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out any previous design, it occurred to him that that this purpose has been subserved; and the milk business was carried on in a way open though, as we shal} see, in itself a satisfactory to many objections, and he began to make expe- undertaking, Mr. Winans has now passed the riments and plans in the direction of entering limits of three score years and ten, and naturally upon it in a more systematic and tborough-going desires to avoid for himself and household the way. At the same time other business having superintendence and labor involved in the proper been deranged by the war, he disconnected bim management and daily sale of 400 to 425 gallons self with former undertakings, and was at lib- of milk in the various lots demanded by customerty to devote his time to the subject.
ers. The system at present adopted has thus been The fact that one chief end of the stock was to the gradual outgrowth from four or five years of contribute, as just stated, toward the recuperation constant experiment. I must speak of generalis of the farm, did not induce so close a thinker to ties just now, but have prepared some sketches | neglect their welfare, or content himself with to appear with fuller details hereafter. And, ' other results of an inferior or even mediocre first, as regards the land :
| character. While they were to be in his hands, In early life Mr. Winans was bimself a farmer, he determined to solve the problem of combining and from experience then, as well as reasoning, their highest comfort and largest productiveness he had full confidence in the power of liberal i two objects, indeed, in his opinion, as in that manuring to compel the land to give up its stores of good farmers generally, that are indissolubly of plant food at man's bidding. There was a connected. And as de proposes soon to go double object to be accomplished—the produc- abroad for some time, and, just now, beef is tion of a better sod which would make a crop of relatively higher than milk, he is gradually hay worth the cutting, and the destruction of working off bis stock, and it is thus the more the weeds with which the land was overrun. desirable that the experiments be bas carried out Both these ends were to be brought about, he should be placed on record for the benefit of oththought, by such a liberal application of ma-ers. And while, as I said, the sale of milk is nure, accompanied by abundant seeding, that believed to be remunerative under the managethe ground would yield its utmost product of ment we are to describe, I must, in sincerity, add valuable berbage, while valueless intruders would that, as a business for one who is accustomed to be stifted out through the greater strength of the the high standard of complete integrity in all his grass, and its ability to thrive under repeated cut- dealings, this has one serious and very 10tings wbich they cannot bear. I have before me pleasant draw back. The custom of diluting a schedule of cash payments for stable manures milk is so universal that the honest man is, as it purchased of the various railways and express were, driven out of all connection with a discompanies and others, including items of from honest traffic. Mr. Winans, for example, dis$1000 to $2500 at a time, and aggregating an poses of bis milk, of course, to retail dealers, amount which would frighten most beginners. and he has never sold to them at less than 30 Bought in so wholesale a way, of course the cost cents per gallon. They can buy of others at 25 price was lower than it would have been for cents, but have preferred to pay bim bis price, smaller quantities, but the cash thus paid out because they could water a pure article more that was less than the transportation and labor of one that was already somewhat diluted. No regetting it on to the land, so tbat the sum total, sponsibility for their acts can rest on his shouldtogether with expenditures for plaster, lime and ers, it is true; but when any pursuit is carried ashes, altogether amounts to more than the orig- on, at least partially for mental and physical inal price paid for the farm. This was, on an recreation, one likes to avoid all connection, average, not quite $75 per acre. ..
however remote, with anything that is not open It was not sufficient to buy--Mr. W. per- and above-board. This unsavory reputation does ceived the importance of making a heavy stock adhere to the trade in milk, and to that reason of manure beside. When, therefore, the project in all likelihood, we may ascribe the feet that is of keeping a milk dairy on a large scale came is in the hands of a class of dealers in very low up, it was embraced as the best means offering, position, both morally and pecuniarily and as a temporary expedient in bringing the said that though rendered somewhat familiar land up as a hay-farm, which was believed to be by correspondence, with what Mr. Winans has the best purpose to which it could ultimately be done, I did not realize it as I have come to do by devoted, involving the least personal supervision personal examination for a few days past. L! in future years, and ensuring a reasonable return me illustrate by a few figures I am permitted to for the outlay required. And I may say here' copy from his books :
Sales of Milk By Mr. Winans for one Year
320 tons were sold or left over-which would acTo May 1st, 1867.
count for an average consumption of less than
25 lbs. hay per head per day. Now, as to the Month of May, 1866....................... $ 3.421 45 June..........
surface on which this crop was grown : The two July .......
farms together have about 760 acres, of which
2,371 03 September ...
2,194 75 there is one considerable patch that is still wet October ........
3,176 45 November....
and not in order, leaving, with other deductions, December ...................
3,104 60 less than 700 acres to mow-probably not over January, 1867..........
3.086 26 February.......
650—so that the crop, at the lowest figures, was March....
over two and a half tons to the acre. So much April...
for liberal manuring ! Total sales of milk for twelve months.......$37.630 71
This year three more barns are to be put up, Sales of cows and calves for same period.... 11,986 08
and it is hoped that the crop will be nearly or
$49,616 79 Purchases of cows and heifers, same time... 9,098 66
quite two thousand tons.
The stables are in the city, and contain stalls $40,518 13
for 220 cows. I shall give a drawing and It is only since the first of May, (and therefore
description bereafter, but cannot forbear sending not included in the foregoing statement,) that on a few figures now, in order to draw attention Mr. Winans has begun to reduce bis stock, and
to what may follow. The number of cows actuthe sales given only include the usual surplus of
ally milked bas varied from 180 to 200 for two the year. Moreover, although no count or in
years past, while nearly 100 more are kept at the ventory was taken at the two dates referred to, l farm to draw upon as
farm to draw upon as circumstances require. it is estimated that the number of cattle on hand
The average yield of milk per cow per day, was 15 or 20 greater May 1st, 1867, than May
when tested, has been about two and one-tenth ist, 1866. Their value is to be added to the gallons, but no record has been kept showing the above figures, as is also that of 100 tons hay average nunber of days in the year which each sold at $38 per ton, ($3,800,) and about 220cow has been milked. It may be computed from tons estimated now on hand-so that it is easy the facts that are satisfactorily ascertained, howto see that the aggregate production of the year ever, to be very nearly 315 days; and, upon this may be safely put down at $50,000. The cost of | basis, we shall make an average yearly yield of feed, mainly bran or shorts and Indian corn, 1 2,637 quarts per cow, which for an establishment and that of labor on the farm and in the of such extent, I need not say is exceedingly stables and dairy, are of course to be deducted. large. Most of these calculations, I should add, If we add the value of the manure produced, are my own, from the data furnished by Mr. Wiand charge it over to the cost price of the farm, nans' books, and they are not made up with any it will somewhat increase the latter, and so much other view than to get at the exact facts of the enlarge the yearly profit. Indeed the present case. Many of the cows very much exceed the value of the 700 acres may be fairly rated at average, and I copy the following from the re$200 per acre, and this is just about what has
cords of a number which attracted my attention been invested—say $50,000 in the cost of land, as we passed through the stalls : $67,000 in manures and fertilizers, purchased
Average daily yield of milk of several cows, from and produced, including transportation and la
a record kept of the amount they gave at intervals bor, $20,000 in buildings, and $3,000 in fencing.
of about three times per month-in quarts and these are round numbers, but will serve the pur
hundredths : pose of illustrating ihe scale on which the opera
No. 30, cow fresh May 8, 1866, to May 10, 1867....11.37 tion has been conducted.
Jun. 27, 1866, to 11, 1867....11 49 On visiting the two farms, we found them in | No. 191, “ Apr. 20, 1866, to " 4, 1867....12 22
i No. 101. * Nov. 21, 1866, to 1 1. 1867.... 10.96 excellent condition. The standard grass crop, No 215
Nov. 28, 1966, to 9, 1867.... 13.85
" No. 122,
Dec, 17, 1866, to " though backward, (mowing begun May 20th in
2, 1867....12.65 1866,) bids fair to exceed that of last year. And | These six cows has thus averaged a fraction as to last year's crop, I can only say that it filled over 12 quarts each per day for periods varying forty-five barns, rated at 40 tons each, being an from about 5 months in the last (No. 122) up to aggregate of cighteen hundred tons--the largest two days over a full year in the first (No. 30.) hay crop I remember to have seen on record cut of the fresher cows I might add a list of 16, by an individual in a single year! The estimate which dropped their calves at intervals during can be tested in this way: 300 head of cattle and January and February, and up to March 13th, 30 horses were fed on hay all the year round, and I which have averaged over 16 quarts of milk daily
to each cow. A third list might include 14
Straw for Feeding. heifers, with their first calves, which have now
| We find in the papers the following paragraph, been in milk from one to six months, and have
attributed to Dr. Dadd, the veterinary surgeon averaged 13 quarts per day each.
of Boston : I must drop the subject here for the present. But it should be stated that all Mr. Winans'
"I have often noticed,” he says, "that sick farming, the construction of his buildings, and
horses will eat oat straw in preference to any
| other kind of fodder. Oat straw contains a rast the selection of his cattle, have been done with a purely practical aim, nothing is anywhere
amount of nutrimental matter, and some phosspent for ornament or effect, but everything for
phates, and when converted into a sort of braa, utility, and the design has been to adapt one
| by means of millstones, is a very nourishing thing to another, so as to yield the best return
diet. This sort of aliment is very useful when from a given source. As to his stables, I have
combined with ground oats, for animals whose never seen cows apparently in better health and
systems lack the requisite amount of phosphates, condition, and more thoroughly at their case, even in our best herds of breeding cat:le; as to What the doctor remarks of sick borses be his farm, I do not recall a case in which I have might have extended as well to horses in health, found an equal aren more free from weeds, or and to other animals; with all of which, witbyielding a heavier product.
out exception, so far as we know, it is a favorite
fodder. Both oat straw and wheat stras are Dunn's Rock, N. C., June 13, 1867.
much too commonly slighted as articles of fod
der, and thought to be fit only for litter. This Editor of American Farmer :
observation was forced upon us many years ago DEAR SIR: Your experience is necessarily of
when inspecting the beautiful short horns of Mr. that kind which may be termed "reliable," and
Beltshoover, near Baltimore, which many of our I should be glad to avail myself of it for myself
readers may remember. With racks well filled and one or two friends, on the subject of Texas.
with the best timothy, they might be seen to turn Would it be presuming too much to ask you to
to the clean oat straw thrown under them for litinsert a few lines in the July number of the
ter; indicating to the host of the Fountain lan, "Farmer" with special reference to the follow.
that as he, at his own table, as we noticed the ing particulars :
same day, even in the presence of turkey and The most healthy part of Texas.
beef, did not despise the bacon and greens, so did The average summer temperature.
not they despise the change made by the straw The price at wbich a desirable tract of land
from their daily dainties of best hay and steamcould be bought, with improvements or without.
ed grain. If the country is in as depressed a condition
We think it very extravagant to say that ont as the South generally is.
straw contains "a vast amount of nutrimental In a word, any information that would be use
matter." No working animal can be maintainful to families contemplating a permanent settle ed on it for any length of time without graia; ment in Texas.
but with a due amount of grain, it furnishes, Would sheep farming be profitable?
with some nutriment, the bulk required to make I have examined carefully the back numbers the best food a horse can have. We know good of the “Farmer," and can find little or no in- ' horse-masters, too, who, feeding moderately on formation on the subject of Texas, and think that |
corn in winter, do not care to have other long u may not, perhaps, object to the introduction food than clean wheat straw. into your columns of a few remarks, that I know
The suggestion of grinding the straw "into a will be acceptable to some of your subscribers. I sort of bran” is very absurd, and based, we
suppose, on the extravagant estimate of the nuAs we are not sufficiently informed to make a triment it is designed to develop. It does not satisfactory reply to the above, we refer it to our appear that either horses or cows fail to digest friend, Thos. Afleck, Esq., or some other Texan, the straw in its natural state. The act of mastiwho may favour us with the information sought. cation so essential to digestion, seems quite suff- Editor Farmer.
cient for its proper reduction. If it were not,
the cost of grinding would, under no ordinary The Fair of the New Hampshire State circumstances, be compensated by the increased Agricultural Society is to be held at Nashua, power of nutrition. It would be worse than the Sept. 10, 11 and 12.
extravagance, which some years ago sacrificed
tbousands of dollars in the purchase of machines
Too Rich for Wheat. for grinding corn-cobs. Corn-cobs show, on
We were told lately, by a farmer, whose expe. analysis, some nutriment matter, but not enough
rience lies in one of the finest districts of Maryto pay for grinding. Some gold mines do not
land, that the most uncertain portions of the pay the cost of working them.
lands of his neighbornood, for wheat, were those As to Dr. Dadd's remarks on "animals whose
wbich were richest, viz, the bottom lands. He systems want the requisite amount of phos
spoke of the clover fallow of a neighboring farm phates,'' it seems to us far too learned for the
which averaged forty-two bushels of wheat to occasion. We have heard a great deal of this
the acre, on a fifty acre field, and thought that scientific talk of the need of phosphates, and this would not be an unusual thing but for the supplying this or that particular article of diet
uncertainty of the bottom lands. When they to cure the deficiency. Plain people should learn
yield well the result was always a heavy crop, but that a cow, whose system “wants the requisite the average was often greatly reduced by their phosphates," is a poor beast, that has not had a
failure. The hills and hill-sides very seldom sufficient supply of any good food known to cows failed. This result as to the bottom lands did or cow-keepers. Then they will not need Dr.
not take place when corn was the crop: with this Dadd to tell them that oat straw and ground there was rarely a failure. Our friend had formed oats would be very good aliment. So would
the opinion that land might be too rich for wheat corn blades and corn meal be excellent aliment; /
'n meal be excellent aliment; but not for corn. or even good wheat straw and a daily supply of
When we called to mind how often crops of bran. In summer, any good grass lot would
this grain had, elsewhere, even exceeded the supply all the phosphates her system might re- |
heavy average named, and that sixty and even quire. All articles known to us as good food
seventy bushels have been often reached, we could for animals furnish, if given in proper quantity,
not concur in this opinion. But the fact may be enough of this essential ingredient. This fact is
well accounted for, we think, by imperfect drainage. sufficient for our guidance under ordinary cir
There is always, as is very apparent, excess of cumstances. The cow, besides the phosphates
moisture, even in the driest of such lands. In she may require in common with other animals,
the summer season there may not be more than yields a large quantity in her daily flow of milk.
| sufficient for a heavy crop of corn, but in winter It is a proper subject of scientific inquiry wheth
it will be very likely to cause the throwing out er the variety of food which is found in experi
of the wheat in freezing and thawing, and esence to be most productive of milk is that which
pecially subject it in summer to destruction by contains the largest percentage of phosphates.
It will be remarked that what is here vacant
is not land in any degree swampy, for no one The Power of a Growing Tree.
would think of putting wheat in such land. It Walton Hall had at one time its own cornmill,
is quite dry enough, in all ordinary seasons, to and when that inconvenient necessity no longer
plow well, and sufficiently drained to draw the existed, the mill-stone was laid in an orchardwater readily from the surface, but there is too and forgotten. The diameter of this circular
| much moisture in the subsoil, and when the sun ne measured five feet and a half. while its gets much power in the early summer, it makes depth averaged seven inches throughout; its cen- just the condition of things favorable to rust. tral hole had a diameter of eleven inches By Moreover, the wheat is always more succulent mere accident, some bird or squirrel had dropped
here and keeps green longer; both circumstances the fruit of the filbert tree through this hole on
favoring the attacks of rust. We should be to the earth, and in 1812 the seedling was seen glad to see experiments made in draining these rising up through that unwonted channel. As / bottoms. its trunk gradually grew through this aperture Mr. John Johnston said, some years ago: “I and increased, its power to raise this ponderous did last year what I never did before; that was mass of stone was speculated on by many. / plowing up wheat stubble and sowing again with Would the filbert tree die in the attempt? wheat. It is a respectable looking crop now, Would it burst the mill-stone, or would it lift it? but if you saw the half of the field that I sowed In the end the little filbert tree lifted the mill- salt on, say a full barrel to the acre, I am almost stone, and in 1863 wore it like crinoline about sure you would order forty or fifty barrels of its trunk, and Mr. Waterton used to sit upon it second quality of salt to sow in September or under the branching shade.-English Paper. October. The salted wheat stands much thicker
on the ground, is considerably taller, came in ear the globules is by heat, by fermentation, or by fully four days before the other, and altogether the chemical agency of acids or alkalies. looks richer every way; and as I had not salt 4. That the dextrine, wbich is the kernel, as enough to sow the whole field, I sowed the half it were, of each globule, is alone soluble, and that has hitherto brought the worst crop, and therefore alone nutritive. latest in ripening. Now it is much the best. I 5. That the shells of the globules, when it can stand in the middle of the field and look duced to fragments by mechanism or heat, are forty-five rods each way, and see distinctly how therefore not nutritive. far the salt came; or I can ride or walk down 6. That though the fragments of these she's the side of the field not salted, and see the line are not nutritive, they are indispensable to dias plainly as if on the one side was corn and the gestion, either from their distending the stomach other wheat. If this won't make men experiment or from some other cause not understood; it with salt I don't know what will."
having been found by experiment that concedSalt may be made very useful in economising trated nourishment, such as sugar or essence of manures, as directed in the Gardener's Chroni- beef, cannot long sustain life without some miscle: Dissolve common salt in water, sprinkle the ture of coarser or less nutritive food. same over your manure heap, and the volatile 7. That the economical preparation of all food parts of the ammonia will become fixed salts. containing globules or fecula, consists in perfrom their being united with the muriatic acid fectly breaking the shells, and rendering the deaof the common salt: and the soda, thus liberated trine contained in them soluble and digestible, from the salt, will quickly absorb carbonic acid, while the fragments of the shells are at the same forming carbonate of soda ; thus you will retain
time rendered more bulky, so as the more readily with your manure the ammonia that would
to fill the stomach.--Selected. otherwise fly away, and you have also a new and most important agent introduced, viz, the car
Necessity for More Reliable Experiments. bonate of soda, which is a powerful solvent of
We have had theories of agriculture without all vegetable fiore.
end, propounded for our consideration ; innumerIt is matter of surprise that opinions among
able guesses have been hazarded upon every cosscientific as well as practical men should be so
ceivable topic; inclusive of experiments, which unsettled as to a substance so familiar as common
no man can number have been made, and yet, to salt. It would be well to have it freely experi
our shame be it spoken, there is scarcely a single mented with, and we especially wish to see its
question which has been mooted in American effects tested on the bottom grounds considered
agriculture, that can be said to be settled on the too rich for wheat.
sure basis of reliable experiments.
Many of our indigenous grasses have derer Why Scalded Meal is More Nutritious than Raw.
been analyzed. There is a bopeless discrepancy The nutriment afforded to animals by seeds
between the analysis which have been made in and roots depends upon the rupture of all the
Europe and America. Thus, by the analysis of globules which constitute their meal flour. These
| Mr. Way, in England, the ash of timothy gires globules vary in different roots, tubers and seeds.
11 per cent. of the phosphates and 24 per cent.
of potash. According to the analysis of the Those of potato starch, for instance, are usually
same grass, made by Mr. Salesbury, under the from fifteen ten-thousandths to the four-thou
direction of Prof. Emmons, at Albany, it corsandth part of an inch; those of wheat really exceed the two-thousandth part of an inch, and
tains 16 per cent. of the phosphates and 36 per so on. From experiments made on these clobulas / cent. O potasu. by M. Rapsail, the author of "Organic Chemis- COMPARATIVE VALUES OF FOODS-ACTUAL TRIALS try," and M. Boit, of the French Academy of
AT THE MANGER, Sciences, the following conclusions have been The theoretical value assigned by Boussingault drawn:
| to rye straw, in comparison with English hay, 1. The globules constituting meal, flour and was 479 lbs. That is, 479 lbs. was equivalent starch, whether contained in grain or root, are to 100 lbs. of English bay. Fresenius, as the incapable of affording any nourishment as ani- result of his analysis, gave 527 lbs. of straw as mal food, until they are broken.
equivalent to 100 lbs. of hay. Boussingault 2. That no mechanical method of breaking or makes 319 lbs. of potatoes, 70 lbs. of Indian grinding, is more than partially efficient.
corn, and 60 lbs. of oats, each equivalent, in aq3. That the most efficient means of breaking tritive principles, to 100 lbs. hay. Fresenius