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plant small plants. No one pot experienced
SORGHUW. in planting will realize the great advantage of The ground will need very thorough prewell-grown plants over small ones, or the dif- paration and abundant manuring. It is not ference in the plant of a week's growth in the advisable to plant till the ground is warm beds.
| enough to make the seed germinate and grow The most thorough working and prepara- quickly-say after the 15th of the month. tion of the surface soil is especially necessary
PUMPKINS AND CYMLINGS. for this crop. If the soil be at all lumpy,
Plant them the latter part of the month. harrow and roll again and again. This will save a great deal of hoe labor, and the advan
SWEET POTATOES. tage of a well pulverized surface will be very To have them in abundance, a lot should be apparent in the setting of the plants, and, grown outside of garden limits. Light rich what is most desirable, a quick, early growth. soil, with little or no manure, is most suitable
for them. If they are made to grow pery CLOVER FIELDS.
large, it is at the expense of the quality. If clover be intended mainly for the benefit
WORKING STOCK, of the land, all stock should be kept from the field till the crop comes into bloom. Then a
Working stock of every kind should have large stock may be turned on to trample it special care during the spring montlis. Otherquickly, that it may lie closely to the surface wise they are least able to work when there is and rot. The second growth will then come
most need of their labors. Horses should be up early, and the ground will get the greatest well-groomed, and fed abundantly with chop possible good from the crop. If lay is to be
made of any sound long food, and corn, or made, stock must of course be kept off, and rye meal. If corn be used, it is well to mix the clover cut when it is coming well into
one-fourth of wheat bran with it. Oxen, if bloom. If the greatest amount of pasturage
not in best condition, are liable to get weak, is wanted, there should be no delay in turning
and fail to do their work as the days get stock in when there is a bite.
warm. They are generally considered unfit
for labor in hot weather, only, we believe, POTATOES.
because not treated as they should be. If This is the common month for planting given half a peck of corn meal, or its equivapotatoes, but in our opinion the worst. The lent, daily, to each head, and kept on dry leert early crop should have been planted weeks while working, they will continue to work as ago, and the late or general crop not till after steadily through the season as horses. the middle of June.
coWS AND CALVES. BEETS, CARROTS, ETC.
When there is grass affording a bite for the Whatever root crops are to be planted for cows, they and their young are likely to do stock feeding should, with the exception of well. The best method of treating a valuable the turnip, be planted now. Abundant ma-calf is to let it run in the pasture with the nuring and thorough working of the soil should cow for three months and then wean it.precede the planting.
When milk is valuable this is costly keeping, PEAS.
and must be modified according to circumThe field pea, for any purpose, may be
stances. Sometimes the young calf is taken planted after the middle of the month.
at once from the cow and taught to feed on
the new milk, which after two weeks is graduBROADCAST CORN.
ally changed into skim milk. This method Corn broadcast, for green feeding or fodder, may not be altogether successful without may now be sown at intervals of ten days. great care. A safer method is to keep the MILLET
calf tied, which helps to gentle it, and let Millet of any kind for fodder may be pre
it take a portion of the milk directly from the pared for and sown early in June. A peck of
cow at stated periods, diminishing the quantity seed to the acre is sufficicnt, but heavier seed
as it learns to take other food. ing gives finer lay. The soil must be highly
SELECTING CALVES. manured, and the surface put in fine condi- In the way of selection, we should accustion.
| tom ourselves to noticing such points as may
direct us in choosing those which may best The Vegetable Garden.
MA Y. whose mothers are good milkers, and whose sires are from a good milking strain. The Asparagus Beds. ---Keep these clear, and stir calf itself should have such points as indicate with a fork. an aptitude to develop good milking qualities; Cabbage Plants.-Put these out from time &s small fine head, rather long in the muzzle, to time as the weather is favorable. The beds bright eyes, thin, tapering neck, small, well should be thinned if they stand too close, that shaped legs, long body, large hind quarters, the plants may become stocky and well rooted. get wide behind, soft skin, fine hair, and above Hoe and earth up the early planted. all, the milk mirror, or udder veins, should be
Make sure of an ample supply of plants for large and well developed.
| the main crop to be planted in July. There Male calves, to be reared for the team or
are frequent failures from the destruction the butcher, should have well shaped head, I done by the fly. Those who have the oppor. small ears, short, thick neck, deep brisket, tunity should experiment with a solution of broad chest and shoulders, fine bone, long the carbolic soap. The Flat Dutch, Stone body, well rounded behind the shoulders, Mason Drumhead. Drumhead Savoy, &c. are straight back, wide loins, full quarters, tail suitable sorts for late planting. thin and tapering, ekin soft, and not too thin.
Cauliflourer.–Keep these well hoed. Thin SHEEP SHEARING.
out where planted too close, by taking out Sheep shearing should be accomplished
each alternate plant, as soon as there is a soon after the middle of the month. A great
small head formed. Sow now for the fall deal of care is necessary to avoid bruising, or
crop, and continue to plant out from time to cutting with the shears, to both of which the
time from the hot-beds. animal is liable from careless hands. The practice of washing the sheep before
Beets. Keep these well worked—thinning shearing, is being abandoned. we think, in where necessary and transplanting to fill great measure, as injurious to the animal. | vacancies. and incurring risk to those engaged in it. If Celery.- Plant out from time to time for a fair and certain rate of deduction from the early use. Sow seeds now, in rich, moist and price of washed wool could be bad for that well prepared beds, to plant the principal which is unwashed, there would be no doubt, crop in July, we think, of the propriety of selling always Peas. -Sow for succession. Champion of in the dirt.
England, and dwarf Marrowfat, keeping growAfter shearing, the flock should be protected
ing crops worked, and, those which need it, from bad weather, especially long, cold rains, properly supported, by a shed which they may resort to.
Tomatoes, Egg Plants, Peppers, &c.-Should
be planted out of the hot-beds as they get The Paris Kentuckian says; Mr. S. W. size enough, and the weather suits. Tavebaugh, of this county, has shown us | Pole Beans, and String Beans for successome singular grains of corn, in which the sive crops should be planted; also, Turnips. grains are doubled, each grain having a sepa
Radish, Lettuce, Prickly Spinach, Parsley, &c. rate heart. He accidentally noticed a few
Sweet Corn.-Plant every two weeks for grains as he was shelling his seed corn last year, which le planted, and they produced ears of
summer use. corn with all the grains doubled.
Melone. -Plant plenty of these, of several sorts. Be sure to get the best seeds, and plant
on inverted sod ground if practicable. A correspondent of the Ohio Farmer
Potatoes—as soon as above ground, should thinks a sow should not be allowed to breed
be hoed and have a deep working. until at least a year old. He thinks that until the boar and sow reach the age of four or six Keep all sorts of growing crops duly thinyears, their progeny is better than from young ned. hogs.
The scattered seed of last season, will germi
nate with the growing warm weather, and Cheese Making-its Flavor. sliould be destroyed by a thorough dressing | In our eastern exchanges we find the proof the whole surface of the garden.
ceedings of the third annual meeting of the
American Dairyman's Association, from which The Fruit Garden.
we extract the following:
The causes affecting the flavor of cheese Newly planted trees, when summer ap- were treated under the following heads: un. proaches, should be mulched with litter enough clean milk; diseased milk; cows eating werds to keep down the growth of grass and weeds, and leaves of plants that impart their pecuand preserve a uniform moisture, Straw to liar flavor; overheated milk, occasioned from the depth of four or five inches, and to the chasing the cows with dogs when driving distance of four feet from the stem, answers from the pasture; and the pounding and the purpose best. The ground between newly abuse of cows in the stable when milking: planted trees, may be cultivated in growing failure to remove natural heat from the milk vegetables, if well manured.
before it reaches the factory; impure annato; Where it is necessary to work among trees bad rennet; curds insufficiently cooked ; curds with a plough, use only one horse, with a too lightly salted; salting curds too warm; shortened swingle-tree and lengthened traces. putting curds into hoops and to press before
Strawberries need much moisture while set they are properly cooled; exposure of cheese ting and growing the fruit, which should be
to a too high temperature while curing. Mr. applied artificially, if practicable, and neces
Weeks elucidated the several heads above sary. The best way to secure sufficient
with extended remarks. Mr. Moon, of Herkimoisture however, is by mulching immediately after cleaning off the beds in spring. Pine
cheese, the pasturing of cows upon low, wet, shatters or straw are both very suitable for
clay lands. Milk, he said, was often rendered the purpose. A rich soil is very necessary to
unclean from the dust filling the hair of the secure an abundant crop, and to make the
cows in certain seasons, and partly transferred fruit large, there must be room enough be
to the pail while milking. tween the plants.
Prof. Brewer, of New Haven, thought impurity of flavor in cheese might be bronght
about by a fermentation or growth induced by The Flower Garden.
decaying matter falling into the milk. This
matter was of the same class of growth as Continue to sow annuals, and plant out such kinds as have made sufficient growth,
yeast, the nature of which was elucidated.
Scalding pans and utensils killed the germs any time in the month.
which produced decay. He referred to cheese Plant out in the beds and borders, as the
making in Switzerland, and the excellent pasrather gets Warm enough and settled, bed- tures on the lower portions of the Alps. ding plants of all kinds, as Scarlet flowering and other Geraniums, Verbenas, Salvias, He- dairy region, if kept free of weeds, the better liotropes, Petunias, &c. Keep plants enough it is for grazing and producing a good quality in reserve to supply vacancies. Before plant- of milk. ing, be sure to harden the plants by some Mr. Paxton, of Erie, thought the great days of full exposure to the air; otherwise
trouble was that cheese makers were not carethey are liable to great loss.
ful enough, and need to learn and appreciate Cuttings of Geraniums may be taken now, cleanliness, both as to person and apparatus. potted in small pots and placed under glass, They must have a true sense of cleanliness it for fall blooming.
a radical improvement was sought. The walks as well as borders should be kept clean, and should be rolled occasionally. Cattle standing in cold, muddy yards,
The lawn should be mowed frequently as exposed to the weather, consume about twice the grass springs, and should now be kept in as much as those in sheltered stables, kept such condition as will make it accord with clean and littered, and free froin the accumuthe opening beauties of the flower garden. I lation of manure.
An Essay on Coiic and Bots in Horses. is first fed to horses, colic is quite prevalant, Written for the "American Farmer" by GH. DADD, in one or the other of its forms; but on exV. S., Baltimore, Md.
amination it will be observed that in so far as Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for
their conformation is concerned, the animal the District of Maryland.
attacked is predisposed to the affection. A Continued from the April number.
horse subject to flatulent colic, is known to A horse while journeying on the road or have a capacious belly, voracious appetite; when performing on the race-course, should does not properly masticate his food; and he not be allowed to imbibe too freely of water, is not over particular as to the kind of diet, because hard work and active exercise, al- for we often find him devouring, with appamost, for the time being, suspends the diges- rent relish, the filthy material that has served tive function; the water then remains in the as bedding. The topgue of such animal is large intestines, occupies space therein, and | usually foul; the breath is fætid; the teeth being weighty, may in the rapid movements are incrustated, and the salivial fluid resemof the animal, operate unfavorably in various bles soapsuds, and often runs spontaneously ways, more particularly by weight on the gut from the mouth. Horses subject to flatulent itself; it being pendulous from the spine. colic are very apt to become crib-biters, and
A horse is often brought into the stable in a crib-biter is noted for having a large belly ; a state of exhaustion and perspiration; under which appears out of proportion, when comsuch circumstances it would be decidedly pared with other parts of his body. wrong, to either feed or offer him water, until
In regard to corn I find that some of the he had been rubbed dry, and had time for a
stable keepers have it steeped in salt and water short rest; for then, food is just as likely (and
for several hours before it is fed to the horses, I think more so) to operate unfavorably as
and I think the plan is a good one, in so far water, on such an animal.
| as the colicy horse is concerned, for salt is a Many horses, however, even when in an powerful antiseptic, and by its presence, when exhausted state, will fill their stomachs with thus introduced into the stomach, prevents food and water, and yet enjoy immunity from
fermentation, and the corn being somewhat colic. Therefore, should colic occur in a horse
softened by the salt solution, may undergo a after a hard drive, and he having partaken
more rapid digestion, and thus prevent an of both food and water, it is then very dif- attack of colic; ye
attack of colic; yet notwithstanding this ficult to decide whether the drive. food, or precaution I am frequently called upon to water operated as the exciting cause of the
treat horses thus fed; and the same remark malady; should, however, flatulent colic oc
applies to some horses that have been fed on cur, we know that from some cause or other
grass, clover, green corn, and even on good the digestive organs are deranged, and the
oats and bay. Finally, therefore, we are led food instead of being properly digested, runs to infer, that the chief cause of colic exists into fermentation, thus generating carburetted
within the horse, and not outside or around hydrogen within the stomach and intestines.
him ; errors in diet and management, are only On the other hand, should the case be one of the indirect or exciting causes, the principal a spasmodic character-spasmodic colic-we one being of a predisposing character. may infer that it is owing to some derange
TREATMENT OF SPASMODIC COLIC. ment of the nervous system, first aroused by! The medicines used for the treatment of a morbid action of the stomachi, which is the spasmodic colic, must be of an antispasmodic centre of sympathy, for it is well known that character; such as assafætida, lobelia, sulthe brain bas intimate sympathetic relation phuric æther, warm water applied to the belly with the stomach; hence stomach staggers, and loins, and enemas of an infusion of lobelia. &c. So, it appears, that the same causes operat- Sometimes the attack is so violent, and the ing on two animals of diverse temperament, patient so unmanageable, that it becomes and predispositions, may excite spasm in one, absolutely necessary to chloroform him, using and flatulency in the other; and notwith- for this purpose, equal parts of chloroforin standing our best efforts to prevent it, colic and sulphuric æther, mixed. When the aniwill occasionally occur among horses that are mal gets on the floor, le must there be held predisposed to it.
by the neck, while the chiloroform, by means At the season of the year when dried corn of a sponge to the nostrils, is administered.
When the animal is fully under the influence rigidity of some of the muscles, more espe of the anæsthetic, he will lay perfectly quiet, cially in the abdominal region. All at once then remove the sponge for a time, and as the animal would throw himself violently on soon as he shows signs of returning sensi the floor, and move his limbs about in the bility, reapply the saturated sponge; in short, most wild and reckless manner. He would keep him under perfect control. In the assume all sorts of positions, yet seemed to mean time, throw into the rectum enemas obtain most ease when flat on his back; still, of warm water, to which add fluid extract of | if closely approached or touched, he would lobelia, in the proportion of one ounce of the kick and strike furiously as if intent on latter, to two quarts of the former, and let the mischiet. In short, he cut up such antics belly and loins be covered with a blanket that it was dangerous to approach him, yet saturated with water as hot as skin will bear we finally succeeded in giving him two ounces - without scalding.
of tincture of assafætida, and an enema of The animal must also be drenched with lobelia infusion. one ounce of fluid extract of lobelia, but this The animal kept growing more restire and must be given at a moment when the animal uncontrollable, until at last it became very is not fully under the influence of æther, evident that convulsions had set in. The otherwise he might be unable to swallow, breathing had become fearfully laborious and and it would then pass into the wind pipe and rapid ; his nostrils were dilated to their utmost choke him.
capacity; the sight had become so affected This plan of treatment is usually successful, through temporary paralysis of the optic but it must be continued during a period of nerve, that total blindness set in. half an hour or more according to the ur- ! There seemed to be but little chance for gency of the case. The dose of lobelia may the horse's life, and fearing that he might, be repeated, but the quantity should be de- through violence, kill himself, or injure some creased each time, and the enemas may be person in attendance, it was thought best to administered often, or until the rectum is chloroform lim, and thus put a stop to his completly emptied of fæces, and the blanket dangerous performances, hence a mixture of must be constantly kept wet with hot water. chloroform and sulphuric æther was procured Should the animal; on being permitted to and by means of a sponge attached to the recover from the effects of ætlerezation ; ap- handle of a hay-fork, we were enabled to pears to be free from spasms and pain, he chloroform him at a safe distance from liis must then be rubbed dry and led to a stall. He feet. will not require anything more of a medi- ! The patient did not seem to like this novel cinal character, but should be fed on thin practice, for he tried hard to strike those near gruel for, at least twenty-four hours,
him, but being temporarily blind we had the We sometimes, however, succeed in reliev- advantage of him. It soon became evident, ing cases of pure spasmodic colic, by a copious that the chloroform was taking effect; the abstraction of blood from the jugular vein, patient gradually became quiet, and thus we and by the use of tincture of assafatida obtained the mastery. As it is dangerous to (dose two ounces,) aided by enemas of warm keep a horse under the full effects of chloro. water, and the warm bath.
form for any great length of time, the sponge The following case, from my late work on was removed, and only applied occasionally, the Horse; may possibly prove interesting to slightly saturated, so as to insure a state of the reader, and will go to shew some of the incomplete insensibility. It was an encourage difficulties under which we labor in treating ing sight to behold the once powerful and this formidable malady.
furious animal now lying free from pain, deOn making an examination of the animal, prived of the power to injure himself or those the following symptoms were observed : Pulse, in attendance on bim; and it is gratifying to very strong and wirey, averaging twenty beats know that science ministers to the wants and above the natural standard; membranes of necessities of the inferior, as well as the 51 the mouth, nose and eyes very vascular, or in perior orders of creation. other language, highly reddened; the surface TREATMENT OF FLATULENT COLIC. of the body was bedewed in patches, with Various remedies are recommended for the perspiration; there appeared to be much I treatment of flatulent colic, some of them