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at large. They are the most destructive and to one-half of his capital in forest from which lawless of all domestic animals. They range to draw his material for fencing, over a wide extent of country, at all seasons The renter, is often deprived of a home, of the year, attack all kinds of crops, in all because neither he nor his landlord is willing stages of their growth, necessitate high and to do the fencing. Many land-holders prefer close fences along highways and byways, to let their land be idle, rather than for a across water-courses and over the most rug- small sum furnish a home to a tenant, whose ged ground, are but little restrained by ditches, stock soon become intermixed with his or are hedges, water-courses or even any but the disagreeably convenient to any opening which most substantial stone fences, and after all, may chance to be in his fence. derive no benefit from this outside range at The cost of fencing seems to be but little all proportionate to the cost of fencing, which understood by most of our farmers. How they impose upon the farmers. They thrive many of them can tell you what it is worth to well in limited inclosures, and the labor of inclose an acre of land ? The calculation is a fencing them out of cultivated land, if ex- simple one and yet few seem to have made it. pended in producing food for them, would at I will give the results of some of my calculaa vastly reduced cost feed them in lots or pens. tions, and those who doubt may verify for No matter what kind of crop the farmer may themselves. To inclose an acre of land with cultivate, as long as hogs are permitted to run the ordinary worm-fence ten rails high will at large he must inclose his land with a fence take eleven hundred and twenty rails. The sufficient to turn them and keep it constantly cost of such an inclosure will of course be in good repair. The smallest hole is certain varied by circumstances, but that of cutting, to be discovered by some roving hungry hog, splitting and putting up will rarely, if ever, and when once they have obtained access to be less than one dollar per hundred; with this a field, which offers them any attractions, it is as a basis, others may add the cost of transdifficult to get, or keep them out. Almost portation and the value of timber to suit their every farmer finds it necessary to keep a dog respective situations. The cost of transportato aid him in driving hogs from his fields, and tion is rarely less than that of cutting, splitthe food allowed these comparatively useless ting and putting up. A four-horse team and often destructive curs, would raise as cannot usually haul more than fifty new rails many hogs.
at a load, and with the assistance of an extra The subject enlarges itself so much that I hand, will not often move more than five hunfind it difficult to keep within the limits which dred rails a day, even for a very short distance, I proposed for myself. The whole question especially when the rails have to be collected may be stated in a few words. Individually, where they are made. A farmer is fortunate it is cheaper for each farmer to fence up his who can get his farm fenced at a cost of less own hogs, than to fence out the hogs of than two cents a rail. others, or if, from peculiar circumstances, this may not be true of a few farmers it is un attention. The cost of inclosures per acre questionably true of the great mass of them. diminishes rapidly by enlarging them. Double If then it be conceded that this system is a tax the number of rails which it takes to inclose upon agriculture, it is necessarily a tax upon one acre of land will inclose four, twice the all other trades or callings, for agriculture is latter quantity will inclose sixteen acres, and the basis of them all. Any law upon produc- so on indefinitely in geometrical progression. tion must, to a great extent, be borne by con- If it cost twenty dollars to inclose one acre of sumption. The small housekeeper who raises land, forty dollars will inclose four, eighty dola hog at the expense of agriculture is apt to lars will inclose sixteen, one hundred and sixty pay well for his meat in the enhanced cost of dollars will inclosure sixty-four, and so on such agricultural products as he may require. indefinitely. This is true of the city and village consumer, The logical conclusion from these facts, in fact, is true of all classes. The hireling then, is, that the burden of fencing is heavier finds his wages diminished because the farmer in proportion upon small farmers than large has to employ so much of it in protecting ones, and that their forest or dead capital instead of adding to his crops. The purchaser must be in greater proportion to their open of land is compelled to invest from one-third land.
is There is another fact to which I wish to call
The abolition of slavery will compel the
American Farmer." division of Southern lands into smaller farms. Tobacco, Corn, &c. in Virginia. What an obstacle to this division is our pre
DINWIDDIE Co., VA., Feb. 5, 1868. sent expensive system of inclosures ? It
MR. EDITOR: The February number of hinder's selling, renting and cultivating.-Large areas of forest land are left uncleared your welcome journal is to hand, and I bave either to supply fencing material or because thought a few dottings of things in this secit will not pay to clear and fence. Broom-straw think if farmers in different sections of the
tion might not be uninteresting. In fact, I and briars are rapidly taking possession of cleared land because the owner can't fence country, who are your subscribers, would have himself or find purchasers or tenants who will
a kind of family talk through the “Farmer" do it. Heavily burdened with Federal, State occasionally, it would add to the interest of and county taxes, we are raising hogs upon time and space too much, you could use your
your paper, and if at any time we taxed your acorns and roots, and sheep upon broom-straw
own discretion in laying them aside. Horace and briars at a greater cost to ourselves than
has truly said “no man is contented with his all our other taxes combined. The subject, Mr. Editor, is far from being lieve we have greater trials and more difficul
own lot," and we are naturally prone to beexhausted, but for fear that the patience of ties to contend with than other men, and by your readers may be, I will dismiss it, with the hope that what has been written may be
these interchanges of opinion, &c., might of
ten brighten our hopes. the means of attracting other and abler pens. A VIRGINIA FARMER.
In the few lines I design to pen, it is my
wish to say as few words as possible about the Use of Natural History.
nigger, for I am tired of him in every sense of A correspondent of the Scientific American the term, and can only look upon them as a paid a visit, in 1862, to Col. Pike, of Brook- doomed race, with pity. Poor, deluded race! lyn, N. Y., an amateur naturalist. During the time is not far distant when they must exthe visit, the Colonel said: “I am very fre- claim“ save me from my friends (pretended quently asked what is the use of this study of friends) or I perish !" natural history. Some of our very intelligent
I think, so far as I am able to learn through citizens say to me, ' How are you going to make anything out of this ? What good does correspondents and the papers, we are getting
on as well as most in the South, but even this it do to catch butterflies?' Not long ago I
may be saying very little. Last year was saw one of the wealthiest men in Brooklyn at rather unfavorable for crops, and we will not work on the trees in front of his house. He realize as great profits as we could have dehad them all scraped and whitewashed at an
sirèd, but perhaps greater than we deserve. expense of $80. Said I, 'Mr. Hunt, what are
Most farmers in this section made plenty of you doing that for ?' * To keep off the worms,' he said. "That's no use,' I remarked, 'Oh,' not knowing a better name called hog-cholera)
corn, but from a disease among our hogs (and said he, 'I think it is.' Well, now, the insect was a Geometer, or measuring-worm ; the moth very many of them will not have nieat enough
to carry them through the year. The tobacco that produces these worms, lays its eggs on the ends of the branches, and it is almost im- who have carried in their crops is, the tobacco
will fall short. The experience of those possible to kill the eggs. The strongest north- is light, and of course can't hold out in weight. west winds have no effect upon them. I have I heard one gentleman say, out of a barn seen them in Maine, and it is difficult to crush he sold last year upwards of two thousand them with your nail. When they hatch in the spring, the young worm eats off the ten- dred. Another says, out of one le sold thirty
pounds, this year he only got fourteen hunder leaves. You can judge what good the three hundred pounds last year, he sold thuis scraping of the trunk would do. I went by some months afterward, and Mr. Hunt was in year only fourteen hundred, and that more
sticks of tobacco were put into the barn the front of his house, looking up at his trees, last than the first year, but he does not think which had not a leaf on them, and I remark- this difference was in quality, but some must ed, "Your trees are looking finely, Mr. Hunt; the scraping was more profitable than hunt- bave been stolen. Some tobacco was lost by ing butterflics.-Practical Entomologist. the frost; I myself had thirty-five thousan
hills ruined-did not cut a plant--and strange party alluded to, were the ordinary crops to say, in the same field I had fifteen thousand raised every year on the same land. The that was not injured. The former was upon course of cropping was as follows: Wheat, second year's ground and the latter on lot turnips (or other root crop,) the land having land.
been ploughed four times for the root crop, Our prospects for this year, so far, are not viz: once in the fall, when the stubble was very encouraging. The weather has been so ploughed in, then cross ploughed in the spring, bad but little has been done on the farms.- and subsequently worked till the season for Some few ploughed part of their land for corn sowing the turnips, with at least three ploughlast fall, but since Christmas I have not heard ings (often more,) and intermediate dragging of the first furrow being made. A few plant and harrowing, and cultivating, until all the beds have been burned, and rails gotten in couch grass and other root weeds were explace around the corn land, and this is about tracted and burned, or picked and carried off, all. Most of the farms are very well supplied and all the growing seed weeds destroyed. with hands, in number, but I fear not in The land was then manured with farm-yard quality. The past two years I gave up my manure, and finally the seed of the root crop profession to attend to my farms, but this year was drilled in witli artificial manure, such as I have given up the farms to resume my prac- super-phosphate, bone dust, guano, &c. The tice. I can't do anything with the free nig. root crops were then horse-hoed, and then ger, and such white labor as we get is worse. finally hoed by land. Then, when matured, I have rented and leased out my farms to they were huddled off to sheep, or fed in some white industrious men, such as will tell the other way. The land (being then as rich as nigger to follow. What will be the result time possible, and clean from all weeds,) is next can only reveal. I could tell much about the prepared for barley, which, as might be exexperience I have had with different classes pected, is certain to be a noble crop, yielding of laborers, for I have tried them from Mary- from forty to sixty bushels per acre. The land, Pennsylvania, Ireland, Denmark and barley having been seeded down with clover Virginia, of the white clask, and as little as I and rye grass, (of which the crop cannot fail think of the free nigger, lie is superior to any to be good) the "seeds," as the clover is called, of the rest for our labor. Our people, as a are lightly fod off by sheep in the fall, and general thing, are despondent; the past has allowed to grow up in the spring to be cut for been sad; the future looks dark and gloomy. hay. The hay erop yields from two to three Those who work most and see and hear the tons of hay per acre, (usually two and oneleast, seem the happiest. Society is becoming fourth to two and one-half;) the second corrupt-individual confidence is being lost, growth is either again mowed for hay, or fed selfish feelings being generated, and people off with sheep, according to the necessities seem to think to take care of self is paramount of the farm; and finally, the cloyer sod is to all else, without regard to consequences. turned under the same fall, the ploughing Many of our citizens are going and have gone being about two inches deep, and sown with into bankruptcy, and to what we are coming, wheat, the ground being thoroughly pressed God only knows. Yours, &c.
before sowing, and the wheat well limed, or otherwise dressed with blue vitriol, &c., and
drilled in. The result is, as might be expected, English Farming.
a crop of wheat of at least forty, often sixty A Canadian agriculturist who farms several bushels per acre. The same course is again hundred acres of land, and who has lately followed with the same results, the land all visited England, was struck with astonishment the time increasing in fertility, and becoming at the amount of grain raised in places well each year better instead of worse. known to him (he is an Englishman,) and There will be various modifications of this which forty years ago certainly did not grow system, according to the quality of the land. half the grain now produced from the same Sometimes the wheat crop is omitted, and land.
another crop substituted, but on all the best How is this? It is neither season nor chance. lands of England this course can be followed The seasons are the same as they used to be, with impunity, and without deterioration to and the crops, as seen and examined by the the farm. - Canada Farmer.
Carbolic or Phenic Acid and its Properties. say, they destroy or prevent the formation of Extract from a Lecture before the Society, for the En. the germs of putrefaction and fermentation, couragement of National Industry in France. without acting upon the mineral or vegetable By Dr. F. Crace Calvert, F. R. S.
matters present. The advantage of their use The disinfecting, or rather antiseptic, pro- is, therefore, that they act, when used in small perties of carbolic acid are very remarkable. quantities, upon the primary source of all The benutiful researches and discoveries of organic matters in a state of decay; further, M. Pasteur have shown that all fermentation they are deodorizers, for they prevent the forand putrefaction is due to the presence of mation of offensive odours, and consequently microscopical vegetables or animals, which, they are antiseptics, disinfectants, and deoduring their vitality, decompose or change the derizers. The great advantages which carorganic substances, so as to produce the effects | bolic acid possesses over all other antiseptics which we witness, and as carbolic acid exer- are, that it cannot be used for any illegal purcises a most powerful destructive action upon pose, as arsenic or corrosive sublimate. these microscopic and primitive sources of And allow me further to add that disinfectlife, carbolic acid, therefore, is an antiseptic ants, such as chlorine, permanganate of potash, and disinfectant much more active and much or Condy-fluid, operate by oxidizing not only more rational than those generally in use. the gaseous products given off by putrefaction, It is necessary that I should here make a
but all organic matters with which they may few remarks, explanatory of the distinctions come in contact; whilst carbolic acid, on the between deodorizers, disinfectants, and antisep contrary, merely destroys the causes of pu. tics :
trefaction, without acting on the organic Deodorizers.-All substances merely acting substances. The great difference which thereas such are neither disenfectants nor antisep- fore distinguishes them is, that the former tics, as they simply remove the noxious gases deals with the effects, the latter with the emitted from organic matters whilst in a state causes. Again, these small microscopic ferof decay or putrefaction, without having the ments are always in small quantities as comproperty of arresting decomposition or fer- pared to the substances on which they act, mentation. For it has been proved that the consequently a very small quantity of carbolic source of infection or contagion is not due to acid is necessary to prevent the decomposition noxious gases or bad smells (being merely of substances; therefore its employment is indicators of its probable existence,) but, as both efficacious and economical. Moreover, we shall see presently, to microscopic spores carbolic acid is volatile; it meets with and floating in the atmosphere, and which by destroys, as Dr. Jules Lemaire says, the germs their ulterior development and propagation, or sporules which float in the atmosphere, and are believed to be the true source of con vitiate it; but this cannot be the case with tagion.
Condy's fluid, chloride of zinc or iron, which Disinfectants._Under this head may be are not volatile, and which act only when in classed bleaching powder, or chloride of lime, solution, and are mere deodorizers. This is sulphurous acid, and permanganate of potash; why carbolic acid was used with such marked they first act as deodorizers, and then as dis- success, and therefore so largely, in England, infectants, but they must be employed in large Belgium and Holland during the prevalence of quantities, to thoroughly oxidize or act upon cholera and of the cattle plague. Mr. W. organic matters, so as to prevent them from Crookes, F. R. S., not only states: "I have again entering into decomposition; but still not yet met with a single instance in which it is known that if the organic substances so the plague has spread on a farm where the acted upon are exposed to the atmosphere, acid has been freely used;" but he has also they will again experience decay and putre- proved, by a most interesting series of experifaction; they are, in fact, more destructive ments, that the gases exhaled from the lungs Agents than disinfectants, and they are never of the diseased cattle contained the germs or antiseptics.
sporules of the microscopic animals discovered Antiseptics.-Antiseptics, such as corrosive by Mr. Beale in the blood of such animals ; sublimate, arsenious acids, essential oils, car- for Mr. Crookes having condensed on cotton bolic acid, etc., act as such by destroying all wood these germs, and having inoculated the source of decay and decompssition, that is to blood of lealthy cattle with them, they were
at once attacked with the disease. As to the I wish all who are listening to me were value of carbolic acid for preventing the spread medical men, for I could show, by numerous of cholera, among many instances which I and undeniable facts, the advantage they might could cite, allow me to mention two special derive from pure carbolic or phenic acid, and instances: First, Dr. Ellis, of Bangor, says: if my testimony was not sufficient to convince I have in many instances allowed whole them, I would invoke the authority of men families to return to cottages in which person justly esteemed amongst you. I would recall had died from cholera, after having bad the to you the words of the good and learned cottages well washed and cleansed with car. Gratiolet, and those of Dr. Lemaire, showing bolic acid, and in no case were any persons als that carbolic acid is the most powerful aclowed to enter such purified dwellings attacked knowledged means of contending with conwith the disease. My friend, Professor Chan- tagious and pestilential diseases, such as delon, of Liege, has stated to me that out of 130 cholera, typhus fever, small-pox, etc. Maladies nurses who were employed to attend upon the of this order are very numerous, hut in carbolic cholera patients—and they must have been acid we find one of the most powerful agents numerous, for 2,000 died-only one nurse died, for their prevention; for besides many inbut the nurses were washed over and their stances which have been cited to me, I may add clothing sprinkled with carbolic acid. In fact that I have often used it in a family in which the antiseptic properties of carbolic acid are there were eight or ten children, and that none so powerful that 1-1000th, even 1-5000th will of the family have suffered from those diseases prevent the decomposition, fermentation, or except those who were attacked previously to putrefaction for months of urine, blood, glue the employment of carbolic acid about the solution, flour, paste, fæces, etc., etc., and its dwellings in which such diseases existed. vapor alone is sufficient to preserve meat in Besides its antiseptic action, the caustic proconfined spaces for weeks; and even a little perties of carbolic acid are found useful; most vapor of this useful substance will preserve beneficial effects are obtained from it in the meat for several days in ordinary atmosphere, treatment of very dangerous and sometimes and prevent its being fly-blown; lastly, mortal complaints, such as carbuncle, quinsy, 1-10,000th has been found sufficient to keep diphtheria, etc., as shown by Dr. T. Turner, sewage sweet, for Dr. Letheby states, in a of Manchester; and also in less severe affecletter addressed to me, that through the use of tions, such as hæmorrhoids, internal and such a quantity of carbolic acid in the sewers external fistulas, and other similar complaints. of London during the existence of cholera But what must be especially mentioned is the last year, the sewages of the city were near- employment of carbolic acid in preserving in ly deodorized. And I am proud to say, a healthy state certain fætid purulent sores, that the British Government have decided and preventing the repulsive odour which to use exclusively our carbolic acid (as an comes from them, an odour which is the antiseptic and disinfectant) not only on board symptom of a change in the tissues, and which Her Majesty's ships, but in other Govern- often presents the greatest danger to the patiment departments; and that no other des ent. The services which carbolic acid renders odorant or disinfectant, such as chlorides of to surgery can be judged of by reading several zinc or iron, permanganate of potash, or any most interesting papers on compound fracdisinfecting powder, shall in future be used tures, ulcers, etc., lately published in the Lancet for such purpose. Although questions of by J. Lister, F. R. S.; and allow me to draw public health are the province of medicine, your special attention to the following parastill permit me to say a few words on the graphs which are to be found in bis paper medicinal properties of carbolic acid. This published in that journal of the 25th Septemquestion deserves to be treated thoroughly, ber, 1867: “The material wbich I have emfor phenic acid is susceptible of so many ap- ployed is carbolic or phenic acid, a volatile plications in this direction, its properties are organic compound, which appears to exercise so marked, so evident, and so remarkable, that a peculiar destructive influence upon low they cannot be made too public, and it is forms of life, and hence is the most powerful rendering a service to mankind to make known antiseptic with which we are at present acsome of the employments of so valuable a quainted. The first class of cases to which I therapeutic agent.
applied it, was that of compound fractures, in