapers or agricultural pobliconsequences of overseeding are not always
cations. It is however a subject of pressing apparent; sometimes they are so insidious as
importance; with a revolution in our agricuito escape notice, yet disorder is almost sure,
tural system, a modification of our laws of sooner or later, to occur. A horse when stand
inclosures has become a necessity, which ing idle in the stable for a day or more, is al
sooner or later, our people will recognize, and most sure to get more food than he needs.
by deferring which we are doing ourselves This creates, often, a morbid appetite. The
vast injury. Perhaps it would be unwise to atbest way of correcting this is to dip a lighter
tempt to introduce a sweeping change at once, hand in the meal bag, or, if the season per- / but I think a great deal would be gained by mits, prescribe a short run at grass, which will
the introduction of a partial change. I propose not only benefit the animal, but prevent a
suggesting, in a brief way, some of the advangreat waste of food.
tages which would result from a law by which
the owners of the smaller domestic animals, In France, milk is packed in small tin such as hoge, sheep and goats, should be recans, easily moved by one man, and by a simple quired to restrain them upon their own premcontrivance the stopper screws close down up- ises, or be made responsible for trespassing on the contents of each can, so that the motion by them upon the premises of others. Whatof the railway cannot churn the milk in ever differences of opinion there may be as to tarnsitu. The cans are then placed in covered
and are then placed in covered | other animals, I think there can be no doubt, wagons, and in summer are wrapped in cloths, that the interests of every part of Virginis, which are watered from time to time so as to at least, would be promoted by a general law promote coolness by evaporation. The result to this effect. of this care, which costs but little, is that the I am satisfied that more than half the cost milk supply of Paris is proberbially excellent. I of fencing is caused by permitting hogs to run
at large. They are the most destructive and to one-half of his capital in forest from which lawless of all domestic animals. They range to draw his material for fencing, over a wide extent of country, at all seasons The renter, is often deprived of a home, of the year, attack all kinds of crops, in all because neither he nor his landlord is willing stages of their growth, necessitate high and to do the fencing. Many land-holders prefer close fences along highways and byways, to let their land be idle, rather than for a across water-courses and over the most rug- small sum furnish a home to a tenant, whose ged ground, are but little restrained by ditches, stock soon become intermixed with his or are hedges, water-courses or even any but the disagreeably convenient to any opening which most substantial stone fences, and after all, may chance to be in his fence. derive no benefit from this outside range at The cost of fencing seems to be but little all proportionate to the cost of fencing, which understood by most of our farmers. How they impose upon the farmers. They thrive many of them can tell you what it is worth to well in limited inclosures, and the labor of inclose an acre of land? The calculation is a fencing them out of cultivated land, if ex- simple one and yet few seem to have made it. pended in producing food for them, would at I will give the results of some of my calculaa vastly reduced cost feed them in lots or pens. tions, and those who doubt may verify for No matter what kind of crop the farmer may themselves. To inclose an acre of land with cultivate, as long as hogs are permitted to run the ordinary worm-fence ten rails high will at large he must inclose his land with a fence take eleven hundred and twenty rails. The sufficient to turn them and keep it constantly cost of such an inclosure will of course be in good repair. The smallest hole is certain varied by circumstances, but that of cutting, to be discovered by some roving hungry hog. splitting and putting up will rarely, if ever, and when once they have obtained access to be less than one dollar per hundred; with this a feld, which offers them any attractions, it is as a basis, others may add the cost of transdifficult to get, or keep them out. Almost portation and the value of timber to suit their every farmer finds it necessary to keep a dog respective situations. The cost of transportato aid him in driving hogs from his fields, and tion is rarely less than that of cutting, splitthe food allowed these comparatively useless ting and putting up. A four-horse team and often destructive curs, would raise as cannot usually haul more than fifty new rails many hogs.
lat a load, and with the assistance of an extra The subject enlarges itself so much that I hand, will not often move more than five hunfind it difficult to keep within the limits which dred rails a day, even for a very short distance, I proposed for myself. The whole question especially when the rails have to be collected may be stated in a few words. Individually, where they are made. A farmer is fortunate it is cheaper for each farmer to fence up his who can get his farm fenced at a cost of less own hogs, than to fence out the hogs of than two cents a rail. others, or if, from peculiar circumstances, this There is another fact to which I wish to call may not be true of a few farmers it is un- attention. The cost of inclosures per acre questionably true of the great mass of them. diminishes rapidly by enlarging them. Double If then it be conceded that this system is a tax the number of rails which it takes to inclose upon agriculture, it is necessarily a tax upon one acre of land will inclose four, twice the all other trades or callings, for agriculture is latter quantity will inclose sixteen acres, and the basis of them all. Any law upon produce so on indefinitely in geometrical progression. tion must, to a great extent, be borne by con- If it cost twenty dollars to inclose one acre of sumption. The small housekeeper who raises land, forty dollars will inclose four, eighty dola hog at the expense of agriculture is apt to lars will inclose sixteen, one hundred and sixty pay well for his meat in the enhanced cost of dollars will inclosure sixty-four, and so on such agricultural products as he may require. indefinitely. This is true of the city and village consumer, The logical conclusion from these facts, in fact, is true of all classes. The hireling then, is, that the burden of fencing is heavier finds his wages diminished because the farmer in proportion upon small farmers than large has to employ so much of it in protecting ones, and that their forest or dead capital instead of adding to his crops. The purchaser must be in greater proportion to their open of land is compelled to invest from one-third land.
The abolition of slavery will compel the
For the American Farmer." division of Southern lands into smaller farms. Tobacco, Corn, &c. in Virginia. What an obstacle to this division is our pre
DINWIDDIE Co., VA., Feb. 5, 1868. sent expensive system of inclosures? It
MR. EDITOR: The February number of hinders selling, renting and cultivating:
your welcome journal is to hand, and I have Large areas of forest land are left uncleared
thought a few dottings of things in this sec. either to supply fencing material or because
tion might not be uninteresting. In fact, I it will not pay to clear and fence. Broom-straw
think if farmers in different sections of the and briars are rapidly taking possession of cleared land because the owner can't fence
country, who are your subscribers, would have
a kind of family talk through the “Farmer" himself or find purchasers or tenants who will
occasionally, it would add to the interest of do it. Heavily burdened with Federal, State
your paper, and if at any time we taxed your and county taxes, we are raising hogs upon
time and space too much, you could use your acorns and roots, and sheep upon broom-straw
own discretion in laying them aside. Horace and briars at a greater cost to ourselves than
las truly said "no man is contented with his all our other taxes combined. The subject, Mr. Editor, is far from being
own lot," and we are naturally prone to be
lieve we have greater trials and more difficulexhausted, but for fear that the patience of
ties to contend with than other men, and by your readers may be, I will dismiss it, with
these interchanges of opinion, &c., might ofthe hope that what has been written may be the means of attracting other and abler pens.
ten brighten our lopes. A VIRGINIA FARMER.
In the few lines I design to pen, it is my
wish to say as few words as possible about the Use of Natural History.
nigger, for I am tired of him in every sense of A correspondent of the Scientific American the term, and can only look upon them as a paid a visit, in 1862, to Col. Pike, of Brook- doomed race, with pity. Poor, deluded race! lyn, N. Y., an amateur naturalist. During the time is not far distant when they must exthe visit, the Colonel said: “I am very fre- claim “save me from my friends (pretended quently asked what is the use of this study of friends) or I perish !" natural history. Some of our very intelligent
I think, so far as I am able to learn througi citizens say to me, ' How are you going to
correspondents and the papers, we are getting make anything out of this ? What good does
on as well as most in the South, but even this it do to catch butterflies ?' Not long ago I
may be saying very little. Last year was saw one of the wealthiest men in Brooklyn at
rather unfavorable for crops, and we will not work on the trees in front of his house. He
realize as great profits as we could have dehad them all scraped and whitewashed at an
sired, but perhaps greater than we deserve. expense of $80. Said I, 'Mr. Hunt, what are
Most farmers in this section made plenty of vou doing that for?' 'To keep off the worms,'
corn, but from a disease among our hogs (and he said. "That's no use,' I remarked, 'Oh,'
not knowing a better name called hog-cholera) said he, 'I think it is.' Well, now, the insect
very many of them will not have nieat enough was a Geometer, or measuring-worm ; the moth
to carry them through the year. The tobacco that produces these worms, lays its eggs on
crop will fall short. The experience of those the ends of the branches, and it is almost im
who have carried in their crops is, the tobacco possible to kill the eggs. The strongest north
is light, and of course can't hold out in weight. west winds have no effect upon them. I have
I heard one gentleman bay, out of a barn seen them in Maine, and it is difficult to crush
he sold last year upwards of two thousand them with your nail. When they hatch in
pounds, this year he only got fourteen hunthe spring, the young worm eats off the ten
dred. Another says, out of one le sold thirtyder leaves. You can judge what good the
three hundred pounds last year, he sold this scraping of the trunk would do. I went by
year only fourteen hundred, and that more some months afterward, and Mr. Hunt was in
sticks of tobacco were put into the barn the front of his house, looking up at his trees,
last than the first year, but he does not think which had not a leaf on them, and I remarked, Your trees are looking finely, Mr. Hunt;
this difference was in quality, but some must the scraping was more profitable than hunt
bave been stolen. Some tobacco was lost by ing butterflics. -Practical Entomologist. | the frost; I myself had thirty-five thousanal