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regetate whenever placed in suitable condition recommended—all the sewage water from the as to air and moisture to do so.
house, &c., and they will rarely say, "hold, it After showers of rain, proceed to earth up is enough." cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and whatever other Sow spinach for a supply during the fall. crops may require it. Keep the ground free from Prince Albert and other early peas may still weeds and remove all crops that are done with, be sown for a late crop. and make preparations for any crop which may Onions should be taken up as soon as ripe, and have to stand the winter.
a few sown for green onions during the fall. Do Mulching between the rows of vegetables we not omit to work well between the rows of all can strongly recommend, for whenever the ground such crops as will be benefited thereby until they is sandy or adhesive, and exposed, at this season, are sufficiently thick to prevent it. This will to the powerful action of the sun, the roots of apply to crops of parsnips, carrots, beets, turvegetables are very likely to be destroyed. nips, peas, beans, &c., &c. The principal sowing of cabbage for spring
Towards the end of the month sow cauliflower use should be done towards the eod of the seed on a bed of fine, rich earth, and when about month. The Early Wakefield or Jersey Wake
two inches high take them up and pot in small field, or Early York, are as good as any we have pots in good, rich compost, and plunge the pots ever grown for fall and early spring planting. in tanners' bark or coal ashes. As soon as the
Abundance of water should be given to celery pots are full of roots they should be shifted into newly planted, and also liquid manure to the
pots about three inches over, and kept in frames earliest crop; after which it should be earthed during the winter ; the pots plunged to the rims up. Continue to plant out, being careful to take
to prevent frost from touching the roots. This may up the plants with as much soil about the roots
look like bestowing a great deal of unnecessary as possible.
labor upon the cauliflower. We can only say Make another sowing of lettuce for use in the that we consider it about the finest vegetable fall. We have bad on trial, during the present grown when managed well, and experience has season, several new and other kinds of lettuce, taught us that the above mentioned plan pays none of which, all things considered, are as good better in the end than any other we have ever as our old favorite, the "Paris Silesian.”
tried for a crop in early spring. As ground becomes vacant, make sowings of
There will, for many weeks to come, be great Strap Leaved and Purple Top turnips.
Continue to transplant endive, in frames, for accumulations of weeds and rubbish, by the digwinter use, where they can be covered with straw
ging up potatoes, removal of pea and bean straw, mats during the winter months.
and many other materials which, when decayed, will make good manure.
The economical manKeep the crops of string beans closely picked, for if allowed to remain until they are too old
ager never wastes a particle of anything which
can be rotted into compost, and if the compost for use, they discontinue to bear as they otherwise would. Make a sowing of the early Mo- pits are now full, room must be made for any hawk, or Valentine, for a late crop; make another extra supplies. It is not uncommon to see the sowing of black Spanish radish and also of the refuse of the garden placed in loles full of water turnip rooted kinds.
in order that it may decay the more rapidly. The Take up potatoes where they are ripe, and put the material is forgotten. It would be much
idea that water washes out all the goodness of in German greens, Scotch kale, and other winter
better to accumulate all vegetable refuse in one greens in their places. We do not approve of the plan of planting heap, to undergo fermentation and decay with.
out the help of adventitious moisture; and when winter greens between the rows of potatoes before the latter are taken up. We have found that offensive effluvia results, put a layer of earth
over the heap. We have found common mould wbenever cabb &c., are planted between the
to be the best of all deodorizers. rows the ground is trodden down so hard in planting and watering that the crop seldom comes As they ripen, save seed of all choice kinds off so well afterwards, as it does on well cleared of vegetables, being careful to select from the and cultivated ground. These observations do earliest and best kinds for the purpose. not, of course, apply to large market gardens, Cucumbers and string beans for pickling should but to the garden of the farmer, for whom we be sown during the first ten days of the month. write; and to whom we would say, treat your Thyme and other such herbs should be gathgardens well and kindly; stir them well and ered when in flower, and dried in a shady room. deep; give your crops what we have so often When the stalks of onions turn yellow they
should be taken up, lest they should make fresh pose,) using light, rich soil, and placing them in roots, which should be prevented if possible. a frame, watering whenever necessary. In a
Look over the remarks for the past two months very short time they will have filled the pots with and see what has escaped attention.
roots, wheu they may be planted out in the beds With favorable weather, lost time may be prepared for them. Turning them out of their improved by those who are diligent and vigilant. pots without breaking the balls of earth, pressing
the soil closely and firmly about the roots, after
which, with the necessary working, &c., they The Fruit Garden.
will make good, strong plants. It is not every
strawberry grower who keeps his beds as clean Where it is desired to make new plantations as they should; and too often a strawberry bed of strawberries, it should be done at once, as is only another came for a miscellaneous collecthey who plant now will be sure of a fair crop tion of docks and grasses, with a multiplication next year, while they who delay the planting of other plants, (interesting to the botanist) conuntil the ground gets cold, and the energies of stituting a pavement of rank vegetation, which. the plant subdued, will in all probability have in one year, becomes worthless to man and beast. to wait the result of another season.
We have this season fruited near fifty varieties, a Strawberries planted later than the last week few of which, for this location, may be called in August, or during the first ten days of Sep- strawberries for every body. We have also some tember, rarely do any good. There is no plant which are strawberries for nobodv, and some in our gardens which shows more decisively the which are midway between the two, and should difference between good and bad cultivation than be grown by every genuine lover of strawberries. the strawberry. To plant them without due We saw specimens, during the early part of the care, combined with good preparation of the season, which were grown for market - such soil, is next to waste of time and money. There worthless trash that we could not understand is no fruit-bearing plant, with which we are how the cultivators could offer fruit for sale, the acquainted, so certain to pay for good treatment. flavor of which was similar to that of a raw To insure success, the cultivator must be liberal turnip. This is more strange when we consider in the preparation of the soil; such as deep that some of our best flavored and finest varieties working with spade, or subsoil plough, using are the most prolific, and would pay much better good barn-yard manure, and plenty of it, upon even if they produced less in bulk, which they open, well exposed, sunny spots. In growing do not. The greater portion of those we have the strawberry, there should be no half way seen offered for sale this season, (and which we
The soil spaded or ploughed deep, presume the market gardeners keep to themselves leaving the surface rough, planting immediately without difficulty:) are marvellous in their way. after a rain shower, which will save trouble in We think that every lover of strawberries should watering, &c , using all available means to secure endeavor to grow "Jucunda" to perfection. We a strong, unchecked growth from the time of have never known it to fail of repaying most liberplanting. It not unfrequently happens that be- ally for liberal treatment, even in localities not ginners in strawberry culture become discouraged well adapted for the cultivation of the strawberry. by the loss of plants, especially in purchasing Give it good land, of almost any texture, manure new kinds. They order their plants of some liberally, grow them in hills, and keep well culdistant nursery man, which, in due time, come tivated between the rows, and you may expect to hand, most probably, consisting of very small a feast of strawberries of such flavor and size plants of some two or three leaves each, with as as will delight the most fastidious. many small, delicate rootlets; more than half Those who fail to grow "Jucunda" should try of such plants die in a few days, and a consider-"Triomphe de Gand," which, perbaps, is rather able proportion of the remainder, during the more hardy, and the flavor excellent. But I have early part of the winter. Wben the demand is yet to see "Jucunda" suffer in repute by the large for any particular variety, the nursery man results of any experiments, under similar circumis compelled to do the best he can with all the stances, by other varieties. “Fillmore," with small rooted offsets they can obtain ; hence many us, is a most excellent strawberry. We think, plants are sent out that require some special one of the very best. It is very prolific, grows nursing before being planted out. Our plan bas well, and
handsome. The berries are hitherto been, upon receiving small plants of new large, and when fully ripe, of a beautiful dark, kinds, to pot them separately, (pots of two or crimson color, and the flavor-well, I am afraid three inches in diameter will answer the pur- I to make the attempt to describe it. I will say
that, without sugar and cream, (wbich, we think, doing much sooner than we can do them as we spoil good strawberries,) it is about all we de would like to bave them done. Buch may, howsire. To those who doubt our statement, I say ever, be done by system and without the qualms procure a stock, grow it well, and let us bear of being overworked. We fear mildew will be your own opinion of it, upon the condition that quite prevalent in all damp places, and do incalthe berries are allowed to remain upon the vines culable mischief if not timely checked. Sulphur until they are fully ripe; for it is doing it a great dustings are the best remedies we know of; fresh injustice to eat it before it bas come to perfection. air and cleanliness will undoubtedly do much
** Russel's Prolific" we have not seen surpassed to prevent it. for size, which is one point. It was indeed a treat to see such as we were able to select for size
The Flower Garden. picked from plants, which were planted during the month of October, 1866. It is abundantly Chrysanthemums, to bloom finely, will now prolific, and of a fine, sprightly flavor; such as require special attention. The beautiful class of is liked by those who are judges of what good this now popular flower, called Pompones or strawberries should be, and that is another point. daisy-flowered, should be stopped for the last For hardiness, productiveness and healthiness, time. The large, flowering kinds should not be we consider it as good as most strawberries stopped any more. Whenever needful, place grown.
neat stakes to them, and those grown in pots "Vicomtesse Hericart de Theury” is an early, should have the earth removed about one inch medium sized, solid, firm berry; color, superb; from the surface, and replaced with good, old not as prolific as some, but one which we cannot cow or barn-yard manure. give up; and think that every amateur should For floral decorations in the house there are grow it.
but few plants better adapted than the Pompone " Trollop's Victoria” is a most deliciously fla- varieties, for which purpose they may yet be vored strawberry, a great favorite bere.
rooted and grown in four-inch pots in good rich “River's Seedling Eliza” is of excellent con- soil ; will make beautiful ornaments for the house stitution ; a very large, handsome berry, of a during the months of November and December. rich and beautiful flavor, and with us a great Bedding plants, as verbenas, heliotropes, gerfavorite.
aniums, &c., can only be kept in good order by lu addition to the above we bave upou our
constant attention, removing all seed vessels, trial grounds upwards of fifty varieties, many of dead leaves and rank growing shoots. Towards which we like very much, but must wait the the end of the month, cuttings of any of the result of another season before speaking with above named plants, and of others which may be entire confidence of them.
required for keeping through the winter, may be Fruit trees, planted late in the spring, and not rooted in a shady place out of doors. Cuttings fully established, should be freely watered when of the beautiful Coleus Verschaffetti planted now ever the weatber is dry, for over a period of and carefully attended to, will make nice plants ten days. Remove all ill-placed or crowded
to mix with the chrysaatheinu ms when in bloom shoots upon them.
in the house. Remove suckers from currants and gooseber
Annuals the following kinds, planted at the ries, likewise those from fig trees. Thin out end of the months, in rather poor soil, will stand weak shoots of raspberries, leaving only from the winter and flower finely during the early three to four at each shoot. Keep grape vines spring, at a time when there is generally a dearth free from all useless wood, allowing plenty of air of early spring beauties, white and purple candy to the fruit, but not exposing it too much.
tuft, collinsias, erysimums, eschiltzias, clarkias, Peaches, apples, pears, &e., will soon require convolvulus minor, godctia, rocket, larkspur, constant attention. Pick the various kinds as upinus, &c. they ripen, and let the operation be done with Hollyhocks will now Tequire manure water to care, for whenerer any fruit is bruised it lays the make them open their top buds well, and all foundation of premature decay. Where only a choice varieties should be kept tied up to neat few peaches are grown, for domestic purposes, stakes. Save seed from the most double and they should be looked over daily, and picked as best kinds only. they ripen, as a fall is fatal both to faror and Liliums as soon as the hardy kinds have done appearanee if they have to be kept only a few flowering, they should be taken np and all offsets, hours afterwards. Not a day passes but in our removed, and the large roots planted again imfruit department we see many things wbich want | mediately where they are to bloom next year,
giving each bulb & spadefull of good, rotten
For the “ American Farmer." dung. This is the only way to manage this
Immigration. beautiful genus of plants, in order to have them bloom finely every season.
The varieties of lan Having lived and owned estates in Denmark, cifolium in pots should have an abundance of Sweden, Germany and France, I am well acwater until done flowering, after which the sup- quainted with the character of the working class ply should be diminished, but not too suddenly. and small land owners of those countries. The As soon as the foliage shows signs of decay, lay Scandinavians are particularly desirable as in the pots on their sides on a warm, dry border, migrants, being aceustomed to hard work, mountil the month of October, by which time the dest in their demands, and sober. There are bulbs will be well ripened, when they may be
two principal classes of immigrants : such as sbaken out and repotted.
possess some capital and desire to acquire properHerbaceous plants, which are past blooming, ty, and such as have nothing, and are anxious may be divided, and many desirable kinds may to procure work. Both classes are egually imbe raised from seed for blooming next year. portant for our country. To the first class, our Many of the low growing Alpine plants may be land-owners who desire to dispose of some of divided so that each little tuft have a few fibres; their laud can sell; and the second class is if shaded and watered for a few days, will soon particularly adapted to take the place the lamake fresh roots and form nice, compact plants boring class we have lost by the war, (for it is to flower in the beds and borders next year.
of no use to disguise that the negro in his preThe principal work in this department for the sent state is worthless as a laborer in general.) present month will be the mowing and rolling Our first consideration should be to provide for lawns, cleaning and regulating flower beds after the demand of this two classes of immigrants heavy rains, which will consist in picking off before their arrival here. Land-owners who de decayed leaves and bloom. By picking out the sire to dispose of land, ought to give their names points of geraniums, just above the flower bud, to the Immigration Society, stating location, the trusses of bloom will be much larger. During quality and price of the land they want to sell. wet weather some of the scarlet geraniums will Planters and farmers desirous of obtaining labecome too massive for the flower trusses; our bor, ought to register also their names at the practice has been, when such overgrowth takes office, stating where they live, and what terms place, to disleaf quite freely, which has the effect they are willing to grant. In my opinion, emof checking a too rapid growth. We bave just ployers would do best in offering, for the term of been going over our beds, endeavoring to keep five years, a house and five acres of land, and the plants in their right places, by pogs, &c.; this take their rent in work, besides making contract and pruning down some of the branches which for so many days work at a price suitable to had grown too high. The work, when completed, I both parties. Say for instance, a house, firewas, to us, very satisfactory, as to appearances. wood, and five acres of land, are worth $50 per The few beautiful days which we have had has annum, equal to 100 working days at 50 cents removed all effects of the driving wind and rain per day, or two days per week. By contract, which we have had, and now, this evening, after
the tenant would bind himself to work two more being pleased with our flower beds, and having days per week for 50 cents per day. By such an been told that our 6. circle” looked beautiful, we
arrangement each tenant would be equal to twofelt finttered, for our circle is of very limited
thirds of a hand, and the cash expenses of the area; but now the barometer is again falling- employer be reduced to $30 per annum. This presaging another storm; if it come, the beauty cash may even be reduced by biring to the tenant of our ciri le will again be impaired.
a team to work his land. Besides the landlord Sunshine and showers !-such is life. The has the advantage of the labor of the tenant's evening is sometimes dark-very dark; but not
wife and children in harvest. This system would unfrequently the succeeding morn is bright and undoubtedly be a great benefit to both parties, cheerful, and the flowers are again beautiful as mutual interest binds tbem together. The transcendently beautiful. That Solomon, in all employer securing reliable labor for a small his glory, was not arrayed like one of them.
amount of cash, and the tenant securing a home,
where he, by industry, in the course of a few FyMr. Dexter, of Lansgrove, Vt., bas a calf years, would be able to save enough to start for that at 24 hours old weighed 128 pounds, and himself if desired. Mr. S. Carpenter, of Londonderry, a bull, 22 With regard to transportation over the ocean, months old, which weighs 1400 pounds.
the present steamship line between Baltimore and
Liverpool would meet the demand as far as Eng- returned home at the close of the war, and I now land, Scotland and Ireland are concerned; but, propose to introduce something like order and for immigrants from the continent, there ought system in my farming arrangements from now to be a line established between Gottenburg in henceforth, if I can keep upon my feet long Sweden, and Baltimore, or a line from Gotten- enough to do so. I have about two hundred burg to Liverpool, to connect with the Liver acres of cleared land on my farm, which contains pool-Baltimore line. A direct line from Gotten- about six hundred and fifty acres altogether. I burg would have the advantage, that, as propose to divide my two hundred acres into four emigrant ship has to take in ballast, iron fields, and plant as follows: first, cotton; after might be taken from Gottenburg and almost cotton sow peas broadcast; then sow, in Octopay the expenses of the ship, enabling the Immi. ber, winter oats with clover; after clover, cotgration Society to give free passage to immigrants ton again, putting all the manure on the cotton, not able to pay their passage. Furthermore, which is the staple crop. I expect to be able to there ought to be a line established between Bre- clear new land enough every year for what corn men and Baltimore, for the accommodation of I may need ; and as for wheat we have no mills German immigrants. Also, this line would be for grinding wheat in my section, consequently profitable, as the trafic between Bremen and Bal. it is no use to raise wheat at all. I do not know timore is large. The expenses of the Iminigra- but it would be better to plant the peas in nartion Society would be amply covered if every row drills, and give them one or two workings planter who received laborers or land-buyers with the plough. I have a small field of ten through the society, paid a tax to the society of acres on the river, now in cotton, wbich I intend $10 per family or single laborer. Suppose only to sow in timothy and clover, with oats next 300 enuigrants arrived per month, would make spring, for a permanent meadow. I may be dis$36,000 per annum. Accommodation and ex- appointed with the clover and timothy, as I have penses for the immigrants ought to be very small. never seen it grow on my farm, except a few As soon a ship arrives, agents of the society straggling blades, which have come up volunought to board her, take a list of the immi teer from seeds dropped from some bales of Northgrants, with a statement of their vocations and ern hay which I have been compelled to purchase desires, and instantly ship tbem to their different for feed.
Yours, &c. destinations, prepared for them before hand, un
F. N. HARPER. der the care of other agents of the society.
L. A. HANSEN. Clifton, Fairfaz Co., Va., June, 1867.
VIRGINIA, JUNE, 1867.
(LETTER TO A FRIEND.] NEWBERN, N. C., June 22, 1867.
...... : In the American Farmer of this Editors American Farmer :
month, I am informed by our friend, Mr. HanGENTLEMEN : Enclosed I send you two dollars sen, that his experience teaches that you may have to renew my subscription for the next year. I no fear of not being able to summer your cattle have carefully preserved every number of the on an acre and a half, and that they will not " Farmer" (except two or three which I never suffer detriment from being stabled the year received before the war) from the beginning of round. I say “our friend,” though I have never my subscription up to now, every year bound seen him in all my life, and possibly may never (in my rude way) to itself. I have been very have that pleasure. Every man is my friend much interested by different articles in the "Far- who tries to do me good, and this Mr. H. will do mer” on the cultivation of the different grasses, all of us if we will attentively read his articles especially clover and timothy. I have always published in the American Farmer, which I am had an idea tbat our climate was too hot and sure you and all young farmers, who are trying dry for the successful growing of the cultivated to succeed, take and read. I am anxious for its grasses, but from accounts I see in the “Far- wide-spread circulation from personal consideramer" from different persons in the South, and tions to its editor ; but far above all, because I from a few experiments I have seen tried around believe all of its thinking readers will be advanhere on a small scale, I think they would proba- taged far-very far beyond its cost. bly succeed very well, especially where the sub . I greatly fear that my friendly jogging about soil is clay, as it is almost all over my (Craven) politics has done you no good as yet. I hope, county. I have now got my farm all reclaimed however, the effort will not be utterly lost, and from the wild state in which I found it when I that you will possess your soul in patience," hoe
For the "American Farmer."