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learned from such an article? First this, that if Who ever saw a sick chicken which took an extena full grown, or half grown, tree could be profi- sive range away from the kitchen door? What tably moved, we need never sacrifice a good fruit gleaners would they make of grain fields, and tree because it happens to be in the wrong place, how plump and fat would they become, without nor keep it in the wrong place for fear of losing cost to the owner-saving all the waste of the it. Secondly, we need not think it necessary to farm. Moveable poultry establishments would plant very young trees, and go be several years certainly get rid of the difficulty as to health of longer without fruit, if big trees can, with pro- the birds, which meets us in all schemes for raisper care, be as safely removed. Thirdly, there ing them in large numbers. But let the reader seemed to be this special lesson taught, that to see what is said of the method of management, keep trees in good bearing the roots need fresh the utility in destruction of grubs, &c., which pasture ground. If they will endure all this is set forth in this account of the earnest Frenchmutilation of roots which the change involves, man. and still bear better than before, there seems to This writing brings us to the middle of July, be the strongest testimony to the value of fresh with not more than half of the bay barvested, soil. If we will not remove our trees, we may and that which is, looking black enough with remove two or three incbes of the surface mould the rains that would catch it before it could be and replace with some other.
cured and put away. The corn is but poorly Then, it was objected that we bad published worked, and the working not completed, for the an article condemning the practice of planting same reason. It is not to grumble over the seacorn and other crops among fruit trees, when son, but to make a record of the extraordinary Oir correspondent assures us he and his neighbors impediments to all farm work. The grass lands know very well that the orchards are benefited and the woods are as richly green as on the first by the working. They may be the better for of June.
Yours truly, &c. the working, notwithstanding the curn. It was the corn we objected to. Does the orchard profit by that? And so there were other things which
Cranberry Culture. we now forget that, our friend said, he and his | The following is from an old cranberry grower neighbors made merry over. There was no oh- lin Massachusetts : jection to that had they laughed where the fun
The Choice Of LOCATION.–First, cranberries was, but what if they laughed in the wrong
will grow on bigh, moist land, and sometimes place?
produce well; but their proper place is low and I send you this month an interesting account
springy, or wet land. The best place, however, of a system of poultry management put into
is a peat bog and swamp muck. successful operation by a Frenchman, (M. Giot)
PREPARATION OF THE GROUND.–First, make which is designed to be suggestive only. Our
the surface of your ground as even as possible, and correspondent above noticed will observe, that it
nearly level, with a slight inclination towards a is not our purpose to advise him to ride his hens
drain, if you hare one, in order that it may be around the farm in an omnibus or wheelbarrow,
easily flowed, and no ponds remain after drawas this Frenchman does, and yet we think there
ing off the water. This may be done with any are good hints to be taken from the description.
material. Tbere should then be put on this Whether the French monarch, who wished to see
level surface, about four inches in thickness of a pullet in the pot of every pragant, took the
swamp muck or peat, which should be again hint from the prevailing fondness of the French
covered with about three incbes in depth of loose people for poultry, or the people took their fancy
sand, free from grass and its fibres, and also from from the speech of the King, it is certain that
clay or stones. It is not important what the color they take the lead of any other in the extent and
or quality of the sand, if it be not adhesive, and is success of their poultry raising, and we may well | free from roots and grass.- Massachusetts Plough. take lessons from them in consideration of their
man. enormous exports of eggs and poultry, after suppiying home demands.
Is not this matter of poultry raising of vastly BREEDS OF Swine.--In an article on swine, in more importancein this country now than ever be the Farm and Fireside, Mr. John Dimon, of Pomfore, as being work which women are especially fret in Connecticut, recognizes seren, and only fitted for? The moveable system of M. Giot, if seven, distinct breeds in this country, viz: Yorkfound to be practice.ble, will be economical and shire, Chester County or Chester White, Essex, especially promotive of the health of poultry, Suffolk, Berkshire, Lincolnshire and Chinese.
Farm Work for the Month.
Keep the tobacco well worked as long as it can In August, if ever, the farmer may take things be done with safety to the outsprending leaves. leisurely if not lazily. He has worked through Give a second hoeing, drawing the carth modthe great labors of planting and hoeing and har erately to the plant, and lay by when the leaves vesting, which allow no intermission, and little reach across the rows. rest. Now the demands on his industry are less
WORMS. urgent, and he may take to the shade at noon, go a fishing on Saturday, or even whirl away
If worms become very numerous, the greatest by steam, for a change of scene, and change of
diligence must be exercised in subduing them life. Yet there is work to be done, and enough
| before they get much size. It is a great damage of it.
to the crop to have it ragged and eaten by the THRESHING GRAIN.
worms after the leaves have attained much size. To get the wheat crop, as well as other grains,
POISON. in readiness for market, is usually the work of
The following mode of preventing them bv this season, and it is well if, under present circumstances, it can be accomplished If labor
poison, is recently started as the experience of a
Kentucky planter, but was published many years be scarce, and there is no pressing need of the
ago in the American Farmer. In February No., proceeds of the crop, it may be left for winter
1859, a correspondent gave us this mode of using work, and the time now occupied in preparation
the poison, which had been before recommended for another crop, hauling manure, or other out
in our pages : “ Cobalt must be beat into an imdoor work.
palpable powder. Two or three ounces of this Take special care to guard against accidents with the machine. The driver must be so fixed,
powder put into a half pint measure, and water that lie cannot, if he is so disposed, thrust his
and honey in equal parts added thereto. From
three to six drops of the poison to be put into legs among the cog-wheels, and a machine that makes it very convenient to the feeder, to have
the flower of the Jamestown weed, and in the
flower of the seed plants in various parts of the his hand torn to pieces, should be condemned as unfit for use. Let the face of the driver be well
field." It may be set in saucers on the tops of protecied against the dust by a mask of sponge
posts; but care should be taken lest negro kept moist.
children, or others, be poisoned by it. White PLOUGHING FOR WHEAT.
| sugar used instead of the honey is less liable to
sour. To be most effective, this poison should Let this work be done early, the sooner the be used throughout a neighborhood. It destroys better. As the ground is likely to be too hard the hornblower effectually, and stops the propato plough, no opportuuity should be lost when gation. it can be done. Otherwise the seeding may be
TOPPING AND SUCKERING. delayed beyond the right time. Whoever appre
This work should be done just as the plant is ciates the importance of early seeding, indeed its
coming into bloom-topping down to leaves six necessity, will not fail to see how desirable is the
inches in length, early in the season, is the pracdue preparation of the ground before the heat
tice of Maryland planters. Later in the season, and drought have made it impossible. In any
it should be topped still lower, to give the upper good whent ground, a team of three horses should
leaves the opportunity of getting a good growth. be used to break up well to the depth of full
The tobacco will be ready for the house in eight inches.
about three weeks after being topped. In the The practice of sowing oat stubble, and ma
meantime the “suckers" will start from the foot During with the yard accumulations of the past
of each leaf, and should not be allowed to make season, is a good one; but it is bad practice to
much growth before they are taken out, as they plough under the manure, as is still too much
suck the juices that should give substance and the custom. In the first place, the ploughing,
weight to the leaves. It is very necessary to rewhich should be done promptly, is unnecessarily
| move all suckers before cutting, as they will condelayed till the manure can be hauled out, and
tinue green in the house, and when finally killed in the second place, the manure is less effective
by frost, stain and damage the leaves. both for the w beat and the grass following. Let the whole team be used in breaking the ground,
POTATOES. and the manure be applied at leisure, throwing it! Continue to work crop of late potatoes until out broadcast from the wagons.
they come into bloom.
RUTA BAGA AND WHITE TURNIPS.
The Vegetable Garden. Sow without further delay the first named. It is a valuable crop on ground well manured and prepared for the American Farmer, by DANIEL BARKER,
Maryland Agricultural College. well worked. Sow other sorts from 10th to 20th of the month. The ruta baga should be sown on slightly raised ridges. Peruvian guano and
AUGUST. well ground bones, or some good phosphatic guano-one hundred weight of the former to two Warm weather and showers have done good of the latter-makes a good dressing per acre on to everything, and everything promises a good ground in good condition, but should be in harvest; and the promise of "seed time and creased for poor land.
harvest" is again being fulfilled. The present is a good time to go through the garden with
the cultivator and boe, and destroy the weeds If rye is to be sown get the ground in readi
while young. When cut up in that state a few ness this month, and sow by the first of Septem
hours of bright sun will destroy them. Such ber. As a grain crop, rye is little prized in
bad roots as dandelion, dock, &c., should be cut Maryland: but for green food in early spring it
often, and the roots will die; but it is much is very valuable.
more effectual to dig the roots up, which plan program BUSHES AND BRIARS.
we adopt, labor to the contrary notwithstanding. On grain farms, there will be opportunity now Upon walks and roads, our plan is to cut the to run over the fields and destroy all bushes and root below the surface as deep as possible, and briars. Mullein and other such weeds, should put a little salt upon the top of the root. This be destroyed before the seeds ripen.
plan we have ever found effectual in the total
destruction of the root. The best plan with TIMOTHY SEEDING.
which we are acquainted is to cut up all weeds The sowing of timothy in ground not occu before they are an inch high. Those who have pied with grain, is less customary now than for- large estates to look over, must rack their brains merly. The better practice is to grow it in a as to what must be done first, and manage so rotation with wheat and clover, sowing the seed that no two steps shall be taken when one will immediately after the wheat is put in, on the do. Two weeks since we congratulated ourselves surface, the clover seed to follow in the spring upon having a clean garden ; in passing over it The timothy in such case, occupies the field two, agaiv this morning we found not only first, but three, or more years, according to circumstances second and third crops seeding. Old and young If it is proposed to sow the seed alone, the plants forming a dense carpet, the whole forming ground should be got in readiness, and sown by a fine collection of weeds; there was work for the last of the month. The same practice is pro- the cultivator, hoe and hand. per for herd's grass or red top.
We are confident that one year's neglect will CATTLE PENS.
give plenty of work for twenty years to come. Keep them well supplied with litter, and accu
The seeds of many of the most destructive weeds
are very tenacious of life, and will only vegetate ble pens in the field, do not allow them to stand
when brought near the surface. Every fresh longer than two weeks, and cover the ground of turning up of the soil will bring great numbers the new pen with a good thickness of straw, |
of these seeds sufficiently near the surface to leaves, or whatever litter you can command.
vegetate, and when they are destroyed the gar
den may be tolerably free for that season; but EXERCISE Your HORSES.-Farmers should not
the fresh stirring of another year brings myriads neglect to give their horses proper exercise. Do
to the surface, and another carpet is the result; not suffer the horses to stand the whole week in
and then, baving no plants seeding, some friend the stable, but give, at least, one hour's exercise
just beginning to tread the labyrintbs of science, daily. Give sloppy food at least twice a week,
begins to entertain some notions about spontaand throw a lump of rock salt in the manger.
neous generation, combined with other wild ideas Stock Journal.
of what can be accomplished in forming organ
ized existence out of peculiar combinations of DEATH OF Hon. Isaac Newton.-- The Honorable matter, &c. Making all allowances, there can Isaac Newton, Commissioner of the Department be no question that the seeds of many plants of Agriculture at Washington, died on the 19th plowed or spaded down into the ground will of June, after an illness of some weeks.
retain their vitality for a long period, and will
vegetate whenever placed in suitable condition recommended-all the sewage water from the as to air and moisture to do so.
house, &c., and they will rarely say, "hold, it After showers of rain, proceed to earth up is enough." cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and whatever otber Sow spinach for a supply during the fall. crops may require it. Keep the ground free from Prince Albert and other early peas may still weeds and remove all crops that are done with, be sown for a late crop. and make preparations for any crop which may Onions should be taken up as soon as ripe, and bave to stand the winter.
a few sown for green onions during the fall. Do Mulcbing between the rows of vegetables we not omit to work well between the rows of all can strongly recommend, for whenever the ground such crops as will be benefited thereby until they is sandy or adhesive, and exposed, at this season, are sufficiently thick to prevent it. This will to the powerful action of the sun, the roots of apply to crops of parsnips, carrots, beets, turvegetables are very likely to be destroyed. nips, peas, beans, &c., &c.
The principal sowing of cabbage for spring Towards the end of the month sow cauliflower use should be done towards the end of the
seed on a bed of fine, rich earth, and when about month. The Early Wakefield or Jersey Wake-, two inches high take them up and pot in small field, or Early York, are as good as any we have
pots in good, rich compost, and plunge the pots ever grown for fall and early spring planting.
in tanners' bark or coal ashes. As soon as the Abundance of water should be given to celery
pots are full of roots they should be shifted into newly planted, and also liquid manure to the
pots about three inches over, and kept in frames earliest crop; after which it should be earthed
during the winter ; the pots plunged to the rims up. Continue to plant out, being careful to take
to prevent frost from touching the roots. This may up the plants with as much soil about the roots
look like bestowing a great deal of unnecessary as possible.
labor upon the cauliflower. We can only say Make another sowing of lettuce for use in the
that we consider it about the finest vegetable fall. We have had on trial, during the present
grown when managed well, and experience has season, several new and other kinds of lettuce,
taught us that the above mentioned plan pays none of whiclı, all things considered, are as good
better in the end than any other we have ever as our old favorite, the “Paris Silesian."
tried for a crop in early spring. As ground becomes vacant, make sowings of
There will, for many weeks to come, be great Strap Leaved and Purple Top turnips.
accumulations of weeds and rubbish, by the digContinue to transplant endive, in frames, for winter use, where they can be covered with straw
ging up potatoes, removal of pea and bean straw,
and many other materials which, when decayed, mats during the winter months.
will make good manure. The economical manKeep the crops of string beans closely picked, I
| ager never wastes a particle of anything which for if allowed to remait until they are too old for use, they discontinue to bear as they other
can be rotted into compost, and if the compost
pits are now full, room must be made for any wise would. Make a sowing of the early Mohawk, or Valentine, for a late crop; make another
extra supplies. It is not uncommon to see the
refuse of the garden placed in koles full of water sowing of black Spanish radish and also of the
in order that it may decay the more rapidly. The turnip rooted kinds. Take up potatoes where they are ripe, and put
idea that water washes out all the goodness of in German greens, Scotch kale, and other winter
the material is forgotten. It would be much
better to accumulate all vegetable refuse in one greens in their places.
heap, to undergo fermentation and decay with. We do not approve of the plan of planting winter greens between the rows of potatoes before
out the help of adventitious moisture; and when the latter are taken up. We have found that
offensive effluvia results, put a layer of earth whenever cabbage, &c., are planted between the
oror the heap. We have found common mould
to be the best of all deodorizers. rows the ground is trodden down so hard in planting and watering that the crop seldom comes! As they ripen, save seed of all choice kinds off so well afterwards, as it does on well cleared of vegetables, being careful to select from the and cultivated ground. These observations do | earliest and best kinds for the purpose. not, of course, apply to large market gardens, Cucumbers and string beans for pickling should but to the garden of the farmer, for whom we be sown during the first ten days of the month. write; and to whom we would say, treat your Thyme and other such herbs should be gathgardens well and kindly; stir them well and ered when in flower, and dried in a shady room. deep; give your crops wbat we have so often When the stalks of onions turn yellow they should be taken up, lest they should make fresh pose,) using light, rich soil, and placing them in roots, which should be prevented if possible. a frame, watering whenever necessary. In a
Look over the remarks for the past two months very short time they will have filled the pots with and see what has escaped attention.
roots, when they may be planted out in the beds With favorable weather, lost time may be prepared for them. Turning them out of their improved by those who are diligent and vigilant. / pots without breaking the balls of earth, pressing
the soil closely and firmly about the roots, after
which, with the necessary working, &c., they The Fruit Garden.
will make good, strong plants. It is not every
strawberry grower who keeps his beds as clean Where it is desired to make new plantations as they should ; and too often a strawberry bed of strawberries, it should be done at once, as is only another name for a miscellaneous collecthey who plant now will be sure of a sair croption of docks and grasses, with a multiplication next year, while they who delay the planting of other plants, (interesting to the botanist) conuntil the ground gets cold, and the energies of stituting a pavement of rank vegetation, which. the plant subdued, will in all probability have in one year, becomes worthless to man and beast. to wait the result of another season.
We bave this season fruited near fifty varieties, a Strawberries planted later than the last week few of which, for this location, may be called in August, or during the first ten days of Sep- strawberries for every body. We have also some tember, rarely do any good. There is no plant which are strawberries for nobody, and some in our gardens whicb shows more decisively the which are midway between the two, and should difference between good and bad cultivation than be grown by every genuine lover of strawberries. the strawberry. To plant them without due | We saw specimens, during the early part of the care, combined with good preparation of the season, which were grown for market - such soil, is next to waste of time and money. There worthless trash that we could not understand is no fruit-bearing plant, with which we are how the cultivators could offer fruit for sale, the acquainted, so certain to pay for good treatment. flavor of which was similar to that of a raw To insure success, the cultivator must be liberal turnip. This is more strange when we consider in the preparation of the soil; such as deep that some of our best flavored and finest varieties working with spade, or subsoil plough, using are the most prolific, and would pay much better good barn-yard manure, and plenty of it, upon even if they produced less in bulk, which they open, well exposed, sunny spots. In growing do not. The greater portion of those we have the strawberry, there should be no half way i seen offered for sale this season, (and which we measures. The soil spaded or ploughed deep, presume the market gardeners keep to themselves leaving the surface rough, planting immediately without difficulty:) are marvellous in their way. after a rain shower, which will save trouble in We think that every lover of strawberries should watering, &c , using all available means to secure endeavor to grow "Jucunda" to perfection. We a strong, unchecked growth from the time of have never known it to fail of repaying most liberplanting. It not unfrequently happens that be ally for liberal treatment, even in localities not ginners in strawberry culture become discouraged | well adapted for the cultivation of the strawberry. by the loss of plants, especially in purchasing Give it good land, of almost any texture, manure new kinds. They order their plants of some liberally, grow them in hills, and keep well culdistant nurseryman, which, in due time, come tivated between the rows, and you may expect to hand, most probably, consisting of very small a feast of strawberries of such flavor and size plants of some two or three leaves each, with as as will delight the most fastidious. many small, delicate rootlets; more than half Those who fail to grow "Jucunda" should try of such plants die in a few days, and a consider- "Triomphe de Gand," which, perbaps, is rather able proportion of the remainder, during the more hardy, and the flavor excellent. But I have early part of the winter. When the demand is yet to see “Jucunda" suffer in repute by the large for any particular variety, the nurseryman results of any experiments, under similar circumis compelled to do the best he can with all the stances, by other varieties. “Fillmore," with small rooted offsets they can obtain ; hence many us, is a most excellent strawberry. We think, plants are sent out that require some special one of the very best. It is very prolific, grows nursing before being planted out. Our plan bas well, and very handsome. The berries are hitherto been, upon receiving small plants of new large, and when fully ripe, of a beautiful dark, kinds, to pot them separately, (pots of two or crimson color, and the flavor-well, I am afraid three inches in diameter will answer the pur- | to make the attempt to describe it. I will say