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“The composition of superphosphates must
· For the "American Farmer.” necessarily vary to great extent, and depends
Tobacco Curing. not only on the materials, but on the propor
PORT REPUBLIC, Calvert Co., Md., tion of acid used for solution. The following
May 16th, 1868. analyses illustrates the composition of good! MESSRS. EDITORS: Receive my thanks for samples made from different substances :
your notice of Bibb & Co's “ Tobacco Curing Bones alone. Bone-ash. Apparatus” in the May number of the “AmeriWater........... 7 74... 7.79 5.33.... 10.40
can Farmer," and also for your commendation Organic matters and am.
moniacal salts........ 17 83...21.69 6 94.... 4 92 of the article on the subject of tobacco culBiphosphate of lime.... 13 18...987 21.35.... 23.09 Equivalent to soluble
ture, published in the April number of the phosphates............(20 57).(15.39) (33 33)..(36 02 “ Maryland Farmer.” In your editorial comInsoluble phosphates.... 10.31...21 17 5.92.... 6 08 Sulphate of lime........ 46.00...35 30 56.16... 47.78 ments you have fallen into some errors, which Alkaline salts........... 146... 0 94
trace. Sand ................... 3.48... 3.00 4 23.... 4.30
please allow me to correct. First : You are
mistaken in supposing the apparatus to have 100.00 100.00 100 00 100.00 Ammonia............... 2.11... 3.01 0.23.... 0.31 been patented ten years ago. It was patented The analyses above (continues Dr. A.) are
June 25th, 1861, and in the fall of that year all good superphosphates, in which abundance
and the succeeding one, I used it in curing a of acid has been used so as to convert a large
part of my crop, (one furnace not being sufproportion of insoluble into soluble phos
ficient for the whole,) with entire success, my
commission merchant writing, upon the rephates; but there are many samples of very inferior quality to be met with in the market,
ceipt of the first fired crop, "your tobacco is in which the proportion of acid has been re
pronounced by both seller and buyer, to be
the finest crop from Lower Maryland ever duced, and the quantity of phosphates made
But owing soluble is, consequently, much lower than it seen in the Baltimore market.” ought to be. The following analyses illus
to the great excitement growing out of the trates the composition of such manures, which
war, and the certainty of the abolition of are all very inferior, and, generally, worth
slavery, together with the high price of commuch less than the price asked for them:
mon tobacco in the fall of 1862, the planters in
this section paid more attention to quantity Water........ .......... 21.60 537 7.19 Organic matter and ammoniacal
than quality. The result was, all idea of insalts........................ 11.62 13 91 8.80
troducing the “Furnace" was abandoned, and Biphosphate of lime............ 2.98 2 026 42 Equivalent to soluble pospb's.. (4 65) (3 15) (10.02) none were manufactured from 1862 'till 1867. Insoluble phosphates....... 25 70 15 80 14 03
In the summer of the latter year, Mr. Bibb Sulphate of lime................ 23.66 47.52 51.93 Alkaline salts.....
10.70 3.73 3 43 and myself were solicited by some of our 3.80 11 65 8.20
planting friends to recommence the manufac. 100 00 10000 100.00
ture of them, which we did, mainly to order, Ammonia.
.. 1.32 0.59 033
and sold last season some 15 or 20, the greater Although there is no manure which varies
number in my county and neighborhood.more in quality, or that requires greater vigi
This is a true history of the Tobacco Furnace. lance on the part of the purchaser in order to
You say in the article referred to, “accordobtain a good article, there is no doubt that
ing to my (Dr. D.'s) statements, tobacco cured superphosphates, owing to the process of
by the. Apparatus is more than trebled in manufacture being better understood, and to
value.” This is an error. I presume you got increased competition, have considerably im
the idea from an article written by a gentleproved in quality.”
man from a neighboring county, who visited
me this spring, with a view of seeing my toElder Berry Wine.-A lady correspondent bacco and “Furnace,” and upon his return of Henrico Co., Va, asks if some of our sub- home published in a county paper an account scribers will give "a receipt for Elder Berry of his visit, in which he gives it as his opinion, Wine,” and also “the best mode of treating that tobacco cured by the “Furnace" is more the Osage Orange."
than trebled in value. Everything I have
written upon this subject has been over my Us About 2000 mules were prepared for own signature, and if you will refer to the arthe Southern market in Shelby Co., Ky., last ticles recently published in the “Maryland year.
Farmer,” you will there see that my estimate
is (if the tobacco is ripe) an increase in value Every acre cultivated should be made to proof from 50 to 100 per cent., depending upon duce as near its maximum as possible. Large the character of the fall for curing tobacco in returns from a small surface is the principk the natural way, whether wet or dry. In this upon wbich I shall in future be governed in estimate I am sustained by two commission my farming operations. G. W. DORSET. houses in your city, who have sold my tobacco We cheerfully give place to the above, that for the past two years, and whose certificates | Dr. Dorsey may have the benefit of the cor-endorsed by the leading buyers and manu- | rections he makes on the several points facturers in Baltimore-are appended to our noted.-Eds. circulars.
I desire also to say a few words in reference | Editors of American Farmer : to my extravagent system of manuring, as In reply to your suggestion in May nuntyou are pleased to term it. And first in re- | ber, as to particulars of a crop of potatoes ference to tobacco beds. Admit your estimate raised by me, I send you the following memoto be correct, viz: $30 a year to ensure an
randum: abundance of forward plants for 20 acres.-! There were planted on eleven acres of very The yield in money to the acre from my to
poor sandy landbacco crops for the past two years, after
38 bushels of Carter Potatoes, which produced...... 619 deducting cost of manures, has been over two hundred dollars, and the failure to plant one
Early Goodrich..... single acre in good time, would entail a loss upon me of four or five times thirty dollars. Some of the Peach Blows and Carter's rotBut this is not all—this bed, after planting ted—say about 60 bushels. the crop, will produce, if properly cultivated, Used 300 lbs. of Peruvian Guano to the forty to fifty dollars' worth of tobacco—thus acre, broadcast and ploughed in. paying the cost of the manure.
Planted sets 12 inches apart in drills 3 feet Now, Messrs. Editors, a word of explana- | apart. tion, in reference to the apparently small Sold part of the crop at $1 ; part at $1.50; increase of pounds of tobacco under my pre-Goodrich at $2.50. Amount of sales $1206.41. sent system, when compared with the old.
SOUTH RIVER, A. A. Co. My original tobacco lots contained 40 acres, some parts of which are very productive, but
| SALT FOR TOBACCO LAND.-A correspon. too compact in texture to produce the finest dent of the Lynchburg (Va.) Neus, writing article of tobacco, and looking (at the present from Campbell county, gives the following as time) more to quality than to quantity, have, the result of using salt as a manure: "I used under my present arrangement, selected the
salt as a manure for tobacco on the crop just most sandy and least productive parts of the housed, and am satisfied it is the best and field for tobacco, reserving for corn the more cheapest fertilizer that can be used, Peruvian compact and richer parts. In this way I have guano not excepted. I applied a sack of succeeded in making heavy crops of corn, Liverpool salt per acre, after the 25th of June, and by manuring well, have succeeded in pro- on a piece of poor land, and the tobacco was ducing 1,000 pounds tobacco of superior planted three days after. The land was not quality to the acre, on land by no means in thoroughly worked for thirty days after the good heart. You are also mistaken in suppos
salt was applied, yet it produced a larger and ing I use double the quantity of manure to the
thicker article than my highly-improved lots, acre that I formerly applied; my estimate was which were dosed with a heavy coat of stable made with reference to the money outlay and manure early in the spring, and the tobacco not in the quantity of manure to the acre- planted before the 5th of June. I applied the the price of all bought manures being now
salt on one lot broadcast, and on one in the higher. For many years, I have been an ad- row before bedding-the former produced the vocate of heavy manuring, and believe, in best tobacco. A neighbor used 300 pounds of the present condition of our labor system, the
Peruvian guano per acre on good land. The
tobacco was sinall, and fired as rapidly as it great scarcity, and high price of the same,
: ripened. Not & plant fired where salt was will force the planter to cultivate less land used. Not more than half an average crop and thoroughly munure what he does work. I was made in this neighborhood."
Difference in Food for Cows. | able to get pumpkins or roots at a price to pay, If the milk is to be sold without being man- though some now and then would add to the ufactured into butter or cheese, there are many health of the cows-that is, I am supposing in kinds of food which may be given to force the this case they are stabled in or near a town quantity, that would injure the butter. For where they have no fields to roam in and get instance, oilcake is not right for making nice grass in fall, and I am thinking of milk being sweet butter, nor flaxseed, nor is swill, or any retailed to the inhabitants. In this case there oily, greasy feed. Straw is altogether out of would be no objection to mixing ground cake, the question; hay, cut after it has been in bloom &c., with bran, and brewers' grains (ale) will be and the seed commencing to ripen, is only a found cheap to mix also.--Country Gentleman. few degrees better ; thresh out the seed and knock off the leaves, and it is about equal.
Profits of Farming. A gertleman sent a communication or two,
At a recent meeting of the New York City somewhere about this time last year, or it might have been earlier in the season, in which he
Farmers' Club, it was announced that the farclearly proved by his experience the vast differ
mers of the celebrated Orange county did not ence between hay cut when the grass was quite
måke over seven per cent. on capital invested;
and Horace Greeley replied that he had no young, and when in the state usually mowed in
| doubt that this small figure was in consequence America. He formerly gave meal, &c., to help force milk, but since making his hay from grass
of calculations based on double what the farms so young and tender, his cows greatly increased
were worth. Mr. Greeley is probably wrong. their milk, and be recommended giving noth
We recently made some calculations on what
many of our Montgomery county farmers ing but this fine quality of hay. However,
realized, basing the value of the land on what though he was quite right with regard to the extraordinary superiority of such hay, yet
it would probably bring at a forced sale, and where sweet, fresh bran and pollards can be
found the average profits only two per cent. bought by weight, and oats to be ground up
We believe the trouble to be too much land
for too little capital, as stated in our columns and mixed, they are cheaper and better than the other articles enumerated by our Canadian cor
last week. — Weekly Press. respondent; but pumpkins in the autumn, car
This is a poor showing indeed-seven per rots through the winter and spring, after which
cent. in the “celebrated Orange county" of successions of young forage crops till pump
New York, and two per cent. in the equally kins come round again, will admit of corn meal, well known Montgomery county of Pennsylbeing given to the great addition of richness: / vania. We should be glad to know whether and no matter what any one says to the con
in the latter estimate Mr. Meehan, who we betrary, if these things are given with no sparing lieve is responsible for the agricultural columns hand, our Canadian neighbor will find this to
of The Press, has given the farm credit for be reliable information for the production of
the home furnished the owner, and the thourich milk.
sand articles of consumption which a family The well-digested and sensible remarks fol- is provided with. lowing the Canadian's quest for information,
The farm, as an investment, should have make it unnecessary to say more on the sub
credit, too, for an average yearly increase in ject; perhaps there was no need of alluding to
value. A great deal of the wealth of those the subiect at all, but having, ever since a child, who have held real estate in Maryland, Pennbeen intimately connected with good dairies. sylvania and elsewhere, during the twenty-five some of which have been very extensive, and years past, consists in the gradually enhanced all of them being profitable ones, I think forty value of such property. This is not indeed years' experience ought to be some authority. / wholly creditable to the farming, but should
Linseed cake is the most fattening feed: the be always considered in estimating the value secd, boiled to a jelly, I have used, too, with
of an investment. The increased value in good results; but either, though it increases the
Maryland averages for that period of time, quantity of milk, and adds exceedingly to its we suppose, one hundred per cent.-equal to richness, imparts an unpleasant flavor to but- tour per cent. per annum. ter.
If a man buys food for cows, he will not be Sleep brings our childhood back again.
Destroying Tobacco Suckers. make the stab with his blade, does any we Under this heading we have another item who has ever suckered a plant of tobacco of practical instruction, which, starting from believe that, with any amount of " practice," so high a source as the monthly report of the
"a person can doctor the plant as above Agricultural Department at Washington, is stated with as much celerity as one can do the making its way without question among the journals. It is furnished for the monthly re- But supposing this possible, where is the port by a Kentucky tobacco planter, for the great advantage? The paragraph winds up benefit of “tobacco-growers who would save with a flourish about the trouble saved of the labor and trouble of suckering their plants going over and suckering millions of plants several times during the season.” It is as every year.” Now; of course, the inventor of follows: “At the time when suckering is this notion designs to operate at every leafabout necessary, provide yourself with a small that is, wherever a sucker will grow, going tin oil-can, the tinnner making the spout of over the whole crop. How much more is it with a sharp point, similar in shape to the done by the common process ? Each plant is blade of a penknife; then filling your can | topped in due time, and shortly after, the with a solution of crude potash, go through suckers begin to grow, starting at the bottom the motion of suckering by breaking off such leaves and coming, one by one, in regular as you see, and then, with the point of your order, up the plant. There need be none can, make an incision down obliquely into the taken out till the last one shows itself, and the stalk, just at the spot between the stem and plant suckered then, every one is destroyed, the stalk, where the sucker would grow, drop- and destroyed so short a time before the crop ping into the incision so made one drop of the is cut as to leave little chance of further potash. This is the whole secret: It will trouble. All the saving proposed, however, not injure the valuable leaf, check its growth is in this last clearing off of such as may start or hurt the plant, but it will kill the germ of again, and are usually got rid of when the the future sucker. With practice a person cutting commences. We prefer the old ways. can doctor a plant, as above stated, with as — Weekly Sun. much celerity as one can do the suckering, and will thus save the trouble of going over Improved Cattle--Ayrshires. and suckering millions of plants every year." Within a period of about seventy years the
We do not suppose there is one person fa- leading breeds of cattle have been rastly immiliar with the practice of “suckering” to proved, with respect to appearance, size, and bacco, except the curious inventor of this productive powers. The precise period when method, who will be tempted and misled by this improvement commenced is not material, it; but there are a great many novices just though tolerably distinct traces of it are found now in tobacco cultivation, and it is unfortu- in records of a hundred years back, more or nate for them that there is no word said less. Previous to that time the prevalent against this fancy method of getting rid of breeds of cattle on the Continent and the suckers.
British Islands, were noticeable rather from Supposing this operation of depositing a the incompleteness of their make up, the dimidrop of fluid in an incision made at the foot nutiveness of their bodies, and the paucity of of each leaf to be perfectly successful when their products, whether for the dairy or for done, which we very much doubt, the tin slaughtering purposes. The peculiar distincspout of an oil can is to be made “with a tive divisions are Long-Horns, Middle-Horts, sharp point," like the blade of a knife, for the Hornless or Polled and Short Horns. There purpose of making an incision for the deposit, are several intermediate varieties differing, in how long is so thin a slip of tin, “cutting some characteristics, but still retaining a genobliquely into the stalk,” likely to work well? eral family resemblance to one or the other of Supposing no difficulty here, imagine the the leading classes. operator who, ordinarily, will put one hand | Whether it has been by crossing, on the to the lowest leaf and running it around as part of breeders, or from improved manage he ascends, clear out every sucker-imagine ment and keeping, certain it is that all tbe him, with his oil can in one hand and the leading stocks have shown marked improveother lifting each leaf to show him where to ment within the last thirty or forty years.
Among the most noticeable of these improved ful experiment, that three working horses, breeds, and marked favorites with cattle breed- / fifteen and one-half hands high, consume hay ers and dairymen, is the Ayrshire, supposed at the rate of two-hundred pounds per week, to be an improved development of the old or five tons and one thousand and forty-eight Teeswater, once in high repute in various pounds per annum, besides one and one-half parts of England. Flint, in his treatise on bushel of oats per week, or seventy-eight per milch cows and dairy farming, devotes con- annum. By a repetition of the same experi- : siderable space to this breed, and concludes ment it was found that an unworked horse that for dairy purposes purely or mainly, the consumed hay at the rate of four and oneAyrshires deserve the first place. In conse- quarter tons per annum. quence of the cow's small, symmetrical and “The produce, therefore, of nearly six acres compact body, well formed chest, and capaci- of land is necessary to support a working ous stomach, there is little waste through the horse for one year, but half an acre of carrots, respiratory system ; while at the same time, at six hundred bushels per acre, with the adthere is a very complete assimilation of the dition of chopped straw, while the season for food, and thus she converts a large proportion feeding them lasts, will do as well, if not betof her food into milk. It is the verdict of ter. These things do not admit of doubt, for many dairyman that, for the quantity of food they have been the subject of exact trials, as consumed, the Ayrshire cow gives a larger some of your agricultural friends can testify." return of milk, and of a better quality, than | It is to be regretted that, much as has been any other breed.-Ex.
written on the matter of feeding roots, and their value as compared with other articles of
food, there have been, so far as we know, no Hay, Corn and Roots Compared.
experiments of such character as can at all It is not to be hoped that in the mass of
determine the question, which is one of very matter now published on agricultural topics
real importance. Here is a writer, however, we may escape without a good deal of non- |
who is described in commendation, as an “old sense. Even the best of your journals some
correspondent” of a journal, which is very times supply us with absurdities, through
often quoted, and is entitled to the reputation their correspondents; how much more when
of being generally sensible and practical.the editorial chair is assumed by such as,
This “ old correspondent" settles such a quesbeing themselves blind, can be only blind
tion with the mere assertion that “these things guides. It is plain to see, by the careful reader
do not admit of a doubt," and that somebody of our agriculturial journals, that there are
“can testify" to their truth; and his article is too many who think it a small matter to fill
passed around as a wise thing, for no other the place of editor; and a small matter it is,
reason than that an “old correspondent" of indeed, when the work is made to consist only
such a journal is presumed to be wise, and a of clippings and gatherings, with none of the
good many persons want to believe that it is discrimination which only good judgment,
a part of improved husbandry to substitute guided by experience, can give.
roots for hay. In illustration of what we say, we copy! In further illustration of the reasoning of here from an exchange, which ranks deserved | the “old correspondent" it will be seen, that ly with the ablest of our agricultural periodic in the first lines of the paragraphs he compares cals, the following estimate of the “compara the product of hay from "an acre of ground tive value of hay, corn and roots," in which it retained expressly for hay" with “an equal will be remarked, by the way, that the compari. space planted with carrots or ruta-bagas," son is confined to hay and roots :
without any reference to the cost incurred in "An acre of ground retained expressly for the due preparation and manuring for a crop hay, yields on an average not more than one of roots. and one-half ton of vegetable food; an equal Again, he compares one and one-half ton of space planted with carrots or ruta-bagas will dried hay, the yield of an acre, with fifteen yield from ten to twenty tons, say fifteen tons, tons of roots, without reference to the great which is by no means a high average, and has percentage of water of which their weight is often been attained without any extraordinary composed. cultivation. It has been ascertained, by care-l In another place he compares again with