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An Essay on Colic and Bots in Horses. | licking, the ova adhere to the tongue, and are Written for the "American Farmer" by G. H. DADD, carried into the horse's stomach in the act of V. S., Baltimore, Md.
swallowing. The bots attach themselves to Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, em the Clerk's Office of the District Court for
the horse's stomach, and are sometimes, though the District of Maryland.
less frequently, found in the first intestine. Continued from May number--page 327. The number varies considerably; sometimes BOTS.
there are not half a dozen, at others, they exI have associated the subject "Colic" with ceed a hundred. They are fixed by the small that of Bots, because it often happens that end to the inner coat of the stomach, to which when a horse is tortured with either flatulent they attach themselves by means of two or spasmodic colic, and stands with his head hooks." turned towards the flanks, some persons are Let us now, briefly, enquire into the history, apt to conclude that he is tormented with habits, &c. of some of the lower orders of “bots," and in view of giving the so-called parasites, and we shall perceive that the pres“bots” their “ticket of leave," the animal is ence of bots in a horse's stomach is no deviacompelled to swallow a juvenile apothecary tion from the general rule which seems to obshop, including pounded glass, more likely to tain in all created beings. * In the study of kill than cure. I must confess, however, that animal physiology, we discover that animals the subject of bots brings me into “deep and insects require the operation of certain water," as the saying is, for very many horse- forces in order that their peculiar vital promen, and farmers, too, have always entertained perties shall be manifested. They all require an idea that the bot is a mortal enemy to the food, water and oxygen; food, for the developequine race and is always injurious, and I ment of organized tissues; water, to maintain often fail to succeed in convincing men of the
an equilibrium between the solids and fluids, real facts in the case. I hope, however, on and oxygen, for promoting various changes, this occasion to convince some of our readers uniting some particles of the fabric for special that bots are not quite so destructive to horses purposes, and disengaging others destined for as many persons have been led to suppose. excretion. These agents have to be obtained
Mr. Bracey Clark, who has paid consider- under varied circumstances. The number of able attention to the subject, informs us that the different species of reptiles known to natu“bots are not, properly speaking, worms, but ralists is about thirteen hundred, and there are the larvæ of the gadflv, which deposits its are at least one hundred and sixty thousand ova on the horse's body in such a manner as species of insects. Among this vast assembthat they shall be received into his stomach, lage of animate forms, a great proportion of and then become bots. When the female fly them obtain food, water, and oxygen in a situhas become impregnated, and the ova are suf- ation and at a temperature which is most conficiently matured, she seeks among the horses genial to each species; each one of which a subject for her purpose, and approaching it exhibit great variety in organization and on the wing, she holds her body nearly up
.",t is a curious fact that numerous parasites do crawl over the surface of our bodies, burrow beneath our skin,
nestle in our intestines, and riot in propagating their ened TOT The purpose; she approaches the kind in every corner of our frame, producing ofttimes
such molestation and disturbance ay to require the inter
ference of medicine. Nearly a score of animals that have suspending herself for a few seconds, suddenly their dwelling place in the interior of the human body,
have been already discovered and described, and scarcely darts upon it, and leaves the ova adhering to
a tissue or an organ but is occasionally profaned by their the hair by means of a glutinous fluid secreted
inroads. Each, also, has its special or its favorite domi
cile. One species chooses the heart for its place of abode: with it. She then leaves the horse at a small another inhabits the arteries; a third, the kidneys.
Myriads of minute worms lie coiled up in the voluntary distance, and prepares the second ova, and
muscles or in the areola tissue that connect the flesh poising herself before the part, deposits it in fibres. The guinea-worm and chigoe bore through the
skin, and reside in the subjacent reticular tissue. Hythe same way; the liquor dries and the ova datids infest various parts of the body, but especially the
liver and brain. A little fluke, in general appearance become firmly glued to the hair. This is re
much like a miniature founder, lives, steeped in gall, in peated by various flies, until four or five hun. the biliary vessels. If you squeeze from the skin of your
nose, what is vulgarly called a maggot (the contents of dred ova are sometimes deposited on one one of the hair pellicles), it is ten to one that you find in horse; they are usually deposited on the legs,
that small sebaceous cylinder several animalcules, extremely minute, yet exhibiting, under the microscope, a curious and complicated structure. Even the eye has its
living inmates; but it is in the intestines that we are most exposed to be licked by the animal. In 1)
most infested with these vermin.'--WATAON.
habits-hence the necessity for that diversity of development; these are all fætal hydatids; in their geographical distribution which seems they increase in size until the parent sac is to surprise some of us.
so distended that it finally bursts, and thus Each species of reptile and insects, or at liberates a multitude of parasites, which, in least very many of thein, carry about with their turn, undergo the same evolution, bethem, in their own organization, the fertile coming, each, a parent hydatid, producing embryonic habitation for successive increase subsequent generations, wbich diffuse themand development, and all are, to a certain ex- selves over the whole body of a pig; hence tent, dependent on one another for vitality arises that peculiarity in pork known as and food. It has been truly said that there “measels." is “life within life.” Begin, for example, with His body, also is sometimes completely infestthe body of man, and we shall find that it is ed with parasites known as Tricbinæ Spiralis, occasionally infested with thirty-nine distinct dwelling in myriads in the muscles of the species of entozoæ. These are not confined body; yet no indication of the presence of to a local situation, like the bots in the stomach these worms seems to have been afforded in of a horse, but some are to be found in the those instances in which the condition of the eye, bronchial tubes, glands, kidneys, urinary animal in whom they were found was known, bladder, gall bladder, liver, intestines, mus- during life. The intestines of the pig are cles, blood, &c. There are also several species ofttimes full of worms known as ascaris lumnof entophytæ to the number of ten, inhabi- bricoides, and these parasites are so prolitie tants of the skin and mucous surfaces. So that naturalists have calculated many millions that man can boast of a greater number of of ova within the body of a single female. living parasites, within and about his body, Many of these perish, yet à part of them, at than we have as yet been able to find in the the proper season, are deposited within the body of his servant, the horse; and if the intestines of the pig, wbo, notwithstanding, former can carry about in the living citadel, grows fat, and after passing from the hands such a myriad host of active, living parasites, of the butcher, furnishes savory meals for the often without much inconvenience, and he lovers of pork. being the weaker of the two, why should not - Sheep also are infested with various forms the horse, who is the strongest, be able to of entozoæ, yet it is very rare that those aniendure the presence, and furnish nutriment, mals suffer any inconvenience from the prefor the few bots that occasionally locate in the sence of the parasites, except when present stomach, and be able to perform ordinary in large quantities. I might go on to show work without inconvenience ?
that every living being is more or less infested Some of the inferior orders of creation are with parasites, and that almost all parasites the receptacle of immense masses of parasites. are in turn likewise affected, but the examples The grasshopper, for example, is sometimes here offered must answer my present purpose. infested with a parasite known as gordius, The very atmosphere we breathe, and which a sort of hair worm-which some persons have serves as the purificator of the vital current erroneously supposed to be a transformed -the blood-teems with an innumerable host horse-hair. Several of these coil themselvcs of living, organized sporules and invisible to in the digestive cavity of the former, often the naked eye-infusoria. The water which penetrating its abdomen, thorax and cranium; serves to quench our thirst, and plays so the weight of the parasites often exceeding important a part in the economy of man and that of the body of the grasshopper, yet we animals, whether it be in lake, pond, spring. often see and hear the latter skipping, jump- or gully, contains crowds of parasites, or aniing and chirping, notwithstanding this para- malculæ; at times so numerous are they that sitic mass, just as freely, perhaps, as others several hundred thousand have, by means of not so infested.
magnifying lens, been discovered in a single Then consider the condition of swine; we drop of water. Yet such water is good and frequently find in the porcine liver a vesicle, pleasant to the taste, and is not injured thereby. or sac, filled with fluid, apparently possess- neither is it injurious to man. ing no further, or no real organization; but! Dr. Leidy states, that le bas at various examine it carefully and we shall find within times purposely swallowed large draughts of its tunic, other sacular cells in various stages / water containing myriads of animalculæ, with
out ever perceiving any effect; and he combats on the bot; the external surface of its body the idea that diseases are produced or propa- is impervious to fluids-non-absorbing-insengated by parasites taken into the stomach in sible, composed of bristles in rows, and interthis way. The most curious feature, however, mediate tissue, identical in structure with that in the history of parasites, is their extraordi- of the claws of birds, and nails of man ; nary powers of multiplication, which is doubt- | in fact the bot will live for some time in strong ed by some persons, but it is well known to acids; they may be kept in proof spirits for others, that some species of these creatures weeks, and even months has not sufficed to are capable of producing a hundred repetitions destroy them; they will then, on being washed of themselves, and the process can be repeated and exposed to the sun's rays, give evidence ten times in a season. The common white of vitality, ant is capable of depositing ova at the rate. It was formerly thanel of eighty thousand per das fou
vapavie of perforating the walls of the verks, and the common fleshi maggot stomach; but this opinion is now generally is generated by the million, in the course of a exploded. They do not possess the means, if few hours; and as regards growth and devel- they had the inclination to bore through the opment, the common flesh fly and the cater- stomach. Yet as some wonderful stories are pillar increase in weight two hundred times often, at the present period, related of bots in the course of twenty-four hours.
burrowing through the stomach, it may be But the bot is a creature that does not proper for me to refer to that subject. multiply nor increase in bulk at this rapid ! The stomach of a horse is the nursery and rate; he may be set down as a “slow coachi,” home of the bot, its natural habitation; here and when once located in the only domicil it generally remains during its minority, or that he ever inhabits, (the stomach of a horse)
until it is fully developed and capable of exit becomes his abiding place for a period of ercising an independent existence, or of unnearly twelve months. The bot is a sort of dergoing metamorphosis into the gadfly:aristocratic entozoa; he lives in the upper Destined therefore by the law of nature; region of the stomach; he seldom intermixes, which localises all equine parasites to their or associates with the common parasites of respective tissues and organs, out of which the intestinal tube. The little creature seems they are very seldom found, and then merely to exercise considerable tact in selecting his by accident; the little creature is too comfortaabiding place, although he has but a "squatter'g?? | bly esconsed ever to attempt an escape title to it, yet his location is the best and through the stomach into the abdominal safest in the whole “ diggings." He is in the cavity, where it would be out of its element; upper and anterior part of the stomach, where if the period has arrived for the bot to vacate the fluids-poison or medicines—with which its stronghold it chooses the safest and ordiyou are about to coax or drive him off, are nary route, which is through the alimentary inoperative-for they merely act as a shower canal-intestines. The month of May is usubath-and pass immediately through the
ally the period of their maturity; at this stoinach into the intestines, where all the fluid season the horse being at grass the bots will a horse drinks is generally found; therefore
leave him. such remedies do not disturb the bot. Then, Bots are occasionally found in the abdomiagain, the bot is usually located on the cu- val cavity, but if the stomach of the dead ticular part or coat of the stomach; a mem
horse be carefully examined, it will be found brane as insensible to pain as that which gives
to have been ruptured, either as a consequence an interior lining to the gizzard of a chicken.
of disease-ulceration—or from over-distenThis part possessing but very little vascularity sion by gas. Very many cases of flatulent is not susceptible to the action of medicine or colic terminate in rupture of the stomach, or any of the ordinary bot remedies, and the bot | from decomposition. being within his own castle, his suctorial disk,
[To be continued.) or month, imbedded in this non-absorbing membrance of the stomach, can refuse to
Treat your horses with that kindness imbibe the proffered dose, wliich, however,
| which is characteristic in all the actions of a
merciful man; no animal will appreciate it often succeeds in destroying the horse. better or respond to it with more gratitude
Another reason why medicine does not act I than the horse.
Remarks on a New Mode of Curing Tobacco. closer the tobacco will sweat, and be much Continued from May number.
injured notwithstanding the fire. Here I I now come to one of the most important close my remarks upon this branch of the parts in the management of this valuable crop, subject, as persons purchasing the furnace viz: curing. This is usually done by putting will receive circular with minute directions it in the house directly from the field, 6 or 8 for managing the same, amount of heat replants to the stick, and stick 10 or 12 inches quired at the different stages of curing, &c. apart in the building, trusting to the uncer- / STRIPPING AND ASSORTING.–This operatainty of the weather to dry it. If the fall tion is one of great importance, and should prove favorable a fine crop may be saved in be done with care and judgment. The difthis way, but if on the contrary (which is not ferent qualities and colors must be separated unusual) the weather should be wet and foggy, carefully; the leaves in a bundle ought to be from one-third to one-half of the year's work very nearly the same length, and the bundles in pounds which tax nothing of the loss a little above the size of a man's thumb; burnt tobacco (as the phrase is) is much mori ed with a leat corresponding in lighter than a sound article. Owing to the part the end of the stems. This givareten great uncertainty, which always attends the neat appearance and adds to its value. After curing in the natural way, I adopted several tying, the bundle should be opened and placed years ago, Bibb & Co's Tobacco Curing Ap- against the breast of the stripper, smoothed paratus, with which I have been entirely down with one hand and laid straight by his successful, not only saving my whole crop side. Tobacco should never be thrown in a from injury, but greatly enhanced if not J'common pile (as some do) and necessarily doubled its value. The «Furnace" is so ar- tangled, but ought always to be kept straight. ranged in a barn, as to take up but little room, I arrange my hands for stripping in this the pipes running so near the floor, the hands way: those that I appoint to cull, after taking walk over them without difficulty, enabling | off the trashy leaves near the butts, throw all the planter to fill every part of the building, stalks containing yellow in one pile, all bright except a small space near the apparatus.- or red, in a second, and all dull in a third. The heat is distributed very uniformly I then place the other strippers, at the ditthroughout the barn by means of two distinct | ferent heaps according to the care with which sets of pipes--one set conveying the smoke they assort and tie. The man who strips yelto the chimney or smoke stack, and the other low, takes off all leaves of that color, and if distributing hot air, drawn off from under a there should remain any bright on the stalk, jacket thrown over the “furnace.” This throws it to the one stripping that quality ; jacket answers the double purpose, of pro- | and in like manner the bright stripper, throws tecting the tobacco from scorching overhead, to the man stripping dull. By this arrangeand holding for distribution the surplus heat ment every one has his own work to do, and at the furnace-end of the building. Either the owner (whether at the barn or not) can wood or coal may be used in firing with this by making an examination of the different arrangement. My plan is to use wood (of lots, see who assorts properly. I have found any kind well seasoned) during the day and some difficulty at first in breaking the “freedup to bed time, when two or three bushels of men” to my manner of doing this work, but coal are thrown in, which insures ample heat by carefully instructing them, and thus excitfor the night, the door of the barn may then ing their pride, at the same time assuring be locked and the fireman retire.
them that under no circumstances, would I The only care necessary on the part of the allow my stripping to be done in any other planter, is to see that the fireman does his way, have succeeded in some short time to duty. I am governed entirely by a ther- my satisfaction. mometer, making a rule to examine this CONDITIONING.-I find from experience several times a day, and if not up to the fired tobacco is much more easily conditioned prescribed heat, call the attention of the opera- than air cured, and in consequence, have tor to the fact, requiring him to be more abandoned the old system of sticking and attentive. The time required to cure a house- hanging up to dry after stripping; as this ful (being previously yellowed) is four or five very much disfigures tbe bundles, and in very days. The fire should be then suffered to go damp weather not unfrequently changes the out, the doors and windows opened, and by color, and the tobacco is otherwise injured the first or second morning thereafter (the from its exposed condition. First cover with night being calm) it will be sufficiently soft to tobacco sticks the tier immediately over head, remove to an adjoining barn or tight-sheds and on this wind-row the tobacco in round and closely stowed away. The planter may heaps about four or five feet in diameter. The then proceed to fill as before. I would here bulker standing in the centre, the tobacco is caution those who intend using the furnace passed to him, three bundles at a time, by an the coming season, not to put more than six assistant, he lays it down straight with heads or eight plants on a stick, nor put the sticks out and tails in, forming a circle around himcloser in the house than eight or ten inches self, and so continue until the heap is about apart, unless previously scaffold and kilned three feet high, and then draws himself out by the sun; in that case, six inches will be by a tier pole over head. Next he proceeds cnough. I have found by experience if put to cover (if fine) with a single course of inferior tobacco, or what is better, corn blades,
Cranberry Culture. upon which a few sticks are laid-this secures
Very few fruits so well repay the enterprise it from dampness or dust.
In these wind-rows it remains until the first of the skilful farmer as the cranberry; cerwarm weather in spring, when it is examined, tainly none will bear for a long term of years and if found too soft, is shaken out and with so little manure; in fact, none is ever changed to another place; but if found sufficiently dry and sweet (which is usually the
given them except what they get by the ancase the first damp time thereafter it should nual inundation which their culture requires. be put in large four or six course bulks and The land best fitted for the growth of cranheavily weighted, when it remains soft and berries is a peat meadow. It must be so loin proper condition for packing. PACKING.–There are different modes adopt
cated that it can be drained 18 inches below ed by planters of doing this work, all of the surface, and flood the same depth above which may have some advantages. The plan the surface. If not situated so that these conI pursue is the old four course system. The
ditions can be obtained, it would be useless to packer, after removing his shoes, gets in the
expend money on any attempt to reduce it to calon and receiving the tobacco from an as
cranberry meadow. But where these condilaying down one bundle at a time straight and tions can be commanded, and a good supply smooth, with end of heads in contact with the siding; when this is completed, a second
of fine gravel, or sharp flinty sand is near at course is placed in like manner with the heads
hand, we have the necessary conditions; and
operation may safely be commenced. The and does the same upon the other side; the first thing to be done is to prepare the land cask is then lined with a single bundle all
for the crop, which is done by draining by around as a protection and completes the first layer. He then crosses the first at right angle,
ditches about two feet deep, running entirely with courses laid down as before and so con around the land to be used. The surface must tinues until the hogshead is full. Not more be broken up, and made mellow; if covered than 600 or 700 pounds of fine tobacco should
with grass and hassacks or bushes, they must be put in one cask. I would advise planters to select moderately warm, and calm days to be thoroughly eradicated by one or two years' do this work, as tobacco should be packed as cropping with potatoes and cabbage, or by soft as possible, without running the risk of carting off the sod and bushes. The land bruising; if harsh and windy days are chosen,
must then be graded to a uniform slope from the article will dry to some extent after being
the field toward the ditches, just sufficient to broken out of bulk, and the samples will have a coarse and rough appearance, when taken allow the surface-water to run off and not from the cask, which materially affects the stand in pools. Any slope greater than this price. In packing fine, bright and yellow to
will require increased depth of water in floodbacco, the bulks should be overhauled, and bundles not coming fully up to the standard,
| ing, and should be avoided. The sand is must be thrown out, and bad leaves in good spread on in depth from two to six inchesbundles, should be carefully removed, for this the deeper the peat the deeper should be the is a fancy article, and in order to command
sand—and the land is ready for the plants, the highest price, the samples must be as near
which should be planted in May or early in perfection as it is possible to have them.
I have thus, Messrs. Editors, in an humble June. The land is marked out with a comway, given you, what I conceive to be, some mon garden marker in rows a foot and a half of the most important points, in the manage
asunder, and the cuttings are stuck in by hand ment of this great staple of our State; omitting many of decided utility, with which the
about three or four inches apart; the water is readers of your valuable journal, in the to kept eighteen inches below the surface until bacco growing section of Maryland are fa November; the sand is frequently hoed meanmiliar. That some will object to my method,
while, and kept scrupulously clean of all on account of the apparent care and trouble I take, I entertain not a doubt, but experience
weeds. In November the sluice in the dam is las proven conclusively to my mind, that the shut, and the water raised to at least eighteen more care and neatness, in managing this inches over the surface. If less depth of water valuable crop, the more money is realized
is used, there is danger that the ice will freeze from the outlay. I would suggest to planters of Maryland to
into the plants, and a freshet might lift the select the best soil on the farm for the growth whole bed up by the roots, ice and all together.
fine tobacco; plant not more than 12,000 | The water is drawn off in May, the following or 15,000 hills to the hand, manure well, culti
year, and the boeing and weeding followed vate thoroughly-pay particular attention to Curing. Assorting and Packing, and they will up industriously through the summer. No be handsomely rewarded. G. W. DORSEY. | crop need be looked for this season, the vines