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hills ruined-did not cut a plant-and strange party alluded to, were the ordinary crops to say, in the same field I had fifteen thousand raised every year on the same land. The that was not injured. The former was upon course of cropping was as follows: Wheat, second year's ground and the latter on lot turnips (or other root crop,) the land having land.
been ploughed four times for the root crop, Our prospects for this year, so far, are not viz: once in the fall, when the stubble was very encouraging. The weather has been so ploughed in, then cross ploughed in the spring, bad but little has been done on the farms.- and subsequently worked till the season for Some few ploughed part of their land for corn sowing the turnips, with at least three ploughlast fall, but since Christmas I have not heard ings (often more,) and intermediate dragging of the first furrow being made. A few plant and harrowing, and cultivating, until all the beds have been burned, and rails gotten in couch grass and other root weeds were explace around the corn land, and this is about tracted and burned, or picked and carried off, all. Most of the farms are very well supplied and all the growing seed weeds destroyed. with hands, in number, but I fear not in The land was then manured with farm-yard quality. The past two years I gave up my manure, and finally the seed of the root crop profession to attend to my farms, but this year | was drilled in with artificial manure, such as I have given up the farms to resume my prac super-phosphate, bone dust, guano, &c. The tice. I can't do anything with the free nig. root crops were then horse-hoed, and then ger, and such white labor as we get is worse. finally hoed by hand. Then, when matured, I have rented and leased out my farms to they were huddled off to sheep, or fed in some white industrious men, such as will tell the other way. The land (being then as rich as nigger to follow. What will be the result time possible, and clean from all weeds,) is next can only reveal. I could tell much about the prepared for barley, which, as might be exexperience I have had with different classes pected, is certain to be a noble crop, yielding of laborers, for I have tried them from Mary- from forty to sixty bushels per acre. The land, Pennsylvania, Ireland, Denmark and barley having been seeded down with clover Virginia, of the white class, and as little as I and rye grass, (of which the crop cannot fail think of the free nigger, he is superior to any to be good) the "seeds," as the clover is called, of the rest for our labor. Our people, as a are lightly fod off by sheep in the fall, and general thing, are despondent; the past has allowed to grow up in the spring to be cut for been sad; the future looks dark and gloomy. hay. The hay crop yields from two to three Those who work most and see and hear the tons of hay per acre, (usually two and oneleast, seem the happiest. Society is becoming fourth to two and one-half;) the second corrupt-individual confidence is being lost, growth is either again mowed for hay, or fed selfish feelings being generated, and people off with sheep, according to the necessities seem to think to take care of self is paramount of the farm; and finally, the cloyer sod is to all else, without regard to consequences. turned under the same fall, the ploughing Many of our citizens are going and have gone being about two inches deep, and sown with into bankruptcy, and to what we are coming, wlieat, the ground being thoroughly pressed God only knows. Yours, &c.
before sowing, and the wheat well limed, or otherwise dressed with blue vitriol, &c., and
drilled in. The result is, as might be expected, English Farming.
a crop of wheat of at least forty, often sixty A Canadian agriculturist who farms several | bushels per acre. The same course is again hundred acres of land, and who has lately followed with the same results, the land all visited England, was struck with astonishinent the time increasing in fertility, and becoming at the amount of grain raised in places well each year better instead of worse. known to him (he is an Englishnan,) and There will be various modifications of this which forty years ago certainly did not grow system, according to the quality of the land. half the grain now produced from the same Sometimes the wheat crop is omitted, and land.
another crop substituted, but on all the best How is this? It is neither season nor chance. lands of England this course can be followed The seasons are the same as they used to be, with impunity, and without deterioration to and the crops, as seen and examined by the the farm.- Canada Farmer.
Carbolic or Phenic Acid and its Properties. say, they destroy or prevent the formation of Extract from a Lecture before the Society, for the En the germs of putrefaction and fermentation, couragement of National Industry in France. without acting upon the mineral or vegetable By Dr. F. Crace Calvert, F. R. S.
matters present. The advantage of their use The disinfecting, or rather antiseptic, pro- is, therefore, that they act, when used in small perties of carbolic acid are very remarkable. quantities, upon the primary source of all The beautiful researches and discoveries of organic matters in a state of decay; further, M. Pasteur have shown that all fermentation they are deodorizers, for they prevent the forand putrefaction is due to the presence of mation of offensive odours, and consequently microscopical vegetables or animals, which, they are antiseptics, disinfectants, and deoduring their vitality, decompose or change the derizers. The great advantages which carorganic substances, so as to produce the effects bolic acid possesses over all other antiseptics which we witness, and as carbolic acid exer- are, that it cannot be used for any illegal purcises a most powerful destructive action upon pose, as arsenic or corrosive sublimate. these microscopic and primitive sources of And allow me further to add that disinfect. life, carbolic acid, therefore, is an antiseptic ants, such as chlorine, permanganate of potash, and disinfectant much more active and much or Condy-fluid, operate by oxidizing not only more rational than those generally in use. the gaseous products given off by putrefaction,
It is necessary that I should here make a but all organic matters with which they may few remarks, explanatory of the distinctions come in contact; whilst carbolic acid, on the between deodorizers, disinfectants, and antisep- contrary, merely destroys the causes of putics :
trefaction, without acting on the organic Deodorizers.-All substances merely acting substances. The great difference which thereas such are neither disenfectants nor antisep- fore distinguishes them is, that the former tics, as they simply remove the noxious gases deals with the effects, the latter with the emitted from organic matters whilst in a state causes. Again, these small microscopic ferof decay or putrefaction, without having the ments are always in small quantities as comproperty of arresting decomposition or fer-pared to the substances on which they act, mentation. For it has been proved that the consequently a very small quantity of carbolic source of infection or contagion is not due to acid is necessary to prevent the decomposition noxious gases or bad smells (being merely of substances; therefore its employment is indicators of its probable existence,) but, as both efficacious and economical. Moreover, we shall see presently, to microscopic spores carbolic acid is volatile; it meets with and floating in the atmosphere, and which by destroys, as Dr. Jules Lemaire says, the germs their ulterior development and propagation, or sporules which float in the atmosphere, and are believed to be the true source of con- vitiate it; but this cannot be the case with tagion.
Condy's fluid, chloride of zinc or iron, which Disinfectants. Under this head may be are not volatile, and which act only when in classed bleaching powder, or chloride of lime, solution, and are mere deodorizers. This is sulphurous acid, and permanganate of potash; why carbolic acid was used with such marked they first act as deodorizers, and then as dis- success, and therefore so largely, in England, infectants, but they must be employed in large | Belgium and Holland during the prevalence of quantities, to thoroughly oxidize or act upon cholera and of the cattle plague. Mr. W. organic matters, so as to prevent them from Crookes, F. R. S., not only states: “I have again entering into decomposition; but still not yet met with a single instance in which it is known that if the organic substances so the plague has spread on a farm where the acted upon are exposed to the atmosphere, acid has been freely used;" but he has also they will again experience decay and putre- | proved, by a most interesting series of experifaction; they are, in fact, more destructive ments, that the gases exhaled from the lungs agents than disinfectants, and they are never of the diseased cattle contained the germs or antiseptics.
sporules of the microscopic animals discovered Antiseptics.-Antiseptics, such as corrosive by Mr. Beale in the blood of such animals; sublimate, arsenious acids, essential oils, car- for Mr. Crookes having condensed on cotton bolic acid, etc., act as such by destroying all wood these germs, and having inoculated the source of decay and decompssition, that is to | blood of healthy cattle with them, they were at once attacked with the disease. As to the I wish all who are listening to me were value of carbolic acid for preventing the spread medical men, for I could show, by numerous of cholera, among many instances which I and undeniable facts, the advantage they might could cite, allow me to mention two special derive from pure carbolic or phenic acid, and instances: First, Dr. Ellis, of Bangor, says: if my testimony was not sufficient to convince I have in many instances allowed whole them, I would invoke the authority of men families to return to cottages in which person justly esteemed amongst you. I would recall had died from cholera, after having had the to you the words of the good and learned cottages well washed and cleansed with car- | Gratiolet, and those of Dr. Lemaire, showing bolic acid, and in no case were any persons al- that carbolic acid is the most powerful aclowed to enter such purified dwellings attacked knowledged means of contending with conwith the disease. My friend, Professor Chan- tagious and pestilential diseases, such as delon, of Liege, has stated to me that out of 130 cholera, typhus fever, small-pox, etc. Maladies nurses who were employed to attend upon the of this order are very numerous, hut in carbolic cholera patients—and they must have been acid we find one of the most powerful agents numerous, for 2,000 died-only one nurse died, for their prevention; for besides many inbut the nurses were washed over and their stances which have been cited to me, I may add clothing sprinkled with carbolic acid. In fact that I have often used it in a family in which the antiseptic properties of carbolic acid are there were eight or ten children, and that none so powerful that 1-1000th, even 1-5000th will of the family have suffered from those diseases prevent the decomposition, fermentation, or except those who were attacked previously to putrefaction for months of urine, blood, glue the employment of carbolic acid about the solution, flour, paste, fæces, etc., etc., and its dwellings in which such diseases existed. vapor alone is sufficient to preserve meat in Besides its antiseptic action, the caustic proconfined spaces for weeks; and even a little perties of carbolic acid are found useful; most vapor of this useful substance will preserve beneficial effects are obtained from it in the meat for several days in ordinary atmosphere, treatment of very dangerous and sometimes and prevent its being fly-blowd; lastly, mortal complaints, such as carbuncle, quinsy, 1-10,000th has been found sufficient to keep diphtheria, etc., as shown by Dr. T. Turner, sewage sweet, for Dr. Letheby states, in a of Manchester; and also in less severe affecletter addressed to me, that through the use of tions, such as hæmorrhoids, internal and such a quantity of carbolic acid in the sewers external fistulas, and other similar complaints. of London during the existence of cholera But what must be especially mentioned is the last year, the sewages of the city were near- employment of carbolic acid in preserving in ly deodorized. And I am proud to say, a healthy state certain fætid purulent sores, that the British Government have decided and preventing the repulsive odour which to use exclusively our carbolic acid (as an comes from them, an odour which is the antiseptic and disinfectant) not only on board symptom of a change in the tissues, and which Her Majesty's ships, but in other Govern- often presents the greatest danger to the patiment departments; and that no other de-ent. The services which carbolic acid renders odorant or disinfectant, such as chlorides of to surgery can be judged of by reading several zinc or iron, permanganate of potash, or any most interesting papers on compound fracdisinfecting powder, shall in future be used tures, ulcers, etc., lately published in the Lancet for such purpose. Although questions of by J. Lister, F. R. S.; and allow me to draw public health are the province of medicine, your special attention to the following parastill permit me to say a few words on the graphs which are to be found in his paper medicinal properties of carbolic acid. This published in that journal of the 25th Septemquestion deserves to be treated thoroughly, ber, 1867: “The material wbich I have emfor phenic acid is susceptible of so many ap- ployed is carbolic or phenic acid, a volatile plications in this direction, its properties are organic compound, which appears to exercise so marked, so evident, and so remarkable, that a peculiar destructive influence upon low they cannot be made too public, and it is forms of life, and hence is the most powerful rendering a service to mankind to make known antiseptic with which we are at present acsome of the employments of so valuable a quainted. The first class of cases to which I therapeutic agent.
| applied it, was that of compound fractures, in which the effects of decomposition in the the animal's foot for two or three days, preinjured part were especially striking and venting the contact of the air, allowing thereby pernicious. The results have been such as to time for the application to have its effect. establish conclusively the great principle that But if the flock be numerous, it would take a all the local inflammatory mischief and general long time to dress the four feet of each animal febrile disturbance which follow severe injuries one after another; so, to make it more easy, a are due do the irritating and poisoning influ- shallow tray is made of stone-a sort of trough; ence of decomposing blood or sloughs. These this is filled with the medicated mixture, and evils are entirely avoided by antiseptics treat the sheep made to pass through it; their feet ment, so that liibs which otherwise would be being thus impregnated with the required unhesitatingly condemed to amputation may substance. Permit me also to state that cattle be retained with confidence of the best results. cease to be annoyed with flies, etc., if wasled Since the antiseptic treatment has been with this solution, or a weak solution of carbrought into full operation, and wounds and bolic acid; and a first-rate salve can be abscesses no longer poison the atmosphere with prepared by adding 10 per cent. of carbolic putrid exhalations, my wards, though in other acid to butter, or any other fatty matters used respects under precisely the same circum- for such purpose. stances as before, have completely changed their character; so that during the last nine
Tight vs. Open Barns. months not a single instance of pyæmia, hos. Having noticed several communications in pital gangrene, or erysipelas has occurred to the Farmer on the above subject, in favor of them.” My hearers can also witness the same open barns where hay is stored, I venture to remarkable results by visiting the two sick oppose the theory, premising, however, that wards of Dr. Maisonneuve, at the Hotel Dieu. as I know whereof I write, what I say is Further, I must not overlook the valuable practice as well as pen and ink," with all deapplication made of it to gangrene in hospitals ference to Mr. Bancroft, in the Farmer of by the eminent physician, James Paget, Esq.; | Nov. 30. and lastly, it has been used by many of the I have two barns, one of which is shingled most eminent medical men with marked suc- all over, and lias a double floor; the other is cess in those scourges of humanity, phthisis old and open. I have for years been putting and syphilis.
bay into the former, made at least from oneIn agriculture our firm has stimulated the third to one-half less than that put into the employment of the carbolic acid for the cure latter, and never yet have taken any poor or of certain diseases very common to sleep-- smoky hay therefrom. While from the old scab, for example. The method of treatment barn the hay is always poor on the sides of customary in similar cases was very imperfect the mow as well as dangerous, whilst with carbolic acid
A neighbor of mine had an old house well this malady is cured, and without danger to shingled, lathed and plastered, which he filled the animal, by dipping it for a minute, often with grass, cut and housed on a cloudy but only for some seconds, in water containing a dry day. In the spring it was taken out, when small quantity of carbolic acid. For this pur- | all but a few inches on the top was beautiful pose pure acid would be to expensive, and is
and much better perfumed than Lubin's Exnot used, nor concentrated acid, which igno- tract, called “New Mown Hay." rant men who have the care of sheep would not
Col. ...., of New Bedford, filled some new know how to use, but by the help of soap and
oil casks with grass, green from the meadow. emulsion of carbolic and cresylic acids is made.
After a year had elapsed he found it in After having shorn the sheep it is dipped in the same condition as when headed up. this mixture; a single immersion in a bath
Keep the air from your hay as well as from contained 1-60th of it is sufficient to effect a
the fruit which you put into cans, and it will cure. After scab, the foot-rot is one of the keen worst and most frequent complaints. Carbolic Let those building barns think of these acid is also for that an efficacious remedy. I things and not go back to the days of their For this a mixture is made of the acid and an! gri sture is made of the acid and in grandfather, “when grass was allowed to go
to seed before mowed, and corn was planted adherent and greasy substance, capable of five feet apart and the plough was used instead forming a plaster, which is made to adhere to l of the cultivator.- New England Farmer.
From "Turf, Field and Farm.”
“The Abbe Faet, in a letter addressed to Origin of the Percheron Horse.
the Congress of Mortagne, July 16, 1843, and Mr. W. T. Walters, of Baltimore, who, with
in his great work upon La Perche, cites in
this connection a Lord of Montdoubleau, Gefthe approbation of the Emperor and the aid of General Fleury, the imperial equerry, has
froy IV., and Rotrou, Count of La Perche, as imported into this country the very finest lot
having brought back from Palestine several of this valuable race of horses to be had in all
stallions, which were put to mares, the proFrance, has sent us a translation of Du Hays'
duce of which was most carefully preserved. work on the Percheron horse, published un
“The small number of the sires, their inder the auspices of the French Minister of Ag
comparable beauty and manifest superiority, riculture. The book will prove an acceptable
must have led to the in-and-in breeding so
much deprecated by breeders; but the qualiaddition to agricultural literature and of great value to all engaged in breeding horses.
ties of the sires became indelibly fixed upon
their propeny.* The third chapter of the book treats of the
“The Lord of Montdonbleau was, it is said, origin of the Percheron, often called the Nor
the most zealous of the advocates and breedman horse as follows: “Now what is the ori
ers of the new blood, and being the most zealgin of the Percheron ? Some attribute to him
ous, was the most successful; hence it is the an Arabian ancestry; others, less esplicit and
Montdoubleau stock is to this day the best in without positively assigning to him so noble
Perche. The Count Roger, of Bellesmer, iman origin, hold him to be strongly impregna
ported both Arabian and Spanish horses, as ted with Arabian bloocł. M. Eugene Perrault,
did Goroze the Lord of Saint Cerney, Courone of the most extensive and skillful dealers
ville, and Courserdult, these are historical in fancy horses in all Europe, has frequently
facts which have their importance. Like remarked to me that of all the various races
chronicles it is true exist for other provinces ; of horses none were so interesting to him as
for Limousin, for Navarre, for Auvergne (the the admirable Percheron, and that, judging
land of noble horses), also for Brittany and from his appearance and qualities, he was sat
| Maine, but in the latter not the least sign of isfied he was a genuine Arab, modified in form
Eastern blood is perceptible. The fact is the by the climate and the rude services to which
Crusaders from all the French provinces nathe had for ages been subjected.
urally brought back with them more or less “We cannot, however, find in history the
, find in history the of the Eastern blood, which they had learned written positive proof that the Percheron is to appreciate on the plains of Palestine--but an Arab, but we believe it easy, by fair histo
the truth is it has not been preserved there, rical deduction, to prove the fact.
and that we in La Perche should be so fortu" It is well known that after the defeat of nate, after so many centuries, as to be able to the famous Saracen chief Abderame by Charles show the traces of it, should stimulate us to Martel, on the plains of Vouille there fell into its careful preservation. the hands of the victors a magnificent cavalry, “From the time of the Roman denominasince more than 300,000 infidels were killed | tion, the horse in his Oriental forms, was not on that day, and the horses which they rode only valued by the Gauls, but was particularly were, like themselves, from the East. Upon prized in Perche. In 1861 a subterranean a division of the spoil a large number of these vault was discovered in the middle of a field, were assigned to the men of La Perche, of near Jargeau(Loiret), upon the borders of PerOrleannais, and Normandy, who composed che; it contained a statue of Bacchus, surroundthe bulk of the French forces, and they must ed by bachannals; with these were found a necessarily have left in their progeny indeli horse, a stag, a boar, some fishi, a grape vine, ble traces of their blood.
| and other native products of the country; but "La Perche, like all Christian countries, the horse was indubitably of the Arab form, furnished, as is well known, her contingent of which goes to prove that at that remote period fighting men to the crusades, and the chroni- there were Arabs in the country, or that the cles cite several Counts of Bellesmer, Mortagne native local race from which the portrait was and Nogent, barons and gentlemen of that taken resembled the Arab. province, who, with many of their vassals
" Bakewell created his famous sheep and cattle by in made pilgrimages to the Holy land.
and in'" breeding.-Ed.