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Chemistry of a Kernel of Corn. their low estate, and fitted to perform the [From Nichols' Chemistry of the Farm and the Sea.] | high offices of nutrition in the animal organ
In considering the curious and interesting ism. And should we not appropriate them to chemical nature of “corn," we shall use the our use, as the most carefully adjusted of all term as applied to the wheat berry, as well as materials designed for human aliment? C to the seeds of the maize plant. Among the tainly we should. And do we? Unfortunately ancients, wheat was always designated as corn; we cannot render an affirmative answer to the and when we read of St. Paul's famous voyage interrogatory. The sharp teeth of our burr in a "corn ship," we are to understand that mills drive ruthlessly through the rich wrapthe vessel was laden with Egyptian wheat. per of the kernel, and then the torn fragments It is quite certain that neither the Apostle, pass to the bolt, and from that to the barn or nor the old Roman navigators, who held him stable; the animals obtain the nutritious glua prisoner, ever saw a kernel of our Indian ten; the starch, in the form of fine flour, is corn—the maize plant being indigenous to the set aside for household uses. But it is not American Continent.
designed to enlarge upon this point. Let us The two grains are chemically constituted look at the chemical offices these substances very much alike, and what may be said of found in the kernel of corn subserve in the one, applies with almost equal correctness to animal economy. the other. Both are made up of starch, dex- | Starch is the wood or coal, which, under trine, gum, sugar, gluten, albumen, phosphates the influence of oxygen, is to be consumed or of lime, magnesia, potassa, with silica and iron. burned to maintain animal warmth. It passes Wheat contains about double the amount of in as pure fuel; it is oxidized, and the ashes lime and iron, considerable more phosphoric rejected through the respiratory organs. The acid, but less magnesia and soda. Maize seeds warmth imparted by this combustion is necesare rich in a peculiar oil, which is nourishing, sary to the proper fulfilment of the functions and highly conducive to the formation of adi- of the body. Of these functions, those of dipose or fatty matter; hence the high utility | gestion and assimilation are the most imporof our corn in fattening animals.
tant. The digestive apparatus receives the What a remarkable combination of chemi- gluten and the starch of the grain; the latter cal substances are stored up in a kernel of is pushed forward to be burned; the former forn! It may almost be said to be an apothe- enters the circulation and out of its contained cary shop in miniature; and the order and iron, potash, soda, magnesia, lime, nitrogen, arrangement of the mineral elements and &c., are manufactured all the important tisvegetable compounds, needed to render the sues and organs of the body. All of the iron comparison more apt, are not wanting. For is retained in the blood, and much of the soda some reason, Nature places the most valuable and phosphoric acid; the lime goes to the substances nearest the air and sunlight, while bones, and the magnesia very abruptly leaves the little cells of the interior are full of that the body, as it seems to be very plainly told material used to keep erect and tidy our col- that it is not wanted. Sucb, in brief, are the lars and neck-bandsstarch. With a mois. uses which the organic and inorganic contened cloth we can rub off from the kernel stituents of a kernel of corn subserve in the about three and a half per cent. of woody or chemistry of animal life. strawy material, of not much nutritive value, The changes which they are made to unand then we come to a coating which holds dergo in the laboratory are almost equally innearly all the iron, potash, soda, lime, phos- teresting and important. Fecula, or starch, phoric acid and the rich nitrogenous ingredi- is a body of great interest, and is not found ents. This wrapper is the storehouse upon alone in corn. There is scarcely a plant or whose shelves are deposited the mineral and part of a plant which does not yield more or vegetable wealth of the berry. From whence less of this substance. What a curious vegecome these chemical agents? By what super- table is the potato! Swollen or puffed out by lative cunning are they grouped within the the enormous distention of the cellular tissue embrace of this covering ?
in which the starch is contained, it seems alThey come of course from the soil, and by most ugly in its deformity. It is little less the mysterious and silent power of vital force, than a mass of pure stareh. they have been raised, atom by atom, from ! If we separate the starch from the gluten
in corn, and boil it a few minutes with weak ture rises, and there are signs of chemical ar. sulphuric acid, it undergoes a remarkable tion going on in it. After a while it slackchange, and becomes as fluid and limpid as ens and soon stops altogether. Examination water; and if we withdraw the acid, and shows that it has cow completely lost its swet evaporate to dryness, we have a new body, a taste, and acquired another quite distinctkind of gum called “ dextrine.” But if we do An intoxicating liquid is formed, and if we not interrupt the boiling when it becomes thin place it in a still, we obtain a colorless, inand clear, but continue it for several hours, flammable liquid, easily recognised as aled and then withdraw the acid by chemical By a peculiar arrangement of the condensing means, we have remaining a sirupy liquid, apparatus of the still, a portion of the gran very sweet to the taste, which will, if allowed oils and a large amount of water are allowed to evaporate, solidify to a mass of grape sugar. to go over with the alcohol; and this constiThis is the method of changing corn into tutes whiskey. This is an example of the sirup and sugar, about which so much has re- change called "vinous fermentation." The cently been said. It is a process long under- | influence of a ferment or decomposing az stood, and practically of little value. What tized body upon sugar is strange, and quite is most extraordinary in this process is the incomprehensible. Through its agency, we
at that the acid undergoes no diminution or may cause the highly organized kernel of cona range. It is all withdrawn in its original to take another step downward towards a amount after the experiment; nothing is ab- dead, inorganic condition. We can transform vorbed froin the air, and no other substance the alcohol over into acetic acid or vinegar. but grape sugar generated. The play of chemi- or the sugar may be formed into one of the cal affinities lies between the amidine and the most curious organic acids--the lactic; or, elements of water, grape sugar containing still further, it is capable of being changed more oxygen and hydrogen, compared with into maina, a substance supposed to resemble the quantity of carbon, than the stareh.
that upon which the Israelites subsisted in the Nothing can be more striking than these changes. From the kernel of corn we obtain As in these processes we follow the kernel starch; this we change easily into gum, and, of corn through the various changes, first by the aid of one of the most powerful and into gum, then into sugar, then alcobol, then destructive acils, transform it into sirup and vinegar, and ultimately into carbonic acid and sugar. A pound of corn starch may thus be water, we obtain an imperfect idea of the made over into a little more than a pound of marvels of vital chemistry. The mysteries of sugar of grapes. But this result can be ac- these reactions have been carefully studied. complished in another way. Let us inoisten and in a measure unravelled; but the necesthe corn, place it in a warm room and allow sary brief limits of this treatise will hardly it to germinate, just as do vegetables in a allow of their consideration. The cheinistry warm cellar. If in this condition it is dried,
of a kernel of corn is a comprehensive topic, ground, and infused in water, a sweet liquid and to be considered even in its outlines would will be obtained, proving the presence of
supply material sufficient for a volume. Tbe sugar. The change is produced in this ex- aim has been to group together a few of the periment, by the presence of diastase, a sub- most interesting points, and thus awaken a stance supposed to exist in malt or germinated desire for a more complete and satisfactory grain, but which is imperfectly understood. investigation. The quantity of diastase necessary to effect this curious metamorphosis in corn starch is
8- The Amesbury Villager says that Mr very small. We are now ready to consider another most extraordinary change, which
F. Noyes of that place recently killed a Brahma
rooster who had thirteen nickle cents in his corn is capable of undergoing—that of being transformed into whiskey or alcohol.
crop, two two-cent pieces, and other indigesti· If we take the sweet liquid obtained by the
ble articles. infusion of malted corn, and subject it to a temperature of 60° or 70° F., it soon becomes F It takes 6,480,000 pounds of cotton to turbid and muddy, bubbles of gas are seen to supply the daily demands of the cotton milts rise from all parts of the liquid, the tempera-1 of the world.
Art thou bred up in a false religion? Think (From our Correspondence ]
upon the wise men of the East. Art thou an
unjust person? Think upon the publican. "Your Sunday reading will do more good
Hast thou lived in uncleanness? Think upon than you are aware of, amongst your numerour readers. If every journal had a column
the harlot. Art thou a murderer? Think of the same tenor, the world would be wiser
upon the thief upon the cross. Art thou a and better."
proiane person? Think upon St. Paul. If
thou hast sinned, repent; if thou hast sinned "Why did you omit the Sunday reading in a thousand times, repeat thy repentance as the January number? I hope you do not mean often. This is the balm I would pour into to dispense with it hereafter."
thy wounds, and this will assuage all the anThese are extracts from recent letters of guish of them. Thy repentance in comparihighly esteemed correspondents, from very son is but small, but the goodness of thy Lord distant points, and of very different views on
is exceeding great. Leave off your doubts many questions of religious controversy.
and wonder, and stand amazed, and magnisy They give us the best assurance that we have
this spiritual physician. Shall God be disnot made a vain attempt to have these read posed to put away thy sin ? and shall the guit ings generally acceptable to those who really
of any sins be too great for His mercy? None love “the Truth as it is in Jesus.”—Eps. Far. are lost if they do not give themselves up for
lost, and so are discouraged from repentance.
The devil is an assistant genius to the corruption of our natures—a constant agent in I could not but think, as I hare often rethe sins of men. Being a spiritual agent, he marked to others, that much more of true remust needs be supposed to have a nearer ac- ligion consists in deep humility, brokenness cess to the soul, than any material cause what- of heart, and an abasing sense of barrenness soever ; being also an intelligent agent, of a and want of grace and holiness, than mori, vast and capacious understanding by nature, who are called Christians, imagine; especially and particularly improved in the black art of those who have been esteemed the converts of tempting, by a long experience of its wiles the late day, many of whom seem to know of and stratagems, he must be fully instructed, no other religion, but elevated joys and afferwhen and how to apply himself to every age tions, arising only from some fligl.ts of imagiand constitution, and that which gives bis nation or some suggestion made to their mine temptations a vast advantage over us, is, that of Christ's being theirs, God's loving them, we know not how to distinguish them from and the like. the motions of our own hearts; and when he can convey his poison into us, in such an in- There is an old custom of saying, when visible manner, without discovering his devil's light is brought in, “God sends us the light of face, which he can; thus prompt us behind heaven !" and the parson likes this very well; .. the curtain, and so distinguish his whispers, neither is hie afraid of praising, or praying 10 that we cannot decern them from the secret | God at all times, but is rather glad of catchlustings of our own hearts, how can we be ing opportunities to do them. safe, without great care and watchfulness, viss from the malice of such a formidable enemy?
O'the infelicity of the luman race! Things
world is full of sorrow, and yet we love it; We view moral truths through the veil of
1 only suppose it were full of joy, how shouid allegories and parables, like so many pictures
we love it then? A stormy, tempestuous through transparent glass, which covers, but
world is loved; what if it were calm and does not hide them. Some of the most im
tranquil ? portant spiritual sentiments are made easy to us by the most familiar sensible images. Thus Among all the graces that adorn a Chrisdoes the truth, like the great Author of it, tian soul, like so many jewels of various colors stand confessed in a visible shape; receive, as and lustres, against the day of her espousal it were, a body; and become, if I may use the to the Lamb of God, there is not one more expression, incarnate.
brilliant than humility.
CHOICE SEED POTATOES.
500a 6.00 We offer prime seed of the annexed varities. Brown and greenish.......
. 6.00a 7.00 valuable for their Great PRODUCTIVENESS, Su
Medium to fine red and spangled ... .. 7.50a15 00
... 15 0020 09 PERIOR QUALITY and ENTIRE FREEDOM FROM ROT:
Fine yellow and fancy ..................... 20.00.30 90 Early Goodrich.....................$3.00 per bushel
W00L -We quote: Unwashed, 25a28 cts.; Tub washed, TARISON............. .............5.00 h
35a38 cts.; Pulled 25a32 cts.; Fleece 38a42 cts, per lh. Cuzco, GARNET Chili and WHITE
CATTLE MARKET.-Coomon, $4.50a5 50; Good, $6 50a L'EACHBLOW ...........................2.50 "
7.75; Prime Beeves, $800a10.00 per 100 lbs. Prices, in quantity, on application.
Sheep-Fair to good, 526; extra, 7 cts per lb., gross. EDW'DJ. EVANS & CO., Ilogs-$11.50a13.00 per 100 lbs., net. mar-2t Nursery men and Seedsmen.
Wholesale Produce Market. Baltimore Markets, Feb. 22, 1868. Prepared for the American Former by HKwes & WARNER, Produce
and Cowok ISS ion Merchants, 18 Commerce street. COFFEE.-Rio, 15a17% cts. g ld, according to quality;
BALTIMORE, February 22, 1968. Laguayra 17a18 cts., and Java 25a 26 cts.
BUTTER --Vestern solid packed 20a35 and Roll 35a42; COTTON.- We quote prices as follows, viz:
Glades, 35845; Goshen, 45a55.
CHEESE.- Eastern, 15%a17; Western, 14a15. Good do............................... 21
DRIED FRUIT.- Apples, 7 to 8; Peaches, 8a10. Low Middling ......
EGGS-30a32 cents per dozen. Middling ...........................
FEATHERS.-.ive Geese, 60 to 80 cents.
LARD.--Western, 15; City rendered, 15a16 cts.
Contents of March Number.
Work for the Month ......... Baltimore City Company's Fertilizer, $40; do., Flour of
The Vegetable Garden....
289 Bone, $60; do., Ground Bone, $45; do., Poudrette, $20;
The Fruit Garden...............................
260 Raugh's Raw-bone Phosphate, $56; Baugh's Chicago
The Flower Garden ........
280 lione Fertilizer, $46; Baugh's Chicago Blood Janure,
The Greenhouse .........
261 $50 ; Maryland Powder of Bone, $50; Rhodes' Super
Loss of Appetite in Horses.. Pho«phate, $55; Lister's Bone Super-Phosphate $55; Ber:
Milk lacking in France...... ger & Butz's Super-Phosphate of Lime, $56; Andrew
The Law of Inclosure........ Coe's Super-Phosphate of Lime, $60;-all per ton of
Use of Natural History ......
... 264 2,000 lbs.; Pure Ground Plaster, $13.50a$14.00 per ton,
Tobacco, Corn, &c., in Virginia..................... 264 or $2 50 per bbl. Shell Lime slaked, 6c., unslaked, 10c
English Farming ................................. 265 per bushel, at kilns.
Carbolic or Phenic Acid and its Properties.......... 266 Flour.-Howard Street Super, $9.50a10.00; High
Tight vs Open Barns... ......... Grades, $11.50a11.75; Family, $12.50a13.00; City Mills
Origin of the Percheron Horse ...................... Super, $9.50a 10.00; Baltimore Family, $14.00a14.50.
The Guano Trade.............. ................ 270 Rye Flour and Corn Meal.-Rye Flour, $8.00a8.50; Coal Tar and Gravel for Stahle Floors and Walks.... 270 Corn Meal, $6 00; Buckwheat, $5.90a6 00 per 100 lbs.
Preliminary Notice of Results on the Composition of GRAIN.- Wheat.-Good to prime Red, $2 50:12.80; Weat growo for 20 years in succession on the White, $2 60a2.80.
same land..... ............................... 271 Rye.-$1.50a1.55 per bushel.
Value of Poultry Manure......................... 272 Oats.-Heavy to light-ranging as to character from 80 Thorough Cultivation.............................. 273 a 82c, per bushel.
How Fowls Grind their Food..
... 273 Corn.-White, $1 16a1.18; Yellow, $1 16a1.17 per Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ....................... 274 bushel.
Egyptian Corn Swindle............................ 274 HAY AND STRAW.-Timothy $20a22, and Rye Straw $20 New Brunswick Oats .......... ............. 274 a $23 per ton,
Report of Commissioner of Labor and Agriculture.. PROVISIONS.-Bacon.-Shoulders,11 % 911% cts.; Sides, 1 Southern Planter and Farwer....
.... 276 Ba14\ cts.;-Hams, Baltimore, 17a19 cts. per Ib.
... 276 SALT.-Liverpool Ground Alum, 92.90a3 10; Fine, $3 90 False Packing of Tobacco.......................... **1.10; Turk's Island, 55a60 cts. per bushel.
Hop Growing ................
.. 277 SEEDS.-Timothy $3.00a3.25 ; Clover $9.05a0 C6; Flax Advertisements.............
Chemical Manuring ...........,
.. 279 Tobacco. We give the range of prices as follows:
A New Agricultural Monthly.......................
279 The Use of Paper.................
279 Maryland. Frosted to common....
The Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester ...... 279 to common......................... $3 75a 4.50 Sound common........
Lime-Guano-Peas-Clover........ Middling ............ ... 7.50a 9.50 Flour Making.................
.... 281 Good to fine brown...
10 00a 15.00 Fancy.....
The Fair at New Orleans............
... 282 17.00a 25 00 Upper country............................. 3.00a30.00
| Chemistry of a Kernel of Corn
... 285 Ground leaves, new ...... ...... 4.00a13.00 | Sunday Reading .....
.... 202 ... 262
ble time, as they fail sometimes for want of
rain enough to dissolve them. “Fairer and brighter spreads the reign of May;
Manure in the hill for corn should be some The tresses of the woods With the light dallying of the West wind play. .well-rotted compost, or a mixture of rich And the full-brimming floods,
earth, ashes and plaster, a handful to the hill; As gladly to their goal they run,
a table spoonful of guano, mixed with a Hail the returning sun."
double quantity of dry earth and a little plas
ter; manure from the poultry house, with an Work for the Month. equal quantity of plaster, pounded and mixed
together with a bushel of salt to five of the It may be supposed that the breaking of all mixture, a handful to the hill. Well prepared turf land, for whatever crop, is now com- poudrette makes a good application for the pleted. Otherwise let it be done as quickly hill, or a small handful of some good superas circumstances will allow, and do not neglect phosphate. It is better and safer to make the to close the seams with harrow or roller, to application on top of the ground, immediately insure rotting the sod.
after covering. On rich orwell manured CORN CROP.
ground, manuring in the bill is not necesHasten the necessary preparation for this sary. crop, that it may be planted by the 10th, or at farthest by the 15th, on thoroughly worked
The leisure season after corn planting soil. The growth will be quicker and healthier. should be diligently used to get rid of the old and less liable to damage by insects, if the crop of tobacco still on band. Get all that preparation be good.
may still be hanging, or in small, two-course Corn should never be planted without using Duiks, packed closely in large bulks, and tar for the protection of the seed from birds. 1 weighted heavily; from these bulks it may be It may be softened and thinned by pouring at an
at any time transferred to the logsheads, and boiling water upon it-then into a peck of packed for
of packed for market. seed, stir in the tar until the grains be well Let tobacco beds have constant care-pickcoated. It will preserve the seed from both ing them of grass whenever necessary, and birds and insects, and also against decay, in following with a dressing of fine manure. case of long cold weather, after planting. It Towards the close of the month there may does not retard germination, as has been sup- be a portion of the plants fit to set out. At posed.
so early a period, it will be advisable to plant Manures for this crop, as we have often out small plants, if they be thick in the beds suggested for all spring-planted crops, should and very abundant. The beds will, in that be put on the ground at the earliest practica-I case, be benefited. If not plentiful, do not