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many from coming here; and the depressed the articles on exhibition would be a useless condition of all branches of trade; the uni- and tiresoine undertaking. We shall thereversal poverty of the people and the gloomy fore refer only to those articles which seem to political prospects, all combined to make the demand attention more than others, and the second State fair, if not quite a failure, at which possess general interest. least not such a success as it must otherwise An improved petroleum stove, invented and have been.
manufactured in New Orleans, (Jervey & DeIn some departments there was an evident Maley,) attracted much attention, especially improvement over the first fair; and but for from the fair sex. We have been informed the unfortunate condition of the country, | by those who have had these stoves for some there would doubtless have been a much fuller time in use, that for heating offices, or for exhibit of industry and natural resources. family use, they are much cheaper, cleaner, Under the circumstances, it is only surprising and more easily managed than stoves which that so much was accomplished.
burn wood or coal. These are certainly The cattle department, though far from what strong recommendations. Every housekeeper it ought to have been, and doubtless will be, must necessarily feel an interest in the great at succeeding exhibitions, contained some fine cooking stove contest, an account of which animals. The South has heretofore paid but we summarize from the N. 0. Times' report. little attention to the improvement of stock; Says the Times : though it is to be hoped these annual exhibi “ By far the most exciting contest that has tions will stimulate endeavors in this direc- yet taken place at the fair was the grand stove tion. Some sheep produce twice the quantity trial. For this great race there were six of wool, and of finer quality, than others; entries, in the following order: there are hogs which, with the same quality
1. E. Wood Perry enters Norton's Furnace. and quantity of food as that given to the
2. Rice Bros. & Co. enter Charter Oak. "grey-hound" breed, fill the pork barrel or
Peerless. smokehouse more speedily, and with a better
Good Samaritan. article; there are cattle which give finer beef;
5. Levi & Navra
Cotton Plant. horses capable of more work or greater speed,
Buck's Brilliant. than those to be met with in many portions of the South. And it should be the aim of
The latter is very unique in appearance, the Southern farmer or stock raiser to replace being provided with glass sides, through with such breeds the inferior stock to be seen
which the bread can be seen baking, without on the prairies or in the farm-yard, as soon as
the necessity of opening the door. All were possible. It is not the work of a day, cer- arranged upon a platform in the open air, each tainly; but it cannot be commenced too soon. being surrounded by its special corps of man.
The great West, which supplies the Missis- agers. The “Cotton Plant,” and “ Charter sippi Valley with agricultural implements, and Oak” were run by lady engineers, whose so many other articles, contributed largely to professional skill served them to good purpose, this fair; but the tobacco interests of Virginia in opposition to those run by man power. were represented by only two pounds of smok- Each was provided with eight pounds of ing tobacco! Richmond, Va., was represented dough, made into two loaves, and fifteen by a few excellent circular saws, from the pounds of fuel. As the time approached for Southern Saw Works; by a display of nuts, the contest to commence, the attendant crowd bolts and washers from the Vulcan Iron had increased to about two hundred persons, Works (Mesgrs. Archer, Goodwin & Co.,) and about one-half of whom were ladies.” by a large collection of wooden ware, from The result of the contest not being satisfacAllen, McCarthey & Co., which received a tory, a new trial was ordered for the following blue ribbon. Maryland would have been rep- day, when there was a large increase of resented by the cotton ducks and twines of spectators. The entries and engineers were the Mount Vernon Company of Baltimore, the same as at the previous trial. but, unfortunately, the steamer on which the At ten minutes to one the drum tapped goods were shipped did not arrive until the and all lighted up, Norton's Furnace, run by fair was over.
Mr. E. Wood Perry, led off in smoke amid To attempt anything like a catalogue of the cheers of the crowd and loud cries of 'go
it old one.' Charter Oak followed, and the signal fired up and went in,' with the followrest gave out vapor almost immediately after. ing result: In four minutes, just as they were (we might Norton's Furnace, entered by E. Wood say) rounding the quarter stretch, Cotton Perry, burned coal, 2 lb. 7 oz.; wood, 2 lb. 8 oz.; Plant' popped in bread, all followed suit as time 46 minutes; bread weighed 3 lb. 11 oz. quickly as though life depended on the issue, Peerless, entered by Campman & Co., burned but Buck's Brilliant had started fire with bread coal, 2 lb.; wood 1 lb. 6 oz.; time, 46 minutes; al eady in the stove. Then came tlie tug, the bread weighed 3 lb. 10 oz. cooks countenances glowed like the stoves; a Paragon, entered by Buck & Wright, perpetual snapping of opening and shutting burned coal, 2 lb.; wood, 2 lb. 3 oz.; time, 58 doors resounded over the arena. Stoves were minutes; bread weighed 3 lb 10 oz. patted, coaxed and petted as though they were The committee unanimously awarded the human beings. All seemed confident of gold medal to Campman & Co., for the best winning, and the crowd enlivened the scene coal stove exhibited. with humorous and encouraging comments A street car, from the Southern Car Works, from time to time, Mr. Perry's efforts seeming located 61 miles from New Orleans, on the to be the greatest favored. At twenty minutes Jackson Railroad, for beauty and serviceability past one 'Cotton Plant' threw open its throttle will compare favorably with those from Northvalves and announced that it wanted no more ern works. This establislıment was started fuel. All the others' shut up' and 'keeping some years before the war. During the war dark. As the time for the bread to be baked it of course was idle, and the works were approached, excitement had increased to a burnt, destroyed, or carried away; so that the baking heat, both within and without the present works had to rise literally, Phenixarena. At last Peerless turned out its bread like, from the ashes of the old. Native woods in 42 minutes; Nortou's Furnace followed
are used principally, and are equal in beauty suit, in 42:15; Cotton Plant next, in 43; then and durability to anything in use elsewhere. Charter Oak, in 43:2; then Good Samaritan, The castings are made on the spot, and the in 41:20; and lastly, Buck's Brilliant, in 47. painting and upholstering are executed by the The grand result of the trial was as follows: best of workmen. The Southern Car Works
Norton's Furnace, E. Wood Perry, bread builds steam cars as well as horse cars; and wcigled 7 lb. 3 02.; burned fuel, 74 lb.
four cars of the former description, intended Charter Oak, Rice Bros. & Co., bread for the Georgia Central Road, were recently weighed 7 lb. 4 oz.; burned fuel, 68 lb.
inspected at the Works by competent judges, Peerless, Campman & Co., bread weighed 7 who pronounced them “superior to the cars Ib. 4 oz.; burned fuel, 61 lb).
usually bought North, in strength and wearGood Samaritan, bread weighed 7 lb. 9 oz.; ing qualities, and fully equal to them in beauty burned fuel, 74 lb.
of finish.” One hears a great deal said about Cotton Plant, Levi & Navra, bread weighed "patronizing home manufactures,” which is 7 ]b. 1 oz.; burned fuel, 77 lb.
sheer nonsense. People buy where they can Buck's Brilliant, Buck & Wright, bread buy the cheapest and the best. If we can get
a better article at home at the same price, or weighed 7 lb. 4 oz.; burned fuel, 3} lb.
as good an article, we are not going elsewliere At the conclusion of the trial the bread was
for it. Otherwise, we may continue to talk taken charge of by the Awarding Committee, of home manufactures, but we will buy from who awarded to Buck & Wright, of St. Louis, New England. It is gratisying, therefore, io the gold medal for the best wood stores. note that the Southern Car Works is able to Honorable mention being made of the · Peer- sustain itself in the face of all outside compeless, Campman & Co.
tition. Next in order was the trial for coal stoves, A Steam Levce Builder, patented and confor which there were three entered, Buck & structed by Mr. Stowell, of Quincy, II., was Wright entering the Paragon; E. Wood Perry exhibited, but we did not see it in operation. the Norton Furnace, and Campman & Co. the It is estimated that 2000 cubic yards of earth, Peerless. One loat' of four pounds of dough in a day with this machine; or carts filled at
25 feet base, and 12 feet higli, can be pled up and the same quantity of wood and Pittsburg the rate of three per minute. coal were served out to each, and all at a given
(To be continued. ]
Chemistry of a Kernel of Corn. their low estate, and fitted to perform the [From Nichols' Chemistry of the Farm and the Sea.) high offices of nutrition in the animal organ
In considering the curious and interesting ism. And should we not appropriate them to chemical nature of “corn,” we shall use the our use, as the most carefully adjusted of all term as applied to the wheat berry, as well as materials designed for human aliment? Certo the seeds of the maize plant. Among the tainly we should. And do we? Unfortunately ancients, wheat was always designated as corn;
we cannot render an affirmative answer to the and when we read of St. Paul's famous voyage interrogatory. The sharp teeth of our burr in a “corn ship,” we are to understand that mills drive ruthlessly through the rich wrapthe vessel was laden with Egyptian wheat. per of the kernel, and then the torn fragments It is quite certain that neither the Apostle, pass to the bolt, and from that to the barn or nor the old Roman navigators, who held him stable; the animals obtain the nutritious glua prisoner, ever saw a kernel of our Indian ten; the starch, in the form of fine flour, is corn—the maize plant being indigenous to the set aside for household uses. But it is not American Continent.
designed to enlarge upon this point. Let us The two grains are chemically constituted look at the chemical offices these substances very much alike, and what may be said of found in the kernel of corn subserve in the one, applies with almost equal correctness to animal economy. the other. Both are made up of starch, dex Starch is the wood or coal, which, under trine, gum, sugar, gluten, albumen, phosphates the influence of oxygen, is to be consumed or of lime, magnesia, potassa, with silica and iron. | burned to maintain animal warmth. It passes Wheat contains about double the amount of in as pure fuel; it is oxidized, and the ashes lime and iron, considerable more phosphoric rejected through the respiratory organs. The acid, but less magnesia and soda. Maize seeds warmth imparted by this combustion is necesare rich in a peculiar oil, which is nourishing, sary to the proper fulfilment of the functions and highly conducive to the formation of adi- of the body. Of these functions, those of dipose or fatty matter; hence the high utility gestion and assimilation are the most imporof our corn in fattening animals.
tant. The digestive apparatus receives the What a remarkable combination of chemi- gluten and the starch of the grain; the latter cal substances are stored up in a kernel of is pushed forward to be burned; the former com! It may almost be said to be an apothe- enters the circulation and out of its contained cary shop in miniature; and the order and iron, potash, soda, magnesin, lime, nitrogen, arrangement of the mineral elements and &c., are manufactured all the important tisvegetable compounds, needed to render the sues and organs of the body. All of the iron comparison more apt, are not wanting. For is retained in the blood, and much of the soda some reason, Nature places the most valuable and phosphoric acid; the lime goes to the substances nearest the air and sunlight, while bones, and the magnesia very abruptly leaves the little cells of the interior are full of that the body, as it seems to be very plainly told material used to keep erect and tidy our col- that it is not wanted. Such, in brief, are the Jars and neck-bandsstarch. With a mois uses which the organic and inorganic contened cloth we can rub off from the kernel stituents of a kernel of corn subserve in the about three and a half per cent. of woody or chemistry of animal life. strawy material, of not much nutritive value, The changes which they are made to unand then'we come to a coating which holds dergo in the laboratory are almost equally innearly all the iron, potash, soda, lime, phos- teresting and important. Fecula, or starch, phoric acid and the rich nitrogenous ingredi- is a body of great interest, and is not found ents. This wrapper is the storehouse upon alone in com. There is scarcely a plant or whose shelves are deposited the mineral and part of a plant which does not yield more or vegetable wealth of the berry. From whence less of this substance. What a curious vegecome these chemical agents? By what super- table is the potato! Swollen or puffed out by lative cunning are they grouped within the the enormous distention of the cellular tissue embrace of this covering?
in which the starch is contained, it seems alThey come of course from the soil, and by most ugly in its deformity. It is little less the mysterious and silent power of vital force, than a mass of pure stareh. they have been raised, atom by atom, from If we separate the starch from the gluten
in corn, and boil it a few minutes with weak ture rises, and there are signs of chemical acsulphuric acid, it undergoes a remarkable tion going on in it. After a while it slackchange, and becomes as fluid and limpid as ens and soon stops altogether. Examination water; and if we withdraw the acid, and shows that it has cow completely lost its sweet evaporate to dryness, we liave a new body, a taste, and acquired another quite distinct.kind of gum called “dextrine.” But if we do An intoxicating liquid is formed, and if we not interrupt the boiling when it becomes thin place it in a still, we obtain a colorless, inand clear, but continue it for several hours, Hammable liquid, easily recognised as aleshol. and then withdraw the acid by chemical By a peculiar arrangement of the condensing means, we have remaining a sirupy liquid, apparatus of the still, a portion of the grain very sweet to the taste, which will, if allowed oils and a large amount of water are allowed to evaporate, solidify to a mass of grape sugar. to go over with the alcohol; and this constiThis is the method of changing corn into tutes whiskey. This is an example of the xirup and sugar, about which so much has re- change called "vinous fermentation.” The cently been said. It is a process long under- influence of a ferment or decomposing azostood, and practically of little value. What tized body upon sugar is strange, and quite in most extraordinary in this process is the incomprehensible. Through its agency, we
t that the acid undergoes no diminution or may cause the highly organized kernel of corn change. It is all withdrawn in its original to take another step downward towards a amount after the experiment; nothing is ab- dead, inorganic condition. We can transforin worbed froin the air, and no other substance the alcohol over into acetic acid or vinegar, but grape sugar generated. The play of chemi- or the sugar may be formed into one of the cal affinities lies between the amidine and the most curious organic acids—the lactic; or, clements of water, grape sugar containing still further, it is capable of being changed more oxygen and hydrogen, compared with into manna, a substance supposed to resemble the quantity of carbon, than the starch.
that upon which the Israelites subsisted in the Nothing can be more striking than these wilderness. changes. From the kernel of corn we obtain As in these processes we follow the kernel starch; this we change easily into gum, and, of corn through the various changes, first by the aid of one of the most powerful and into gum, then into sugar, then alcohol, then destructive aciels, transform it into sirup and vinegar, and ultimately into carbonic acid and sugar. A pound of corn starch may thus be water, we obtain an imperfect idea of the made over into a little more than a pound of marvels of vital chemistry. The mysteries of sugar of grapes. But this result can be ac
these reactions have been carefully studied, complished in another way. Let us moisten and in a measure unravelled; but the neces. the corn, place it in a warm room and allow sary brief limits of this treatise will hardly it to germinate, just as do vegetables in a allow of their consideration. The chemistry warm cellar. If in this condition it is dried, of a kernel of corn is a comprehensive topic, ground, and infused in water, a sweet liquid and to be considered even in its outlines would will be obtained, proving the presence of supply material sufficient for a volume. The sngar. The change is produced in this ex
aim has been to group together a few of the periment, by the presence of diastase, a sub- most interesting points, and thus awaken a stance supposed to exist in malt or germinated desire for a more complete and satisfactory grain, but which is imperfectly understood.
investigation. The quantity of diastase necessary to effect this curious metamorphosis in corn starch is very small. We are now ready to consider
* The Amesbury Villager says that Mrs. another most extraordinary change," which F. Noyes of that place recently killed a Brahma corn is capable of undergoing—that of being rooster who had thirteen nickle cents in his transformed into whiskey or alcohol.
crop, two two-cent pieces, and other indigesti
ble articles. If we take the sweet liquid obtained by the infusion of malted corn, and subject it to a temperature of 60° or 70° F., it soon becomes It takes 6,480,000 pounds of cotton to iurbid and muddy, bubbles of gas are seen to supply the daily demands of the cotton mills rise from all parts of the liquid, the tempera- l of the world.
Art thou bred up in a false religion? Think (From our Correspondence ]
upon the wise men of the East. Art thou an “Your Sunday reading will do more good unjust person? Think upon the publican.
Hast thou lived in uncleanness? Think upon than you are aware of, amongst your numerour readers. If every journal had a column the harlot. Art thou a murderer? Think
Art thiou a of the same tenor, the world would be wiser upon the thief upon the cross. and better."
profane person? Think upon St. Paul. If
thou hast sinned, repent; if thou hast sinned “Why did you omit the Sunday reading in a thousand times, repeat thy repentance as the January number? I hope you do not mean often. This is the balm I would pour into to dispense with it hereafter."
thy wounds, and this will assuage all the anThese are extracts from recent letters of guish of them. Thy repentance in comparihighly esteemed correspondents, from very son is but small, but the goodness of thy Lord distant points, and of very different views on is exceeding great. Leave off your doubts many questions of religious controversy.— and wonder, and stand amazed, and magnify
They give us the best assurance that we have this spiritual physician. Shall God be disnot made a vain attempt to liave these read- posed to put away thy sin ? and shall the guit ings generally acceptable to those who really of any sins be too great for His mercy? None love “the Truth as it is in Jesus.”—Eps. Far. are lost if they do not give themselves up for
lost, and so are discouraged from repentance. The devil is an assistant genius to the corruption of our natures—a constant agent in I could not but think, as I hare often rethe sins of men. Being a spiritual agent, he marked to others, that much more of true remust needs be supposed to have a nearer ac- ligion consists in deep humility, brokenness cess to the soul, than any material cause what- of heart, and an abasing sense of barrenness soever; being also an intelligent agent, of a and want of grace and holiness, than most, vast and capacious understanding by nature, who are called Christians, imagine; especially and particularly improved in the black art of those who have been esteemed the converts of tempting, by a long experience of its wiles the late day, many of whom seem to know of and stratagems, he must be fully instructed, no other religion, but elevated joys and afferwhen and how to apply himself to every age tions, arising only from some flights of imagiand constitution, and that which gives bis nation or some suggestion made to their mind temptations a vast advantage over us, is, that of Christ's being theirs, God's loving them, we know not how to distinguish them from and the like. the motions of our own hearts; and when he can convey his poison into us, in such an in There is an old custom of saying, wlien visible manner, without discovering his devil's light is brought in, “God sends us the light of face, which he can; thus prompt us behind heaven!" and the parson likes this very well; the curtain, and so distinguish his whispers, neither is he afraid of praising, or praying 10 that we cannot decern them from the secret God at all times, but is rather glad of catchlustings of our own hearts, how can we be ing opportunities to do them. safe, without great care and watchfulness, from the malice of such a formidable enemy?
O‘the infelicity of the luman race! Tlijk
world is full of sorrow, and yet we love il; We view moral truths through the veil of only suppose it were full of joy, how should allegories and parables, like so many pictures
we love it then? A stormy, teinpestuous through transparent glass, which covers, but world is loved; what if it were calm and does not hide them. Some of the most im
tranquil? portant spiritual sentiments are made us by the most familiar sensible images. Thus Among all the graces that adorn a Chrisdoes the truth, like the great Author of it, tian soul, like so many jewels of various colors stand confessed in a visible shape; receive, as and lustres, against the day of her espousal it were, a body; and become, if I may use the to the Lamb of God, there is not one more expression, incarnate.
brilliant than humility.