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For the "American Farmer."
| leave it rough to the action of the winter frosts Lime-Guano-Peas---Clover. and snow. In May, when danger of frost
.........., Va., Feb. 4, 1868. has passed, sow down 100 lbs. guano and two MY DEAR J.: In a former letter I mentioned i bushels of peas and put in with cultivators or the tendency of lime to sink below the soil. single-horse ploughs. When the peas arr Mr. Ruflin in his Essay on Calcareous Ma- | matured-which will be about the middle of nures, mentions“Westover” as affording August-turn them under clean-not deep: proof of this prior to 1851. It is reported spread twenty to forty bushels of lime per that the present proprietor in fallowing with acre and roll with a heary roller. When ready three horses in the fall of 1866 turned up to sow wheat, apply another 100 lbs. guano. pure lime in such abundance as to give to tlie covering it, and seed with cultivators, and tield the appearance of having been freshly immediately sow on this, grass seed-timothy limed. This is conclusive, and establishes, one peck per acre, if the lay is for marketalso, the point made when we last conversed otherwise two bushels orchard grass seed. In together, that deep ploughing was essential the spring sow two gallons of clover seed. I upon land which had been limed years before. slould calculate upon a full return for the I refer you to Johnston's Lecture on Chemis- outlay, including rent, &c., in the increasel try and Geology applied to Agriculture, and to product in wlieat. With such a preparation the essay on calcareous manures above referred I should not look in a favorable season for less to. I call your particular attention to Mr. Ruf- than 20 bushels of wheat per acre. tin's essay, because bis experiments were made in the mode proposed there would be sein our own midst and on land similar to that we cured for the action of the lime, a goodly cultivate. You are in the first years of man- quantity of vegetable matter-ensured by the liood and cannot better devote your leisure first 100 lbs. of guano; a sufficient stand for than to the study and thorough mastering of wheat and grass seed, afforded by the second your profession.
100 lbs. of guano, until they could reach and I have not much faith in guano as a fertili- feed on the pabulum furnished by the peas and zer, i. e. an IMPROVER. I consider it a power- lime in the following spring. ful stimulant to the crop, but I have never been I am not alone in my estimate of guano as able to discover any improcement to the soil an improver per se. I am constantly hearing where guano was used alone. E contra, I think of others, heretofore strong advocates, now I have seen decided injury result froin its use, yielding to the conclusion that guano will not Certain it is that the second crop, after its ap- pay, unless used in combination with some plication, has been no better than that which other .agent. The market gardeners in my preceded it. I do consider it, however, a section tie to bone dust-declaring that they most valuable assistant in speedily renovating do not get the real good of bone manure, unworn-out lands.
til the third or fourth year; they use guano as I am speaking of pure Peruvian guano. , a stimulant alone. I am not prepared to speak of the several Guano-as well as all the manipulatel compounds in which guano is the main con- fertilizers--are too costly to be wasted-and stituent. I do know of one, however, which it is a waste if you fail to seed to grass wheru I could recommend upon my own experience. you have used these purchased manures It is or was prepared by Magruder Sons of To improve your soil and to get the fullest reRichmond--and was one half Peruvian guano turn for your outlay in fertilizers, you must and one half bone-ash-thoroughly manipu- sow grass seed liberally. lated. This I know to be an improver, both Our lands, which are free from the carbonate from trial on my land, and observation of the of lime-the form in which it is used for agrieffect of a similar preparation on the land of cultural purposes-do not readily produce a neighbor who was engaged before the war clover-while those wlich are naturally calin manufacturing a fertilizer of precisely the careous or to which lime has been applied, same materials and in the same proportions. yield abundant crops. I do not know of a I can recommend the Magruder Sons to you. single application of lime which has not been
To renovate an exhausted field with the compensating. It mellows stiff land aud stir: least delay at a moderate charge, I woull, if fens sandy, and experience las proven that stiff land, break it up deep in the fall and the cultivation of limed lands is easier than of
those not limed. In many instances the cost farm rationally. Dr. Stewart's article in Febof liming has been fully met by the increase ruary number “ American Farmer" is worth in the first crop, and not unfrequently has to every thinking man the annual subscripbeen exceeded, while a permanent improve- tion of all the agricultural papers in America. ment has been secured.
The dear old “Farmer" has on a new jacket The proper quantity of lime to the acre -now wasn't it good in the printer to revaries with the condition of the land. Some member the old gentleman this cold weather land is so free of vegetable matter, that any and make him look so comfortable and quantity, however small, would be a quant. respectable. Ah, my son, this self-same prinsuff, while there are others upon which 100 ter means for the good old man to pay for his bushels per acre would do no injury. In new clothes just as your tailor expects you to England much heavier quantities of quick i pay for your coat. I hope you have rememlime are used and repeated at short intervals. bered this and have already sent on your subT'he amount of vegetable in the soil will scription, not only to pay for clothing our greatly, if not entirely, determine what quan- friend, but for feeding "his cherubs." Like tity of lime may be used without detriment. every editor, in esse or posse, I ever heard of,
In five years rotation the quantity of pure (who was worth a copper) the “Farmer" lias a lime abstracted from the soil in three crops house-full of children, young Americas, who of grain and one of potatoes, does not exceed are not to be put off with a stone or a scorfour pounds or 0.8 pounds per year. The pion when they ask for bread or a fish. I am turnips, straw and clover abstract in the like just like these self-same children-I wouldn't period one hundred and twenty pounds or give a good loaf of bread with a good fish, twenty-four pounds per annum, which, how - just at this present writing, for all the stones ever, may be presumed to be returned to the and scorpions in Washington, and if I ever soil in the shape of manure, and need not get to be editor I hope it will be generally therefore be considered. Both quantities received and universally understood that the would be hardly appreciable--five pecks per most certain way to my immutable love is acre would supply this abstraction.
through the Haversack.. Thus it would seem that six bushels per
Yours truly, S. B. F. acre would perform all the "useful manuring functions of lime.” Formerly the applications FLOUR MAKING.–The question how much of lime were in quantities not only in excess wheat does it take to make a barrel of flour is of all necessity, but in many instances were often asked, and the answer is of general charpositively injurious. The danger now is in acter, “five bushels are allowed." At the running into the other extreme-either from
annual fair of the Dubuque county (Iowa) a conrietion that small doses are more bene Agricultural Society, in 1867, a premium of ficial or because the pocket will not bear a three dollars was offered for the best barrel of heavy strain. I am greatly inclined to believe flour made from winter wheat, and also the that 40 bushels of lime is sufficient for any same made from spring wheat. A firm enland in Eastern Virginia; and that 20 would tered one barrel each, accompanied with the be better adapted to much the larger portion. statement that sixteen bushels of winter wheat
This for a rotation of six years. I am also yielded three barrels and one hundred and much leaning to the opinion that if the three pounds of flour-at the rate of four amount determined on for the rotation were bushels and fifteen pounds of wheat to the divided into as many quantities as there were barrel. Of spring wheat, fifty bushels yielded years in the rotation and the yearly portion eleven barrels of flour, being four bushels and applied every spring, the greatest possible thirty-two pounds to the barrel. The wheat return would thus be obtained from the quan. was fair quality and no more. tities sown. This would require additional labor and expense.
In Benton Co., Ind., there is a farm of I would advise you by all means to sow 24,000 acres owned by Messi's. Fowler & Earl. lime on your wheat-say five bushels per acre They design it to be used entirely in prepar-now and at any time before April-leave ing cattle for market. When the whole tract out every third or fourth bed, so you may see has been brought into proper condition, it is for yourself the effect. We really ought to expected 8,000 cattle can be fed on it.
For the “ American Farmer."
of $25 each, twenty-five per cent. of the same The Fair at New Orleans.
to be paid annually for five consecutive years.
The war intervening, the association did To enter, at this late day, into a lengthy
| vot commence its labors until 1866, when argument as to the utility and practical results
officers and directors were chosen, and a fair of mechanical and industrial exhibitions,
held, which proved a far greater success than would be an insult to the intelligent reader,
even the most sanguine had anticipated. The and a waste of time and words, It is true
grounds of the association, known for many that in the South we have heretofore paid but
years as the Creole Race Course, contain 110 little attention to such exhibitions, done little
acres, enclosed by a substantial fence, and to foster and encourage them. But the events
were purchased for $60,000. Since the first of the past few years have wrought many
fair was held, the grounds have been greatly changes in our condition as a people. We
improved and embellished; streets and walks leave now to rebuild what was torn down and
laid out, canals and sewers dug, and a permaswept away by leaden and iron hail; to foster
nent draining machine erected Hot-houses new industries; to inculcate habits of thrift and
have been built, and filled with rare plants : economy; and to stimulate and encourage the
trees planted, in addition to the noble live labors of the artisan and agriculturist. As a oaks “native to the soil;" a telegraph station means to accomplish these ends, industrial
erected, communicating with the city; and exhibitions occupy a prominent place; and
various buildings put up for the use of e. they are daily growing into form in all parts
hibitors, and for other purposes. Commoof the country. The Louisiana State Fair,
dious stables, a mile race-course, a spacious held at Baton Rouge, at the close of 1867, was
arena for the exhibition of stock, with a stand quite a success, despite the untoward condi
for judges and musicians in the centre, and an tion of affairs. At this fair was exhibited an
amphitheatre capable of seating 10,000 people. invention for making sugar from cane or sor
are located on the grounds; and improvegum, in which the defecation is produced by ments now proiected will add still further to filtering through wool, without the agency
their attractiveness. of any chemical whatever. The Baton Rouge
The main exhibition building is octagon in Gazette describes it as a most simple, economi- shape, 80 feet in diameter, and surmounted by cal and practical method. Next in import- a dome 80 feet from the ground. It contains ance were specimens of the ramie plant, of
a spacious, gallery, used to exhibit paintings, which we shall speak more at length farther
etc. One of the adjoining buildings contains
steam-power and a line of shafting for the In November, 1866, was hield, at New Or exhibition of machinery; and other buildings leans, the first fair of the Mechanics' and are devoted to stock of all kinds, vehicles, and Agricultural Fair Association of Louisiana. useful and ornamental articles. This association was incorporated in 1860, The Club-House, which is to be kept oren and its object, as set forth in the second article
permanently, is a handsome little building, of its charter, is, “to promote and foster im
one-story high and gurmounted by a gallery. provements in all the various departments of The restaurant and bar are in competent agriculture, including cotton, sugar, coffee, hands, and the club already numbers some tobacco, rice, hemp, etc.; horticulture, fruits, | 300 members. vegetables, ornamental and staple gardening;! The second fair of the association was to the promotion and development of the me- have been held during the month of Norenchanic arts; lome manufactures in all ber. 1867; but owing to the epidemic and branches; the rearing, improvement and de
other causes, it was postponed to January velopment of the races of useful animals; the
9th, 1868, on which day it was opened with general advancement of rural economy; the
the usual ceremonies. The Directors this encouragement of household manufactures,
year had much to contend with. The weatber and the dissemination of useful knowledge
in January is almost always unfavorable and upon such subjects, by offering inducements
was so in this instance. The rivers were unand premiums therefore."
usually low, interrupting business and travel: The capital stock of the association was unfavorable reports as to the sanitary condifixed at $150,000, represented by 6000 shares, / tion of the city had gone abroad, and deterred
many from coming here; and the depressed the articles on exhibition would be a useless condition of all branches of trade; the uni- and tiresoine undertaking. We shall thereversal poverty of the people and the gloopiy fore refer only to those articles which seem to political prospects, all combined to make the demand attention more than others, and the second Statc fair, if not quite a failure, at which possess general interest. least not such a success as it must otherwise An improved petroleum stove, invented and have been.
manufactured in New Orleans, (Jervey & DeIn some departments there was an evident Maley,) attracted much attention, especially improvement over the first fair; and but for from the fair sex. We have been informed the unfortunate condition of the country, by those who have had these stoves for some there would doubtless have been a much fuller time in use, that for heating offices, or for exhibit of industry and natural resources. family use, they are much cheaper, cleaner, Under the circumstances, it is only surprising and more easily managed than stoves which that so much was accomplished.
burn wood or coal. These are certainly The cattle department, though far from what strong recommendations. Every housekeeper it ought to have been, and doubtless will be, must necessarily feel an interest in the great at succeeding exhibitions, contained some fine cooking stove contest, an account of which animals. The South has heretofore paid but we summarize from the N. 0. Times' report. little attention to the improvement of stock; | Says the Times : though it is to be hoped these annual exhibi- “By far the most exciting contest that has tions will stimulate endeavors in this direc. yet taken place at the fair was the grand stove tion. Some sheep produce twice the quantity trial. For this great race there were six of wool, and of finer quality, than others; entries, in the following order: there are hogs which, with the same quality
1. E. Wood Perry enters Norton's Furnace. and quantity of food as that given to the
2. Rice Bros. & Co. enter Charter Oak. "grey-hound" breed, fill the pork barrel or
Peerless. smokehouse more speedily, and with a better
Good Samaritan. article; there are cattle which give finer beef;
5. Levi & Navra Cotton Plaut. horses capable of more work or greater speed,
Buck's Brilliant. than those to be met with in many portions of the South. And it should be the aim of
The latter is very unique in appearance, the Southern fariner or stock raiser to replace
being provided with glass sides, through with such breeds the inferior stock to be seen
which the bread can be seen baking, without on the prairies or in the farm-yard, as soon as
the necessity of opening the door. All were possible. It is not the work of a day, cer- arranged upon a platform in the open air, each tainly; but it cannot be commenced too soon. being surrounded by its special corps of man
The great West, which supplies the Missis. agers. The “Cotton Plant,” and “Charter sippi Valley with agricultural implements, and
Oak" were run by lady engineers, whose so many other articles, contributed largely to
professional skill served them to good purpose, this fair; but the tobacco interests of Virginia in opposition to those run by man power. were represented by only two pounds of smok
Each was provided with eight pounds of ing tobacco! Richmond, Va., was represented
dough, made into two loaves, and fifteen by a few excellent circular saws, from the
pounds of fuel. As the time approached for Southern Saw Works; by a display of nuts,
the contest to commence, the attendant crowd bolts and washers from the Vulcan Iron had increased to about two hundred persons, Works (Mesgrs. Archer, Goodwin & Co.,) and about one-half of whom were ladies.” by a large collection of wooden ware, from The result of the contest not being satisfacAllen, McCarthey & Co., which received a tory, a new trial was ordered for the following blue ribbon. Maryland would have been rep- day, when there was a large increase of resented by the cotton ducks and twines of spectators. The entries and engineers were the Mount Vernon Company of Baltimore, the same as at the previous trial. but, unfortunately, the steamer on which the “At ten minutes to one the drum tapped goods were shipped did not arrive until the and all lighted up, Norton's Furnace, run by fair was over.
Mr. E. Wood Perry, led off in smoke amid To attempt anything like a catalogue of the cheers of the crowd and loud cries of “go it old one.' Charter Oak followed, and the signal fired up and went in,' with the followrest gave out vapor almost immediately after. ing result: In four minutes, just as they were (we might Norton's Furnace, entered by E. Wood say) rounding the quarter stretch, Cotton Perry, burned coal, 2 lb. 7 oz.; Wood, 2 lb. 8 oz: Plant' popped in bread, all followed suit as time 46 minutes; bread weighed 3 lb. 11 oz quickly as though life depended on the issue, Peerless, entered by Campman & Co., burned but Buck's Brilliant had started fire with bread coal, 2 lb.; wood 1 lb. 6 oz.; time, 46 minutes; al eady in the stove. Then came the tug, the bread weighed 3 lb. 10 oz. cooks' countenances glowed like the stoves; a Paragon, entered by Buck & Wright, perpetual snapping of opening and shutting burned coal, 2 lb.; wood, 2 lb. 3 oz.; time, JS doors resounded over the arena. Stoves were minutes; bread weighed 3 lb 10 oz. patted, coaxed and petted as though they were The committee unanimously awarded the human beings. All seemed confident of gold medal to Campman & Co., for the best winning, and the crowd enlivened the scene coal stove exhibited. with humorous and encouraging comments A street car, from the Southern Car Works, from time to time, Mr. Perry's efforts seeming located 61 miles from New Orleans, on the to be the greatest favored. At twenty minutes Jackson Railroad, for beauty and serviceability past one 'Cotton Plant' threw open its throttle will compare favorably with those from Northvalves and announced that it wanted no more ern works. This establishment was starte! fuel. All the others shut up' and keeping some years before the war. During the war dark.' As the time for the bread to be baked it of course was idle, and the works were approached, excitement had increased to a burnt, destroyed, or carried away; so that tbe baking heat, both within and without the present works had to rise literally, Phenisarena. At last Peerless turned out its bread like, from the ashes of the old. Native woods in 42 minutes; Norton's Furnace followed are used principally, and are equal in beauty suit, in 42:15; Cotton Plant next, in 43; then and durability to anything in use elsewhere. Charter Oak, in 43:2; then Good Samaritan, | The castings are made on the spot, and the in 44:20; and lastly, Buck's Brilliant, in 47. painting and upholstering are executed by the The grand result of the trial was as follows: best of workmen. The Southern Car Works Norton's Furnace, E. Wood Perry, bread
builds steam cars as well as horse cars; and
four cars of the former description, intended weighed 7 lb. 3 oz.; burned fuel, 71 lb. Charter Oak, Rice Bros. & Co., bread
brand for the Georgia Central Road, were recentis weighed 7 IV. 4 oz.; burned fuel, 61 lb.
inspected at the Works by competent judges, Peerless, Campman & Co., bread weighed 7
who pronounced them "superior to the cars Ib. 4 oz.; burned fuel, 64 lb.
usually bought North, in strength and wearGood Samaritan, bread weighed 7 lb. 9 oz.;
ing qualities, and fully equal to them in beauty burned fuel, 77 lb.
of finish.” One hears a great deal said about Cotton Plant. Levi & Navra, bread weighed | “patronizing home manufactures," which is 7 Ib. 1 oz.; burned fuel, 77 lb.
sheer nonsense. People buy where they can Buck's Brilliant. Buck & Wright, bread buy the cheapest and the best. If we can get weighed 7 lb. 4 oz.; burned fuel, 3 lb.
a better article at home at the same price, or
as good an article, we are not going elsewbere At the conclusion of the trial the bread was for it. Otherwise, we may continue to teck taken charge of by the Awarding Committee, of home manufactu
of home manufactures, but we will buy froin who awarded to Buck & Wright, of St. Louis, New England. It is gratifying, therefore, to the gold medal for the best wood stoves. note that the Southern Car Works is able to Honorable mention being made of the ‘Peer- sustain itself in the face of all outside compeless, Campman & Co.
tition. Next in order was the trial for coal stoves, / A Steam Levee Builder, patented and confor which there were three entered, Buck & structed by Mr. Stowell, of Quincy, III., was
right entering the Paragon; E. Wood Perry exhibited, but we did not see it in operation. the Norton Furnace, and Campman & Co. the It is estimated that 2000 cubic yards of earth,
25 feet base, and 12 feet high, can be piled up Peerless. One loat of four pounds of dough
" in a day with this machine; or carts filed at and the same quantity of wood and Pittsburg the rate of three per minute. coal were served out to each, and all at a given
[To be continued.]