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Thorough Cultivation.

that has been said above applies especially to Here are some facts, stated by Dr. Voelkner heavy lands, it must not be forgotten that it in a lecture on the atmospheric nutrition of has a wider bearing. “Sardy loams” says plants, before the Royal Agricultural Society, Robert Russel, “ are benefited more than any als to the importance of aorating and pulveriz- other class of soils by tillage, which increases ing heavy soils. But one of the difficulties met their absorbing powers." These qualities fit with in their cultivation is that of performing them especially for turnip husbandry. So also it at exactly the riglit tinc. If clayey land is in America the sandy loans are well suited ploughed when too wet, it is next to impossi- for maize, and its culture in summer. Deep ble to reduce it to good order by after treat- cultivation, more especially in dry climates, is ment; and if too dry, it is an exceedingly a most important means of increasing the laborous task to do anything with it. The retentive and absorbent qualities of light soils. necessity of constant watchfulness on the part The benefits of cultivation are apparent from of the farmer is never greater than in the the fact that grasses on sandy loams are liable exercise of due judgment as to the time, as

to be scorched by the drought of summer, to well as sufficient diligence in the amount of a greater degree than the turnips in a well culture he gives liis land.

drilled field.-- Mass. Ploughman. “Let us briefly state some of the advantages of thorough cultivation. It involves :

How Fowls Grind their Food. "1. The mechanical pulverization of the On this subject, S. Edward Todd discourses soil, giving a better sced-bed, and making the as follows: Fowls have no teeth to grind or particles more accessible to the action of the masticate their food with, and the best they roots.

are able to do with it is to peck it to pieces “2. Better drainage, the soil being moist and swallow it whole. Kernels of grain are and mellow where it would otherwise be swallowed whole by them, and as they are surbaked and hard.

rounded by a tough pellicle or skin, which the “3 The co-operation of the atmosphere in juice of the stomachs of the animals will not further decomposing the comminuted particles readily dissolve or digest, they could obtain of soil, and setting free the mineral elements no nourishment at all from grain, if this tough of the growing plant.

pellicle were not broken. Now, if we dissect “4. The absorption from the atmosphere of the gizzard of a fowl of any kind, we find a a great portion of its animonia and carbonic lot of small gravel stones, which are usually acid for the direct nourishment of vegetable the hardest kind of flint, granite or sand stone. life.

Surely here is a pocket edition of farm grist "5. The increased effect of manures, from mills. their more complete intermixture and conse

Fowls swallow their food, broken or not, quently more perfect action.

and it enters the crop or first stomach, and “6. The cleansing of the lands from weeds, remains in it until it has become softened, which not only abstract the nourishment due more or less, when a small quantity at a time, to the growing crop, but also generate succes- just as grain runs into a grist mill, is forced sors, continually multiplying themselves from into the gizzard among the gravel stones.year to year.

This gizzard is a strong muscular stomach, “7. The better condition of the field for and plays night and day, when there is a grist machine work; it dulls the knives of a reaper to grind, similar to bellows, contracting and or mower, and leads to frequent breakages, to expanding, thus forcing the gravel stones into cut through the clods on the roughly seeded the grain, and breaking it into fragments, and field.”

triturating the whole mass; after wbich it is It should not be forgotten how efficient an in a suitable condition to be quickly digested. agent in the pulverization of a heavy soil is the alternate freezing and thawing of winter. IF A large deposit of pliosphates has been By autumn ploughing to effect this, more can discovered near Charleston, S. C., which it is be accomplished than by much labor otherwise believed is destined to add immensely to the applied. Under-draining also contributes wealth of that section, as it is said to be equal greatly to the same end. And while much | in value to Peruvian guano.

The American Farmer.


3 Mo.


8.50 15.00 25.00

$5.00 $10.00 $15.00
20.00 35.00 60.00
35 00 60.00 110.00
60.00 110.00 200.00

to Tennessee, Northern Georgia and Alabama. Baltimore, with such connections, must, soon

become the centre for the distribution of unBaltimore, March 1, 1868. told wealth, and the lines of steamers now to

run regularly to Liverpool and Bremen, esTERMS OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. tablished by means of capital furnished by SUBSCRIPTION TWO DOLLARS PER ANNUM. the Railroad Company, is another most ini

portant feature of the great scheme of opera

tions so full of promise for the future of our Fight lines of small type constitute a square.

city and State. 1 Mo

6 Mo. 1 Year. One Square.... Half Coluinn.......

Egyptian Corn Swindle. llall Page ........ One Page........

Eds. FARMER: Please find enclosed the

sum of $2, with interest, for the American PUBLISHED BY

Farmer for 1867. I could have gived the WORTHINGTON & LEWIS.

price of subscription had I not been taken in New Office, 4 South Street, Near Baltimore Street,

by that miserable humbug, Egyptian corn. BALTIMORE.

I would like to see an article from you upon

the subject, as regards its merits and demerits. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. My conclusion is that Mr. Lindsey either The address of the President of the Balti- grossly misrepresented it or did not send the

corn he advertised, Yours truly, inore and Ohio Railroad, at a recent meeting

S. H., Ilugerstoun, Md. of the Board, presents the matter of the various connections and projected improvements We were equally imposed on, as our friend of the Company in a very interesting light to and hundreds of others we suppose, by this all who are concerned for the prosperity of Mr. Lindsey. His advertisement presented Baltimore.

to us very strong indications of humbuggery, With a view to establishing a closer rela- but he seemed so well endorsed by public tion with the Baltimore and Ohio Road, it is officials, and respectable names, that we were proposed by the Cincinnati and Marietta Road induced to publish it. Many who sent their to elect as its President, Mr. Jolin King, Jr., money to bim got nothing in return, and our Vice-President of the Baltimore and Ohio correspondent, who seems to have got some Road. A perfect working connection will be of this famous corn, found it, we suppose, made through the Parkersburg branch of the worse than nothing. Baltimore Road, with Cincinnati, Indianapolis and Lafayette, by means of the Marietta Nero runsicick Oats.- We omitted acci. Road.

dently to call attention last month to the This route, with the Metropolitan Road variety of Oats, advertised by our friends from the Point of Rocks, will bring Cincin Edw'd J. Evans & Co. We are very cautious nati, it is said, 126 miles nearer to Washington in our notice of new things, but the value of than by the Pittsburg and Pennsylvania route. this variety of Oats, seems to be well attested,

The Connellsville route to Pittsburg, now and we are moreover well assured that so relikely to be completed, will put Baltimore in spectable a firm as the Messrs. Evans, would direct communication with that important not so persistently and industriously advertise, point, and through it with the great North- if they had not the fullest evidence of their west, and bring Pittsburg seventy-five miles intrinsic value. nearer to Washington than by the Pennsyl We have also a circular from A. C. Pease, vania route.

Hartford, Vermont, of a remarkable variety The projected arrangement for opening a called “Norway Outs,” and out West, extraway through the valley of the Shenandoah ordinary accounts are giron of the “Surprise to Harrisonburg, a hundred miles, will draw | Oats.” tribute at once from this magnificent valley, All this indicates that our little agricultural and ultimately from all the great valley lying excitements are taking just now a fancy for between the Alleghany and Blue Ridge ranges Oats.

Report of the Commissioner of Labor and of immigration is likely to effect much withAgriculture.

out such agencies, as we took occasion to We gave in our last a brief summary of the urge some months ago. The lines of steamleading points of this Report, and as it has been ships about to be started, which will put widely circulated by the Legislature, within Baltimore in regular monthly communication the State, we devote the further room we can with each of these ports, will facilitate very yive to it to the consideration of the topics it much the purposes in view, and a very presents of greatest as well as most general moderate degree of success in introducing interest. It will be found that they interest hardy labourers with more or less means, communities outside of our State, while they would greatly overvalance whatever might be only more directly concern us, under the the necessary cost. There is no more direct wise provision of our Constitution, establish and practicable means than this of adding to ing a State Department of Agriculture, with a the wealth of the State, even apart from the Chief Officer having all these matters in peculiar necessity there now is for effective special charge.

labourers. The Superintendent, Dr. McPherson, takes It is directed by the proposed law, that a comprehensive and appreciative view of bis these agents shall speak the language of the duties, and the practical and business-like people among whom they are to operate, and character of his Report commends him to the distribute maps and other information furconfidence of the public.

nished by the Superintendent, as well as exert The Legislature, there is reason to suppose, themselves by personal intercourse with the will second his suggestions, by suitable pro- people, in advising and aiding useful and invisions of law. A bill now in progress in the dustrious persons to emigrate to Maryland. Senate is designed to give them effect. The design being to fix in advance of their

It is indeed a happy circumstance that the leaving home the final destination of the way is laid open to all the ends proposed in emigrants. the provision of the Constitution establishing The Superintendent is required also to keep this Department by one which frees it from a register of such citizens of Maryland as any financial embarrassment. The proposed require his assistance in procuring labourers, tax upon oysters is just and practicable. It and through his agents abroad to invite the is matter of wonder, that this very large pro- attention of impuigrants to the offers extended perty of the State in her waters, has been so by our citizens, and wlien necessary, to long overlooked; or rather, so bunglingly man

furnish written directions to all applicants for aged as to yield no revenue to its Treasury employment or lands, to such places in the The Commissioner proposes a tax of three State as may be selected by them. cents a bushel on oysters, which at the rate of

On the important subject of Inspections product of the past year-estimated at about the Superintendent says: “Considering the 12,000,000 bushels—will give $360,000. The immense aggregate of capital annually inproper means for protecting this property and vested by our farmers in artificial fertilisers, for the collection of the tax being provided and in many cases without the least increase for, there will be left an amount worthy the of crops, it is desirable that prompt and efnotice of a financier, and very likely to in- fectual protection, should be afforded them by crease from year to year. The lover of oysters the State through this Department. Upon may grumble at such a tax, but, in truth, the this subject I may be excused for asking your matter of price cannot be made much worse attention to a suggestion made by a committee than it is now, and we can consent the more who reported this 10th article for the conreadily when we recollect how large a portion sideration of the Convention : of the product is sold to outsiders in the “There is no question, but that if a high interior.

standard of inspection was established for In the matter of inmigration, so very im- such articles as are compounded of really ferportant in the present aspect of our rural tilising materials, an immense trade for them industry, the bill reported to the Senate auth- would be attracted to Baltimore from this and orises the appointment of agents to reside all the Southern States; and we can see no abroad, one at Liverpool and the other at better made of securing that standard of exBremen. No scheme for the encouragement cellence in artificial fertilisers than by requir.

ing the manufacturers of them to obtain a Benevolent Institutions. license from the Department of Labour and There are some good people who in their Agriculture, and pay therefor such sums as high appreciation of the American Farmer, and would enable it to guard us from fraud, by perhaps of agricultural papers generally, seem having the materials carefully inspected by a to look upon them as purely benevolent Instichemist, and, if necessary, by having the tutions. whole process of manufacture and manipula We have a letter from a gentleman at North tion, supervised by sworn agents. These Williston, Vermont, not a subscriber, who manufacturers could well afford to pay for writes to us that he has “a young horse with such inspection, because, while it secured our

the Ringbone,” which he very naturalis farmers from imposition, it would increase wishes to cure, (we suppose it is a Blacktheir trade immensely, and banish from the hawk,) and writes to us for the ingredients of : commerce of the State all rival compounds prescription which has been published by us, not so inspected. Should your Honorable but does not even send a postage stamp to pay Bodies desire to act upon this subject, I should for the reply to his letter. We refer him to be pleased to invite a conference with the Dr. Dadd, Vet. Surgeon, No. 65 N. Calvert st., gentlemen engaged in this trade; and as their who will, no doubt, give him a satisfactory true interest corresponds with that of the

for a proper

"consideration." Agriculturists, which this Department is de

From Texas we have a letter written in the signed to protect, I doubt not but that a plan most courtly phrase of diplomacy, in which of supervision satisfactory to all may be we have every assurance of the writer's “ disdevised.”

tinguished consideration,” except that he has In view of these and other important no idea of paying for his paper. Having charges committed to the Superintendent of made this very apparent, he requests us to do Labour and Agriculture, we can but join in liim the further favour of having mailed to the hope with which he concludes, that his him regularly one of our City Dailys. We future Reports will disclose the fact that his commend him to the good graces of our Department has become a most useful one to neighbours of the “Sun” or “Gazette," and the State.

will furnish them the address of our cortes

pondent whenever they send for it. Southern Planter and Farmer.-The Rich We have another from the noble and mond Farmer having been merged into the wealthy State of Kentucky, as follows: Planter, the title of the latter has been made

JANUARY 21st, 1868. to correspond, and we have now The Planter

Sirs: Believing you to be desirous for the and Farmer, showing in its varied and excel improvement of Agriculture, and a few of ns lent contents the result of the combination. having united in forming a farmer's club, we We notice an interesting article from the hope that you will be kind enough to send us vigorous pen of Mr. F. G. Ruffin, on the Watt Plough, and on the important matter of your paper for the present year and oblige,

Yours, FARMER'S CLUB. “fixing” a plough for work.

With the most affectionate wish for the We club with the Planter and Farmer, furnishing it and the Am. Farmer at $3.50 for proper nourishment of all, the “babes and the two.

sucklings” of agriculture, we must decline,

for its own good, to accedle to the request of LOUISA Co., VA., Jan. 16, 1868.

this youthful club. We assure our young

friends, that they have started wrong, and Eps. FARMER: I have a large orchard, and that the very first principle of agpicultural wish to know how it would answer to set it progress is to take an agricultural paper and in orchard grass and turn the sod with a

Pay for it. plough every year after cutting the grass, for the benefit that it would be tu the trees,

Mr. Willard says, in the Country GenAnw.-An apple orchard may be set in grass tleman, that Mr. Stearns, of Danube, Herkiafter the trees are well grown, but the sod mer Co., N. Y., last year raised 96 bushels of could not be turned every year and yield a wheat from four bushels of seed bowed broadcrop of orchard grass too.

cast on three acres.

False Packing of Tobacco. the privilege of making them where they A Committee of the Legislature appointed please, and with the whole outside surface exto visit the Tobacco Inspection Warehouses posed to view when the bogshead is open. made majority and minority reports, giving We cannot believe that any thing but the their views on various points embraced in their grossest carelessness could ordinarily fail to investigation. On the matter of fraudulent detect the false packing complained of. packing, the majority report has the following: “Your committee, from all the obtainable

Hop Growing. information, and they sought knowledge from

In reply to several inquiries as to the manevery source from whence it could possibly be agement of a crop of hops, we refer to an arafforded, are satisfied that the present system of ticle in our last number, and will give hereafter inspection is very defective and should be reme such further information as may seem to be died. They have had before them letters from demanded. For the present, we give an estithe leading tobacco merchants, not only of this mate of the cost and profit of a yard of five country, but of nearly the whole of Europe, acres, as we find it in the Prairie Farmer Anand there is not in the large number, one nual Agricultural and Horticultural Adversingle exceptional case as to the imperfect tiser. Any one wishing to get what seems to system of inspection in Baltimore city. The be a very good essay on the subject of hop fault is in the law, not in the inspectors, for, growing, would do well to send 25 cents to from a personal knowledge of these gentle the Prairie Farmer office, Chicago, and get a men, your committee are satisfied they are as

copy of this little publication, containing this competent as any of their predecessors.

and much other useful matter: We propose two remedies for the correction

“ The cost and profit of hop raising, based of these abuses. The first is to repeal the on an estimate of a ton to the acre, 50 cents present tobacco laws, and enact in lieu thereof a box for picking and board, considered withi such as will embrace the following leading the present high provision and labour, is as features. The details of the proposed changes follows for a yard of five acres : have been written out and handed to the

Five acres of ground, $30 per acre ............. $150 00 honored chairman on inspections:

Five acres of hop roots, $15 per acre.

9000 poles (3 to the hill, delivered at $125 per M. 1125 00 First. There should be a penalty for false For sharpening same, $7 50 per al.... packing, to be exacted by the inspector from Agricultural implements. &e...

Hop house, with press, stove, lop boxes, &c.... the owner or agent, where the design is a Double horse team, wagon and rig... palpable intention to defraud, but before such Eighty loads of inanure, $3 per load..

Grubbing ...... a penalty is exacted one or more of the associ

Three months' work, pole setting, vine training, ated inspectors should be called upon to hold Picking 5 tons of hops at 50 cents per box...... a survey of such hogshead or hogsheadls sup- Dryer for 12 days $5 per day posed to be designediy falsely packed, and Six days baling and preparing for market.....

475 days board at 50 cents per day. their decision shall be final."

Total ............

$4196 00 This report seems to be an acknowledge

Five tons of hops at 50 cents per Ib.. ment of the charges of customary false The first season clear of all expenses ........... packing made against Maryland planters. There being $2,877.50 of the above cost How or to what extent, the tobacco growing for permanent improvement, at the same, the community will clear their skirts of it, re- second year $3,681.50 would be cleaned. mains to be seen.

Fifty cents is a very large price, and like The committee lays the charge of failing to the prices of other agricultural products, may cletect these frauds, in the Baltimore inspection or may not be continued. The crop is sulihouses, to the defect in the law. We do not ject to rust and mildew, and about as precariknow in what points the law is different now, ous, we suppose, as many others that we rely from what it has been in many years past, on. As to soil, it will grow on any good loam when no such complaint was heard of, and made rich, and as hop vines have been growwe are not willing to have the Inspectors go ing from time immemorial in all our old garfree of blame in allowing such abuses to grow dens, we do not see that there should be any up under their eyes, with an obligation upon serious difficulty in the matter of climate. To them to make five breaks in a hogshead, and manage the crop, lowever, requires skilled

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125 00 500 00 96 00 60 00 45 00 237 50

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