« AnteriorContinuar »
“These historical data, these inductions, Coal Tar and Gravel for Stable Floors and incomplete as they may be, lead to the belief
Walks that for antiquity the Percheron yields to no
MESSRS. EDITORS: A. R., in the Cult, and other of our French races, and that the soil Co. Gent. for Oct. 31st, inquires for informawhich has nourished and preserved it, must tion “how to use coal tar for making a flog for horse breeding, be one of the best in France. / for stables in the basement of a barn."
“Under the feudal rule and inhabited by ten- | Three years ago I had a floor made to a part ants ever at war,Perche must ever have been an of my barn cellar, as follows: A sufficieat equestrian country, and the horse must have quantity of small stone, from one to two been there in every epoch the companion of three inches in diameter, was procured and man. He must have been a necessity of the put in a pile; over these was poured a suifirst class. In those times of continued war cient quantity of coal tar to give them all a and hostile surprises, what property was more coating, which was done by mixing or shovel. movable and so easily carried off? Also, how ing over the whole pile once or twice, with glorious the possession of such noble coursers, long-handled shovels. No more tar should be and like the Rotrous to own more than could used than barely tu coat over the stone, s be connted, as was proudly shown by the her possible, although no great exactness is realdic chevrons upon their broad banners, dis quired. After the stone had been well mixed played from the towers of Mortagne and No- with the tar, they were spread over the place gent,
for the floor, and raked to a level surface“But as a race, had the Percheron, then, Enough was used to make the floor about the characteristics it now possesses? This is three inches thick. not probable; it must have been lighter, but A quantity of coarse gravel was also pot still possessing within itself the characteris- into a pile; a cavity made in the top of it, tics which it presents. The essential is to into which was poured sufficient tar to give prove that there was, at that period, a native | the gravel all a coating of tar, by repeatedly race; for if the extraordinary life formerly led shoveling it over, till it was well mixed to there-if the aspect of the country, which gether. It is more important not to have too must have been always fertile-if the histori- much tar in this case, tban with the small cal inductions do not prove it—the universal stone. In either case, however, it is better to tradition of the whole country should not use too much than too little. All the objecleave us in this regard in any doubt.
tion is, if there is too much tar added, it will "Let us, then, take no account of the silence take the longer for the floor to become hardl. of historians. This silence is no proof of the Having well mixed the gravel and tar, it non-existence of the Percheron. Most of was spread over the small stone two inches or these writers were gentlemen of the equestrian thereabout deep. The whole was then rolled order; they prized the saddle-borse while they with a heavy stone roller, weighing four or ignored the equally useful rustic races." five hundred pounds, repeatedly, till made as THE Guano TRADE.—The imports of Pe
compact as possible. In the corners, where
the roller could not be used, a mall, such as is ruvian guano at this port during the past year have again assumed the dimensions which
used by street pavers, was used. While the characterized the trade in the article previous
rolling and malling was going on, the surface
was strewn over, in the manner of broadcast to the late war, and which during the continu
sowing, with fine gravel and sand, to take up ance of the war was entirely lost to the city. During the year just closed 23 ships and barks
the surplus tar that was continually working
I to the surface. The rolling and sowing of arrived from the Chincha Islands, bringing
sand was continued, till the surface was so 30,175 tons. There have also been received
hard and dry as not to adhere to one's sboes 1320 tons from Bolivia, 9083 tons from Navassa, 750 tons from Rodunda, and from other
in the least, in walking over it. This makes islands in the Atlantic 2820 tong-in all 44,148 a very dark colored floor, but it can be made tons; besides we have received coastwise from of a lighter shade by using marble dust inEastern ports an aggregate of 2000 tons,
stead of fine gravel and sand. chiefly Peruvian. Of Navassa, the imports are slightly in excess of the previous year.
| I think A. R. will find this method of making This article is used almost entirely in the a floor for a barn cellar the very best that har manufacture of other fertilizers.-- Balt. Sun. 1 yet been employed. It is water proof and fres
proof, and, better still, RAT PROOF. No rat Preliminary Notice of Results on the Comwill rodent into this substance, and it becomes,
position of Wheat grown for twenty years
in succession on the same land. (Abstract.) in a few months, so hard he cannot if he would. There is only one objection to it,
By J. B. Lawes, F. R. S., etc., and J. H. Gilbert, Ph.d ,
F. R. S. which is the very strong smell it gives off for | a number of months, when used in a close
The results had reference to the produce of place like a barn cellar; but the smell is said
| a field in which wheat had now been grown, to be a sanitary one for man and beast, and I
on some plots without manure, on one with think helps to keep the rats out of the barn
farm-yard manure, and on others by different itself as well as the cellar.
artificial mixtures, for twenty-four years in This method has also been employed here
succession (1843-4 to 1866-7 inclusive.) At in the city of Concord, N. H., for six or eight
the Cheltenham meeting of the British Assoyears past, for making door-yard walks, side
ciation, in 1836, the authors treated of the walks, and even street crossings. One would
effects of season and manures on the compohardly think it could be used for street cross
sition of the crop as illustrated by the results ings, subject to the daily passing of heavy and
of analysis relating to the produce of some of light teams, going at all sorts of speed, and
the plots during the first ten years of the exalso subject to the heaving and subsiding of perime
periments. At the Manchester meeting, in freezing and thawing mud, in winter and
| 1861, they recurred to the subject; the anaspring; but such is the fact; and as yet, after
lytical results, which then extended to the
produce of some of the plots for sixteen years, five or six years trial, they have not apparently suffered in the least, but have rather
| were, however, chiefly applied to the illustragrown the harder and more enduring. The
tion of certain points in connection with the smell, which reminds one, especially in the
exhaustion of soils. At the Nottingham meet.
| ing, in 1866, they treated of the accumulation evening, of meeting “a fetid animal of the weasel tribe," soon passes away when used in
of the nitrogen of manure in the soil of the the open air, and is fully compensated by the
same experimental field. The results adduced pleasure of walking on the sidewalks while
on the present occasion showed the effects of in their fresh and elastic state.
season and manuring on the composition of But there are parties claiming that they
both the grain and the straw during twenty have a patent, and therefore exclusive right,
years of the experimental growth. for using this method of making sidewalks | The particulars of composition given are with how much truth I do not know. I am the percentages of dry substance, of mineral very doubtful about there being any patent; | matter, and of nitrogen, and the constituents but I do know that a full and particular ac of the ash of both grain and straw, more than count of this same method can be found in 200 complete ash-analyses being brought to the second number of the second volume, page bear on the subject; and, side by side with 60, of that excellent journal, the Gardener's these, as indicating the general characters of Monthly, published in Philadelphia, February, the produce of the different seasons and plots, 1860. The account is given by the English are given the proportion of corn to straw, and correspondent, who says the walks have been the weight per bushel of the corn. on trial for eight years. This must carry the In the case of the plots without manure, invention back eight or ten years at least, be- with farm-yard manure, and with ammoniafore it was put to use here in Concord. Side- salts alone, every year, the ash of the grain walks were, however, made in Manchester, last 16, or more, and of the straw of the last N. H., before they were here, but I do not 16, of the twenty years, had been analyzed ; know how long a time before. I do not think and in the case of 9 differently manured plots any one would be put to any trouble for (including the above 3) the ash, of both corn making a walk or a barn cellar floor in this and straw, of the first, the last, and two interway, for their own use, even if there is a valid mediate seasons (one bad and one good) of the patent.—Cor. Country Gent,
last 12 of the 20 years had been analysed. It
was the intention of the authors to publishi "In the vicinity of Monroe, Mich., far the results of the investigation in detail before mers and gardeners have planted, within thrée long; and on the present occasion they conyears, 37,000 grape vines.
fined attention to a few of the most prominent effects of the respective manures on the com- plies within the soil, but much more by the position of the crop, when thus applied for so various influences of season. long a continuance, year after year on the The deviations from the point of tired and same plot.
uniform composition, thus due primarily to It is first pointed out as remarkable, though variations in climatic circumstance, are, hor. fully established by their results from the com- ever, when considered in relation to other mencement, that variation in manure, even characters of the grain, sufficient to show the though maintained for many years in succes- general connection between the comparative sion, and resulting in great variation in amount predominance of individual constituents and of produce, affects comparatively little either | that of certain general characters of developthe proportion of corn to straw, or the weight ment. A few illustrations were given; but per bushel of corn, excepting, indeed, in a few | the fuller treatment of the subject, in its bear extreme cases of abnormal exhaustion or re-ing on these as well as on other points, was pletion. Nor do the percentages of dry sub-reserved until the results could be considered stance, of mineral matter in dry substance, or in the detail necessary to their proper eluciof nitrogen in dry substance, vary much un-dation der the direct influence of variation in manure, One point of interest prominently brought unless again in very abnormal cases. Very out by the results relating to the composition different, however, is the effect of season; the of the straw-ash was, that a high percentage variation in the character of the produce, in of silica was almost uniformly associated with every one of the above particulars, being much a bad, and a low percentage with a good congreater in different seasons with the same ma- dition of the produce-a fact to which the nure than with different manures in the same authors had on former occasions called attenseason.
tion, but which, as was remarked by the Presi Consistently with these broad facts, the dent, was quite inconsistent with the generally composition of the ash of the grain is found accepted views on the subject.-Chem. Neto. to be pretty uniform under a great variety of manurial conditions in one and the same sea- | Value of Poultry Manure. son, only in a few extreme cases of special
There is no manure made on a farm so interest varying in any material degree. The valuable as that of poultry. One ounce of it same may be said in some, though in a much properly diffused in half a pound of soil, and less degree, of the composition of the ash of placed in a hill of corn when planted, will be the straw, which is obviously much more di- as powerful a fertilizer as ten time its weight rectly affected by the character of the supplies in bard-yard manure. A foreign writer says: within the soil.
“In France, as well as in our own country, The general result is that (excepting in a most eminent chemists have proved by analysis few abnormal cases) the variation in the com- that poultry manure is a most valuable fertilposition of the ash of the grain is limited to izer, and yet, for want of proper system in the slight variations due to differences of de- housing poultry it has as yet not been rendered velopment and maturation, which, in their available to rural economy. The celebrated turn, are much greater with variation of sea- | Vauquelin says that when the value of mason than with variation of manure. The com- nures is considered with relation to the amount position of the ash of the straw, on the other of azote they contain, the poultry manure is hand, much more nearly represents the total one of the most active stimulants; and when, mineral matters taken up by the plant, and as a means of comparison, the following mamuch less the character of development of its nures are taken, in parts of 1,000, it will be own more fixed and essential constituents, found that In other words, whilst there may be consider.
Horse mannre contains..................40 part azste
Guano as imported ......................40 7 able range in the composition of the matters Guano when sifted of vegetable, &c. .....53 9
Poultry manure...... taken up by the entire plant, the tendency in
........83.0 the formation and ripening of the ultimate A correspondent of the Gardener', product, the seed (whether produced in small | Monthly says he tried six varieties of straw. quantity or large) is to a fixed and uniform berries last season and found the Hover: composition, the deviation from which is little Seedling to produce the sweetest and highest directly affected by the character of the sup- I flavored berry.
that has been said above applies especially to Here are some facts, stated by Dr. Voelkner heavy lands, it must not be forgotten that it in a lecture on the atmospheric nutrition of has a wider bearing. “Sardy loams” says plants, before the Royal Agricultural Society, | Robert Russel, “are benefited more than any is to the importance of aorating and pulveriz
other class of soils by tillage, which increases ing heavy soils. But one of the difficulties met their absorbing powers." These qualities fit with in their cultigation is that of performing
them especially for turnip husbandry. So also it at exactly the right timc. If clayey land is in America tlie sandy loans are well suited ploughed when too wct, it is next to impossi
for maize, and its culture in summer. Deep ble to reduce it to good order by after treat- cultivation, more especially in dry climates, is ment; and if too dry, it is an exceedingly
a most important means of increasing the laborous task to do anything with it. The retentive and absorbent qualities of light soils. necessity of constant watchfulness on the part The benefits of cultivation are apparent from of the farmer is never greater than in the the fact that grasses on sandy loams are liable exercise of due judgment as to the time, as to be scorched by the drought of summer, to well as sufficient diligence in the amount of a greater degree than the turnips in a well culture he gives his land.
drilled field.- Mass. Ploughman. "Let us briefly state some of the advantages of thorough cultivation. It involves:
How Fowls Grind their Food. "1. Tlie mechanical pulverization of the On this subject, S. Edward Todd discourses soil, giving a better sced-bed, and making the as follows: Fowls have no teeth to grind or particles more accessible to the action of the masticate their food with, and the best they roots.
are able to do with it is to peck it to pieces « 2. Better drainage, the soil being moist and swallow it whole. Kernels of grain are and mellow where it would otherwise be swallowed whole by them, and as they are surbaked and hard.
rounded by a tough pellicle or skin, which the "3 The co-operation of the atmosphere in juice of the stomachs of the animals will not further decomposing the comminuted particles readily dissolve or digest, they could obtain of soil, and setting free the mineral elements no nourishment at all from grain, if this tough of the growing plant.
pellicle were not broken. Now, if we dissect " 4. The absorption from the atmosphere of the gizzard of a fowl of any kind, we find a a great portion of its animonia and carbonic lot of small gravel stones, which are usually acid for the direct nourishment of vegetable the hardest kind of flint, granite or sand stone. life.
Surely here is a pocket edition of farm grist "5. The increased effect of manures, from mills. their more complete intermixture and conse- / Fowls swallow their food, broken or not, quently more perfect action.
and it enters the crop or first stomach, and “6. The cleansing of the lands from weeds, remains in it until it has become softened, which not only abstract the nourishment due more or less, when a small quantity at a tin to the growing crop, but also generate succes. just as grain runs into a grist mill, is forced sors, continually multiplying themselves from into the gizzard among the gravel stones.year to year.
| This gizzard is a strong muscular stomach, . “7. The better condition of the field for and plays night and day, when there is a grist machine work; it dulls the knives of a reaper to grind, similar to bellows, contracting and or mower, and leads to frequent breakages, to expanding, thus forcing the gravel stones into cut through the clods on the roughly seeded the grain, and breaking it into fragments, and field.”
| triturating the whole mass; after wbich it is It should not be forgotten how efficient an
| in a suitable condition to be quickly digested. agent in the pulverization of a heavy soil is the alternate freezing and thawing of winter. (F A large deposit of phosphates has been By autumn ploughing to effect this, more can discovered near Charleston, S. C., which it is be accomplished than by much labor otherwise believed is destined to add immensely to the applied. Under-draining also contributes wealth of that section, as it is said to be equal greatly to the same end. And while much / in value to Peruvian guano.
to Tennessee, Northern Georgia and Alabaina. Baltimore, with such connections, must soon
become the centrc for the distribution of uriBaltimore, March 1, 1868. told wealth, and the lines of steamers bow to
run regularly to Liverpool and Bremen, es TERMS OF THE AMERICAN FARMER.
tablished by means of capital furnished by SUBSCRIPTION TWO DOLLARS PER ANNUM. the Railroad Company, is another most im
portant feature of the great scheme of operaRATES OF ADVERTISING: Fight lines of small type constitute a square.
tions so full of promise for the future of our
city and State. 1 Mo. 3 Mo. 16 Mo. 1 Year. One Square..... $2.00 $5.00 $10.00 $15.00 Half Colonn... 8.50 20.00 35.00 60.00
Egyptian Corn Swindle. Half Page...
15.00 35 00
110.00 One Page.... 25.00 60.00 110.00 200.00 Eds. FARMER: Please find enclosed the
sum of $2, with interest, for the Ameriats PUBLISHED BY
Farmer for 1867. I could have saved the WORTHINGTON & LEWIS.
price of subscription had I not been taken in New Office, 4 South Street, Near Baltimore Street,
by that miserable humbug, Egyptian corn BALTIMORE.
I would like to see an article from you upon
the subject, as regards its merits and demerits. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. My conclusion is that Mr. Lindsey either The address of the President of the Balti
grossly misrepresented it or did not send the inore and Ohio Railroad, at a recent meeting
corn he advertised, Yours truly, of the Board, presents the matter of the vari
S. H., Hagerstonen, Vi. ous connections and projected improvements We were equally imposed on, as our friend of the Company in a very interesting light to and hundreds of others we suppose, by this all who are concerned for the prosperity of Mr. Lindsey. His advertisement presented Baltimore.
| to us very strong indications of humbaggery, With a view to establishing a closer rela- but he seemed so well endorsed by public tion with the Baltimore and Ohio Road, it is officials, and respectable names, that we were proposed by the Cincinnati and Marietta Road induced to publish it. Many who sent their to elect as its President, Mr. John King, Jr., money to him got nothing in return, and our Vice-President of the Baltimore and Ohio correspondent, who seems to have got some Road. A perfect working connection will be of this famons corn, found it, we suppose, made through the Parkersburg branch of the worse than nothing. Baltimore Road, with Cincinnati, Indianapolis and Lafayette, by means of the Marietta Nero Brunswick Oats. We omitted acciRoad.
dently to call attention last month to the This route, with the Metropolitan Road variety of Oats, advertised by our friends from the Point of Rocks, will bring Cincin-| Edw'd J. Evans & Co. We are very cautious nati, it is said, 126 miles ncarer to Washington in our notice of new things, but the value of than by the Pittsburg and Pennsylvania route. this variety of Oats, seems to be well attested,
The Connellsville route to Pittsburg, now and we are moreover well assured that so felikely to be completed, will put Baltimore in spectable a firm as the Messrs. Evans, wouk direct communication with that important not so persistently and industriously advertise point, and through it with the great North- if they had not the fullest evidence of their west, and bring Pittsburg seventy-five miles intrinsic value. nearer to Washington than by the Pennsyl- ! We have also a circular from A. C. Pease, vania route.
| Hartford, Vermont, of' a remarkable variety The projected arrangement for opening a called “Norway Oats," and out West, extraway through the valley of the Shenandoah ordinary accounts are given of the “Surprise to Harrisonburg, a hundred miles, will draw i Oats." tribute at once from this magnificent valley, All this indicates that our little agricultural and ultimately from all the great valley lying excitements are taking just now a fancy for between the Alleghany and Blue Ridge ranges Oate.