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that, without sugar and crram, (wbich, we think, | doing much sooner than we can do them as we spoil good strawberries,) it is about all we de would like to have them done. Much may, howsire. To those who doubt our statement, I say ever, be done by system and without the qualms procure a stock, grow it well, and let us bear of being overworked. We fear mildew will be your own opinion of it, upon the condition that quite prevalent in all damp places, and do incalthe berries are allowed w remain upon the vines culable mischief if not timely checked. Sulphur until they are fully ripe; for it is doing it a great dustings are the best remedies we know of; fresh injustice to eat it before it has come to perfection. air and cleanliness will undoubtedly do much
“Russel's Prolific" we have not seen surpassed to prevent it. for size, which is one point. It was indeed a treat to see such as we were able to select for size
The Flower Garden. picked from plants, which were planted during the month of October, 1866. It is abundantly Chrysanthemums, to bloom finely, will now prolific, and of a fine, sprightly flavor; such as require special attention. The beautiful class of is liked by those who are judges of what good this now popular flower, called Pompones or strawberries should be, and that is another point. daisy-fowered, should be stopped for the last For hardiness, productiveness and healthiness, time. The large, flowering kinds should not be we consider it as good as most strawberries stopped any more. Whenever needful, place grown.
neat stakes to them, and those grown in pots "Vicomtesse Hericart de Theury" is an early, should have the earth removed about one inch medium sized, solid, firm berry; color, superb; from the surface, and replaced with good, old not as prolific as some, but one which we cannot cow or barn-yard manure.“ give up; and think that every amateur should For floral decorations in the house there are grow it.
but few plants better adapted than the Pompone " Trollop's Victoria” is a most deliciously fla- varieties, for which purpose they may yet be vored strawberry, a great favorite bere.
rooted and grown in four-inch pots in good rich "River's Seedling Eliza” is of excellent con- soil ; will make beautiful ornaments for the house stitution; a very large, handsome berry, of a during the months of November and December. rich and beautiful favor, and with us a great Bedding plants, as verbenas, heliotropes, gerfavorite.
aniums, &c., can only be kept in good order by In addition to the above we have upou our
constant attention, removing all seed vessels, trial grounds upwards of fifty varieties, many of dead leaves and rank growing shoots. Towards which we like very much, but must wait the the end of the month, cuttings of any of the result of another seasou before speaking with above named plants, and of others which may be entire confidence of them.
required for keeping through the winter, may be Fruit trees, planted late in the spring, and not rooted in a shady place out of doors. Cuttings fully established, should be freely watered when- of the beautiful Coleus Verschaffetti planted now ever the weatber is dry, for over a period of and carefully attended to, will make nice plants ten days. Remove all ill-placed or crowded
to mix with the chrysaatheinums when in bloom shoots upon them.
in the house. Remove suckers from currants and gooseber
gooseber- Annuals, the following kinds, planted at the ries, likewise those from fig trees. Thin out end of the months, in rather poor soil, will stand weak shoots of raspberries, leaving only from the winter and flower finely during the early three to four at each shoot. Keep grape vines spring, at a time when there is generally a dearth free from all useless wood, allowing plenty of air of early spring beauties, white and purple candy to the fruit, but not exposing it too much.
tuft, colliasias, erysimums, eschiltzias, clarkias, Peaches, apples, pears, &e., will soon require convolvulus minor, godctia, rocket, larkspur, constant attention. Pick the various kinds as ) upinus, &c. they ripen, and let the operation be done with Hollyhocks will now require manure water to care, for whenerer any fruit is bruised it lays the make them open their top buds well, and all foundation of premature decay. Where only a choice varieties should be kept tied up to neat few peaches are grown, for domestic purposes, stakes. Save seed from the most double and they should be looked over daily, and picked as | best kinds only. they ripen, as a fall is fatal both to flavor and Liliums--as soon as the hardy kinds have done appearanee if they have to be kept only a few flowering, they should be taken up and all offsets, hours afterwards. Not a day passes but in our removed, and the large roots planted again imfruit department we see many things which want mediately where they are to bloom next year, giving each bulb a spadefull of good, rotten
For the “ American Farmer." dung. This is the only way to manage this
Immigration. beautiful genus of plants, in order to have them bloom finely every season. The varieties of lan- ! Having lived and owned esta tes in
Having lived and owned estates in Denmark, cifolium in pots should have an abundance of Sweden, Germany and France, I am well acwater nntil done flowering, after which the supe quainted with the character of the working class ply should be diminished, but not too suddenly, and small land owners of those countries. The As soon as the foliage shows signs of decay, lay Scandinavians are particularly desirable as in the pots on their sides on a warm, dry border, migrants, being acenstomed to hard work, mountil the month of October, by which time the
dest in their demands, and sober. There are bulbs wi}} be well ripened, when they may be two principal classes of immigrants : such as shaken out and repotted.
possess some capital and desire to acquire proper. Herbaceous plants, which are past blooming,
ty, and such as have nothing, and are ansious may be divided, and many desirable kinds may
to procure work. Both classes are equally imbe raised from seed for blooming next year. portant for our country. To the first class, our Many of the low growing Alpine plants may be land-owners wbo desire to dispose of some of divided so that each little tuft have a few fibres; their laud can sell; and the second class is if shaded and watered for a few days, will soon
particularly adapted to take the place of the lamake fresh roots and form nice, compact plants boring class we have lost by the war, (for it is to flower in the beds and borders next year. of no use to disguise that the negro in his pre
The principal work in this department for the sent state is worthless as a laborer in general.) present month will be the mowing and rolling Our first consideration should be to provide for lawns, cleaning and regulating flower beds after the demand of this two classes of immigrants heavy rains, which will consist in picking off before their arrival bere. Land-owners who de decayed leaves and bloom. By picking out the sire to dispose of land, ougbt to give their names points of geraniums, just above the flower bud, to the Immigration Society, stating location, the trusses of bloom will be much larger. During quality and price of the land they want to sell. wet weather some of the scarlet geraniums will Planters and farmers desirous of obtaining labecome too massive for the flower trusses; our bor, ought to register also their names at the practice has been, when such overgrowth takes office, stating where they live, and wbat terms place, to disleaf quite freely, which has the effect they are willing to grant. In my opinion, emof checking a too rapid growth. We have just ployers would do best in offering, for the term of been going over our beds, endeavoring to keep
five years, a house and five acres of land, and the plants in their right places, by pogs, &c.; this
take their rent in work, besides making contract and pruning down some of the branches which for so many days work at a price suitable to had grown too high. The work, when completed, both parties. Say for instance, a house, firewas, to us, very satisfactory, as to appearances.
wood, and fire acres of land, are worth $50 per The few beautiful days which we have bad has
annum, equal to 100 working days at 50 cents removed all effects of the driving wind and rain
per day, or two days per week. By contract, which we have had, and now, this evening, after
the tenant would bind himself to work two more being pleased with our flower beds, and having
days per week for 50 cents per day. By such an been told that our "circle" looked beautiful, we
arrangement each tenant would be equal to twofelt flattered, for our circle is of very limited
thirds of a hand, and the cash expenses of the area; but now the barometer is again falling
employer be reduced to $50 per annum. This presaging another storm; if it come, the beauty
cash may even be reduced by hiring to the tenant of our cire le will again be impaired.
a team to work his land. Besides the landlord Sunshine and showers ! such is life. The
has the advantage of the labor of the tenant's evening is sometimes dark-very dark; but not
wife and children in harvest. This system would unfrequently the succeeding morn is bright and undoubtedly be a great benefit to both parties, . cheerful, and the flowers are again beautiful
as mutual interest binds tbem together. The transcendently beautiful. That Solomon, in all employer securing reliable labor for a small his glory, was not arrayed like one of them. amount of cash, and the tenant securing a home,
where he, by industry, in the course of a few That Mr. Dexter, of Lansgrove, Vt., has a calf years, would be able to save enough to start for that at 24 hours old weighed 128 pounds, and
himself if desired. Mr. S. Carpenter, of Londonderry, a bull, 22 With regard to transportation over the ocean, months old, which weighs 1400 pounds. I the present steamship line between Baltimore and
Liverpool would meet the demand as far as Eng- returned home at the close of the war, and I now land, Scotland and Ireland are concerned; but, propose to introduce something like order and for immigrants from the continent, there ought system in my farming arrangements from now to be a line established between Gottenburg in henceforth, if I can keep upon my feet long Sweden, and Baltimore, or a line from Gotten- enough to do so. I have about two hundred burg to Liverpool, to connect with the Liver- acres of cleared land on my farm, which contains pool-Baltimore line. A direct line from Gotten- about six hundred and fifty acres altogether. I burg would have the advantage, that, as an propose to divide my two hundred acres into four emigrant ship has to take in ballast, iron fields, and plant as follows: first, cotton; after might be taken from Gottenburg and almost cotton sow peas broadcast; then sow, in Octopay the expenses of the ship, enabling the Immi. ber, winter oats with clover; after clover, cotgration Society to give free passage to immigrants ton again, putting all the manure on the cotton, not able to pay their passage. Furthermore, which is the staple crop. I expect to be able to there ought to be a line established between Bre- clear new land enough every year for what corn men and Baltimore, for the accommodation of I may need; and as for wheat we bave no mills German immigrants. Also, this line would be for grinding wheat in my section, consequently profitable, as the trafic between Bremen and Bal. it is no use to raise wheat at all. I do not know timore is large. The expenses of the Iminigra- but it would be better to plant the peas in nartion Society would be amply covered if every row drills, and give them one or two workings planter who received laborers or land-buyers with the plough. I have a small field of ten through the society, paid a tax to the society of acres on the river, now in cotton, which I intend $10 per family or single laborer. Suppose only to sow in timothy and clover, with oats next 300 emigrants arrived per month, would make spring, for a permanent meadow. I may be dis$36,000 per annum. Accommodation and ex- appointed with the clover and timothy, as I have penses for the immigrants ought to be very small. I never seen it grow on my farm, except a few As soon a ship arrives, agents of the society straggling blades, which have come up volunought to board her, take a list of the immi- teer from seeds dropped from some bales of North grants, with a statement of their vocations and ern hay which I have been compelled to purchase desires, and instantly ship them to their different for feed.
Yours, &c. destinations, prepared for them before band, un
F. N. HARPER. der the care of other agents of the society.
L. A. HANSEN.
For the "American Farmer." Clifton, Fairfar Co., Va., June, 1867.
VIRGINIA, JUNE, 1867.
(LETTER TO A FRIEND.] Newbern, N. C., June 22, 1867.
DEAR ......: In the American Farmer of this Editors American Farmer :
month, I am informed by our friend, Mr. HanGENTLEMEN : Enclosed I send you two dollars sen, that his experience teaches that you may have to renew my subscription for the next year. I no fear of not being able to summer your cattle have carefully preserved every number of the on an acre and a half, and that they will not " Farmer" (except two or three which I never suffer detriment from being stabled the year received before the war) from the beginning of round. I say "our friend," though I have never my subscription up to now, every year bound seen him in all my life, and possibly may never (in my rude way) to itself. I have been very have that pleasure. Every man is my friend much interested by different articles in the “Far- who tries to do me good, and this Mr. H. will do mer" on the cultivation of the different grasses, all of us if we will attentively read his articles especially clover and timothy. I have always published in the American Farmer, which I am had an idea that our climate was too hot and sure you and all young farmers, who are trying dry for the successful growing of the cultivated to succeed, take and read. I am anxious for its grasses, but from accounts I see in the “Far- wide-spread circulation from personal consideramer" from different persons in the South, and tions to its editor ; but far above all, because I from a few experiments I have seen tried around believe all of its thinking readers will be advanhere on a small scale, I think they would proba- taged far-very far beyond its cost. bly succeed very well, especially where the sub- . I greatly fear that my friendly jogging about soil is clay, as it is almost all over my (Craven) politics has done you no good as yet. I hope, county. I have now got my farm all reclaimed however, the effort will not be utterly lost, and from the wild state in which I found it when I that you will possess your soul in patience," hoe
corn, weed potatoes, hill tobacco, grow grain- upon a short trial I returned to my first lore. trust in God, he will order all things right, and The remnants of these drills stand in my barnlet all other temporal matters "slide." We far- yard, memorials of the “havoc of war." if mers can't afford now to idle a way our time we you have no drill, rather use your cultivators inust be up and a doing; and if we will quit our than the harrow. On drilled wheat, or that put selves like men, we will reap a far richer reward in by the plough or cultivators, you can put your than if we had “listening senates at our heels." sheep carlier than on that got in with the harrow'. Don't let the grass get ahead of you; keep all Last spring I noticed that my sheep in nipping your corn land perfectly clean from the start, at the blades of wheat put in with the harrow, and if you keep in good tilth by the constant pulled up a great deal by the roots. I graze my use of your cultivators until the corn tassels, wheat and oats (fall seeded) close with sheep and you may whistle at all the harm grass can do calves, but keep off all other kind of stock. you afterwards. But woe-woe unto the luck- Hereafter, as in a former letter I told you, I shall less wight who slumbers and sleeps while the graze nothing but sheep. I shall seed rye with grass grows. One acre in a grassy corn field the corn at its last working, and turn in the wiil cost five-fold more labour than one that is sheep late in October, and kcep them on it till the clean, and the corn will be dwarfed, and the wheat and winter oats are well rooted, afterwards yield shortened. I like to work my land before they are returned to the rse, and kept until the 1 plant corn, the afterwork will then be pas- middle of April, when the pastures are sufficitime; plough deep in the fall and winter--rollently advanced. The rye having been seeded and harrow in the opening spring-refallow for winter pastures, I regard its yield in grain lightly-barrow and cross harrow-plant. So of small importance, though in ordinary years it soon as up, run your heaviest drags over each will pay for seed and cultivation. A bushel of row, this will work out all the grass. When wheat to the acre, drilled on rich land, if sown high enough not to be covered, take out the early, froin the 251h of September to the 10th of front tooth of your seven-toothed cultivators, October, is sufficient, as your seeding is deferred and straddle the row; and then with your sin- to a later period more seed will be required. gle horse cultivators work a way until the corn | Poor land needs more seed than rich, for it will tassels, then you may rest and wait for barvest; not "tiller," or "branch," as some call it. but until this time, so soon as you have gone More seed is required in broadcasting than drille over a field, don't stop to rest, but start again. ing. The seed is more regularly distributed, I never use a turning plow, unless neglect or la- and at a more uniforma depth, and there is generziness has allowed the grass to get the inside ally an increased yield, in drilled over broadtrack of the corn, and above the capacity of the casted seed. cultivators. By keeping your corn land in good! I can't recommend a threshing machine to you. tilth and level with the aid of the Star Drill--a new Mine has been in use seven or eight years. I invention-you can get wonderfully ahead in purchased in York, Pa., of Dingee & Co. The your fall seeding if you propose to seed wheat power is a Pelton. I know of none better than on corn land. I would not advise you to do mine. The concern dissolved years ago. If you tbis, however; sow rather at your last corn have the money, buy a thresher and cleaner comworking rye for winter grazing for your sheep, bined. It saves labor, and hastens your grain and early in the spring for your stock. The into market, two grand items these days, when “Star Drill," if it fulfils ils claims, supplies ex- freedmen “round here do congregate." I would actly the very thing I have long desired, and I rather my grain should be in the mill, and the have made an effort to secure one by fall. I money in my pocket, than in the barn or fields, anxiously await the report of its trial at the subject to raids, and liable to other losses. As a Maryland Agricultural College shortly to occur. general thing, the wheat earliest in market comThe harrow will not get the wheat in properly. , mands the best price. The early bird will then I have given three dressings, but the result has catch the worm. In seasons of great scarcity, always demonstrated that broadcast sowing can- the reverse holds good. I think it will be so this not compete with drilling; and yet I have not alto- season. The public have been deluded by regether fancied the drills we have had, of wbich, ports of immense wheat crops in future-in the however, Pennock's I always liked best. I very far future I opine. From all the informabought one, years ago, upon the recommendation tion I can gather, the crop will not be an arcrage of Edward Stabler, Esq., of Maryland I trust one. Such, I am sorry to say, will be the case he is yet alive and prospering—and though I of mine, guano and bone dust to the contrary was afterwards persuaded to buy a later style, I notwithstanding. If your wheat is clear of all
onions, cockle it id omne genus-sell it for seed. bit a very large proportion of comparatively Seed wheat will be high.
worthless or adulterated materials, while in genI have no "rare ripe" corn-I wish I had. Iuine guano we find a very small amount of sand do not know where any pure can be had. I and earthy matters. would willingly have given five dollars a busbel for seed this planting. It makes the best meal
Səuequis and hominy I ever saw. I lost the seed during the war. Yours truly, S. B. F.
COMPOSITION OF SOME SAMPLES OF GUANO J.ATELY EXAMINED
IN THE LABORATORY.
Estimated value................ £8, 83. £8, 13s. £10, 2s. £7, 193. per ton.
The Manures of the Present Season.
*əuvejis From Edinburgh Journal of Agriculture. Dr. Hodges read the following paper on this
aueqesis subject at the usual Monthly Council Meeting of the Chemico-Agricultural Society of Ulster, held at Belfast on the 3d of May :
psejlag It is gratifying to find that in the present year the quality of the artificial compounds provided
78ele by the manufacturers of manures is in almost all cases deserving of approval. The economic manures and other fertilisers of the same class, which
'18 pag were so frequently in former years forced upon farmers with the love of low price and innumerable certificates of excellence, are now almost entirely banished from the markets of Ulster.
Though I do not place much confidence in the description of testimonials nor on records of experiments which are so abundantly distributed by some manufacturers, yet I would be glad that Sime of the members of this society would from time to time report at our meetings the results of their trials with the manures advertised in this county. We do not want to know how certain of the samples 5, 6, and 7, only partial analcompounds succeed in Norfolk or Ayrshire, but yses were made. They were found to be poor in trustworthy reports of the profits obtained from ammonia, and to contain a considerable amount their application in our northern climate and on of carbonate of lime (pulverised limestone), and our Ulster soils would be exceedingly valuable. to be worth not more than about £5, 10s. per ton.
The influence of climate upon the action of A glance at the above table will be sufficient artificial manures, though of great importance, to show the large amount of comparatively worthseldom receires adequate consideration. It is less substances which all the samples contain, not sufficient, as Liebig bas clearly pointed out, and how great their inferiority to the genuine to enable a plant to attain its maximum develop Peruvian guano formerly imported. Yet some of ment, that the soil affords it in an available form these guanos are sold under the name of Peruvian; the whole quantity of all its constituents ; the so that it behoves the farmers of the north of cosmic conditions—viz., beat, moisture, and sun Ireland carefully to ascertain the real value of light, -must co-operate to transmute the ab- any sample offered for sale. I have already on sorbed substances into the organism of the plant. several occasions considered it my duty to warn
If the substances that have passed from the soil them that it is a not unusual practice for some into the plant, no matter how skilfully com dealers to present an analysis of a good specimen pounded, cannot be turned to account from the of guano, obtained sometimes five or six years ago, want of tbis co-operation, the plant does not as representing the character of an entirely dif. come to perfection. Whilst the artificial manures ferent quality of manure. This is not unfrequentexamined in the laboratory have in general been ly done, and the purchaser is induced to buy, it of good quality, it is to be regretted that the may be, a Liverpool or London compound at the farmer's valuable auxiliary, guano, has not main- price of good Peruvian. Purchasers should theretained its ancient character, even when sold by fore look at the date which is affixed to all analyrespectable houses. The samples received exhi- l ses issued from the laboratory of the Society.