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corn, weed potatoes, hill tobacco, grow grain- | upon a short trial I returned to my first love. trust in God, he will order all things right, and The remnants of these drills stand in my barnlet all other temporal matters "slide." We far- yard, memorials of the “havoc of war." if mers can't afford now to idle away our time-we you have no drill, rather use your cultivators must be up and a doing; and if we will quit our than the harrow. On drilled wheat, or that put selves like men, we will reap a far richer reward in by the plough or cultivators, you can put your than if we had "listening senates at our heels." sheep carlier than on that got in with the harrow. Don't let the grass get ahead of you ; keep all Last spring I noticed that my sheep in nipping your corn land perfectly clean from the start, at the blades of wheat put in with the harrow, and if you keep in good tilth by the constant pulled up a great deal by the roots. I graze my use of your cultivators until the corn tassels, wheat and oats (fall seeded) close with sheep and you may whistle at all the harm grass can do calves, but keep off all other kind of stock. you afterwards. But woe-woe unto the luck- Hereafter, as in a former letter I told you, I shall less wight who slumbers and sleeps while the graze nothing but sheep. I shall seed rye with grass grows. One acre in a grassy corn field the corn at its last working, and turn in the wiil cost five-fold more labour than one that is sheep late in October, and keep them on it till the clean, and the corn will be dwarfed, and the wheat and winter oats are well rooted, afterwards
ield shortened. I like to work my land before they are returned to the rye, and kept until the 1 plant corn, the afterwork will then be pas- middle of April, when the pastures are sufficitime; plough deep in the fall and winter-rollently advanced. The rye having been seeded and harrow in the opening spring-refallow for winter pastures, I regard its yield in grain lightly-harrow and cross harrow-plant. So of small importance, though in ordinary years it sopn as up, run your heaviest drags over each will pay for seed and cultivation. A bushel of row, this will work out all the grass. When wheat to the acre, drilled on rich land, if sown high enough not to be covered, take out the early, froin the 25th of September to the 10th of front tooth of your seven-toothed cultivators, October, is sufficient, as your seeding is deferred. and straddle the row; and then with your sin to a later period more seed will be required. gle horse cultivators work away until the corn Poor land needs more seed than rich, for it will tassels, then you may rest and wait for harvest; not "tiller," or "branch," as some call it. but until this time, so soon as you have gone More seed is required in broadcasting than drillover a field, don't stop to rest, but start again. ing. The seed is more regularly distributed, I never use a turning plow, unless neglect or la- and at a more uniform depth, and there is generziness has allowed the grass to get the inside ally an increased yield, in drilled over broadtrack of the corn, and above the capacity of the casted seed. cultivators. By keeping your corn land in good I can't recommend a threshing machine to you. tilth and level with the aid of the Star Drill--a new Mine has been in use seven or eight years. I invention-you can get wonderfully ahead in purchased in York, Pa., of Dingee & Co. The your fall seeding if you propose to seed wheat power is a Pelton. I know of none better than on corn land. I would not advise you to do mine. The concern dissolved years ago. If you tbis, however; sow rather at your last corn have the money, buy a thresher and cleaner comworking rye for winter grazing for your sheep, bined. It saves labor, and hastens your grain and early in the spring for your stock. The into market, two grand items these days, when “Star Drill," if it fulfils ils claims, supplies ex freedmen “round here do congregate." I would actly the very thing I have long desired, and I rather my grain should be in the mill, and the have made an effort to secure one by fall. I money in my pocket, than in the bara or fields, anxiously await the report of its trial at the subject to raids, and liable to other losses. As a Maryland Agricultural College shortly to occur. general thing, the wheat earliest in market comThe harrow will not get the wheat in properly. mands the best price. The early bird will then I have given three dressings, but the result has catch the worm. In geasons of great scarcity, always demonstrated that broadcast sowing can the reverse holds good. I think it will be so this not compete with drilling; and yet I have not alto
The public have been deluded by regether fancied the drills we have had, of wbich, ports of immense wheat crops in future-in the however, Pennock'e I always liked best. I
very far future I opine. From all the informabought one, years ago, upon the recommendation tion I can gather, the crop will not be an arerage of Edward Stabler, Esq., of Maryland-I trust one. Such, I am sorry to say, will be the case he is yet alive and prospering—and though I of mine, guano and bone dust to the contrary was afterwards persuaded to buy a later style, I notwithstanding. If your wheat is clear of all
onions, cockle it id omne genus—sell it for seed. bit a very large proportion of comparatively Seed wheat will be high.
worthless or adulterated materials, while in genI have no "rare ripe" corn--I wish I had. Iuine guano we find a very small amount of sand do not know where any pure can be had. I and earthy matters. would willingly have given five dollars a bushel
COMPOSITION OF SOME SAMPLES OF GUANO J.ATELY EXAMINED
IN THE LABORATORY.
11.7 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
£8, 8s. £8, 13s. £10, 2s. £7, 19s. per ton. Capable of yielding ammonia.... 10.01 10.46 100 parts of each..... Estimated value......
The Manures of the Present Season.
auuqenis From Edinburgh Journal of Agriculture. Dr. Hodges read the following paper on this
•əUvqe.118 E subject at the usual Monthly Council Meeting of the Chemico-Agricultural Society of Ulster, held at Belfast on the 3d of May :
It is gratifying to find that in the present year the quality of the artificial compounds provided
1983 by the manufacturers of manures is in almost all cases deserving of approval. The economic manures and other fertilisers of the same class, which
“3sPJpeg H were so frequently in former years forced upon farmers with the love of low price and innumerable certificates of excellence, are now almost entirely banished from the markets of Ulster.
Though I do not place much confidence in the description of testimonials nor on records of experiments which are so abundantly distributed by some manufacturers, yet I would be glad that Süme of the members of this society would from time to time report at our meetings the results of their trials with the manures advertised in this county. We do not want to know how certain Of the samples 5, 6, and 7, only partial analcompounds succeed in Norfolk or Ayrshire, but y ses were made. They were found to be poor in trustworthy reports of the profits obtained from ammonia, and to contain a considerable amount their application in our northern climate and on of carbonate. of lime (pulverised limestone), and our Ulster soils would be exceedingly valuable. to be worth not more than about £5, 10s. per ton.
The influence of climate upon the action of A glance at the above table will be sufficient artificial manures, though of great importance, to show the large amount of comparatively worthseldom receives adequate consideration. It is less substances which all the samples contain, not sufficient, as Liebig bas clearly pointed out, and how great their inferiority to the genuine to enable a plant to attain its maximum develop- Peruvian guano formerly imported. Yet some of ment, that the soil affords it in an available form these guanos are sold under the name of Peruvian; the whole quantity of all its constituents ; the so that it beboves the farmers of the north of cosmic conditions-viz., heat, moisture, and sun Ireland carefully to ascertain the real value of light, -must co-operate to transmute the ab- any sample offered for sale. I have already on sorbed substances into the organism of the plant. several occasions considered it my duty to warn
If the substances that have passed from the soil them that it is a not unusual practice for some into the plant, no matter how skilfully com- dealers to present an analysis of a good specimen pounded, cannot be turned to aecouut from the of guano, obtained sometimes five or six years ago, want of this co-operation, the plant does not as representing the character of an entirely difcome to perfection. Whilst the artificial manures ferent quality of manure. This is not unfrequentexamined in the laboratory have in general been ly done, and the purchaser is induced to buy, it of good quality, it is to be regretted that the may be, a Liverpool or London compound at the farmer's valuable auxiliary, guano, has not main- price of good Peruvian. Purchasers should theretained its ancient character, even when sold by fore look at the date which is affixed to all analyrespectable bouses. The samples received exhi ses issued from the laboratory of the Society.
With respect to the estimation of the money Wood Ashes for Manure. value of manures by chemists, there exists some
We recommend the farmer carefully to save difference of opinion, and by some analysists it for use in the spring all the ashes he can collect is considered that it should be abandoned, whilst from the home consumption of fuel during the admitting that there may be occasionally incon- winter ; and where he has opportunity to proveniences from the difference in the system of
cure them from other sources a supply, leached valuation which are adopted in different coun
or unleached, of this valuable fertilizer. If peotries, yet as the method which I have always p!e knew from experience the worth of this simfollowed, and which may be found fully ex
ple manure, there would be no ashes wasted, plained in my work on Practical Chemistry, is neither would there be any to sell, except by I believe, based upon sound data, and adapted those who have no soils to improve, or no crops to the estimation of the relative money value of
to raise. the fertilising compounds offered for sale in Ire
To return all their virtue, it is highly importland, it will serve to afford purchasers, some
ant that ashes should be kept dry; for water will times not quite familiar with the statements of dissolve a large proportion of the most valuable an analysis, a safe guide in enabling them to pro- salts, yet even leached ashes need not be thrown tect themselves from imposition and loss. AC
away as of no account; for, though far inferior cording to my system of valuation the estimated
in fertilizing qualities to unleached ashes, they value per ton of the genuine Peruvian guano,
are by no means useless. One very important such as was formerly readily to be obtained result of the employinent of this manure in the from sereral Belfast houses, is £13.10. The best
growth of cereals is the increased strength and sample given in the table, by the same method o!
luxuriance of sıraw thereby promoted—a result calculation, is found to be worth only £10. 2s.
due to the presence of Silicates on which so much per ton.
of stiffness of the straw depends. Other ingreLast week I received from Robert Gordon, dients, esseutial to both straw and grain are furEsq., J. P. Highlands, Seaford, a sample of guano nished by this important fertilizer. Ashes are which presented all the characters of the genuine valuable also for promoting the growth of grass ; Peruvian, though not equal in quality to that and Professor Liebig recommended sowing them some years ago offered for sale. It contained no
broadcast on meadows to increase the quantity adulterating ingredient, but the ammonia
of bay.- Canada Farmer.
The Golden Pheasant.
We are surprised that greater interest is not
manifested in breeding this rare and beautiful Phosphates .....
bird. There are many situations where it might Earthy matters .......
be raised in considerable numbers, and be made
a source of great attraction to say the least. Horses FEET REQUIRE MOISTURE.—Nine-tenths
This bird is a native of China. It is naturally of the diseases which happen to the hoofs and
wild and cannot be tamed so as to behave like ankles of the horse are occasioned by standing kept in aviaries or in confinement. The cock
our domestic poultry. It generally has to be on the dry plank fioors of the stable.. Many persons seem to think, from the way they keep may be mated with five or six hens. The Eotheir horses, that the foot of the horse was never
glish books say that it is necessary that he should made for moisture, and that, if possible, it would be two years old, but that the hen will breed at be beneficial if they had cowhide boots to put on
one year old. This is not so ; Mr. Campbell, of
Westboro', has four golden pheasants. The pul. every time they went out. Nature designed the foot for moist ground—the earth of the woods lets began to lay at about eleven months old, the and valleys; at the same time that a covering under a common hen, and some of them have
cocks being at the same age. The eggs were set was given to protect it from stones and stumps. hatched, coming out strong, and apparently as - Ohio Farmer.
lively as any other chick. Short WAY TO CURE Warts.-Heat an iron The young hen will lay about a dozen eggs, a little red, and sprinkle a little rosin on the but more mature birds bave been known to Jay wart, then apply the iron.
forty eggs. The egg should be removed from the
nest every day, as the males are apt to destroy *Capable of yielding ammonja, 14.4 parts; estimated value, £11, 11s. per ton,
them unless this precaution is taken. Imitation
11.58 .... 4 50
eggs may be given them instead. The hen phea- Portable Hen Housee, and their Usefulness sant sits twenty-four days. The young are easy
to Farmers. to rear, and quite as hardy as common chickens. [From Edinburgh Quarterly Journal.] They must be frequently fed on curd, hard boiled In our recent articles, “Vipers” and “Talpieggs, cheese, canary seed, bruised hemp seed, cide,” we stienously contended for the utility of the grubs and larvæ of insects and ant's eggs. hedgehogs and moles, to the great indignation, W beat, hemp and barley are the best food for the we daresay, of sundry gamekeepers and farmers. old birds.
But “ truth is mighty, and will prevail.” We The cock does not assume his full plumage till have persuaded several agriculturists to try the the second year, when the head is ornamented experiment of letting the moles alone for one with a silky crest of fine amber yellow. The year at least, and to send for us in order that we feathers of the back of the head and neck are may have the opportunity of inspecting any square, disposed in scales, and of a rich orange- damage chargeable on them. Having asserted red, edged with a line of black, and capable of that our moles are not addicted to work in the being raised at will; lower down, so as to en line of the turnip drill, and that when they hapcroach upon the top of the back, is a space of pen to take that direction, plants enough to indark glossy greenish feathers, with rounded sure a crop have always been left, a friend edges, disposed scale-like; the back is rich yel- assures us that the mole's doings have repeatedly low, as are the upper tail covert, with a crimson played havoc with bis turnips. But the query border; the tail feathers are mottled with chest- may be put : “Would he have fared better if in nut and black ; the wings are deep blue at their his fields there had not been a single mole?” base ; quilis and secondaries brown, with chest. The moles were attracted by the grubs; if he nut bars; the whole of the under surface intense had had no moles he would have had more scarlet. The female is of a rusty brown and less grubs. With more grubs would he have had attractive.- Massachusetts Ploughman.
more turnips ? The summer before last, our
turnip-field had hardly any moles, and the grubs The New York State Sheep Fair, cut so many of the young plants close to the On the 8th ult. the 3d annual Fair of the N. Y. ground that the blanks were annoyingly nuSheep Breeders' and Wool Growers' Association merous. was opened at Auburn, says the Auburn Advo Moreover, a large farmer in Forfarshire, after cate. The following entries are mentioned : reading “Talpicide," not only resolved no longer
“Wm. R. Sandford, of Vt., two rams, “Kilo to kill moles, but informed us that during patrick" and "Blucher," the former being valued twenty years' experience he never saw tuinips at $12,000 in gold, and the latter $10,000 in thrown out of the drill in consequence of the currency; Mr. Freeman, of Bemis Heights, N. Y mole's pursuit of insects. We still maintain with the celebrated “Dew Drop;” Mr. Wing of that the mischief alleged against them is exN. Y. City, with 5 coarse-wooled sheep, said to aggerated, and abundantly compensated by their be the best in the United States ; Mr. Holmes of remarkable talent for insecticide. Saratoga Co. with 5 fine animals. John Lynch, But, as the progress of truth and humanity is of West Brighton, exhibited 6 good Southdowns, slow, we must allow our agricultural friends a of the kind first imported by Jonas Wall, and the little time to read, mark, and inwardly digest latter by Mr. Thorn, of Duchess Co. Isaac Bower, our plea for moles. North Chili, two Paular Merinoes, with fine, long As we are open to conviction, we have resolved wool, called the broathcloth sheep, the fleece of faithfully to report any charge they may make which brings in the market from 10 to 15 cents against our proteges. more than shorter wool. Another from his flock, We fear we are again about to shock the noa Robinson Paular, of fine, delaine fleece, is val- tions of farmers by gravely inviting them, if they ued at $500 ; the other two $200 each. H. A. & won't patronize nuoles as grub-slayers, to employ H. Miller, of Greenwich, exhibited a beautiful their hens in this much needed office. Spanish Merino ram, "Young Dictator," by Per Of course, we all know how assiduously fowls cy's “ Gold Mine," Hammond ewe, bred and follow the plow for the purpose of picking up owned by the exhibitor, valued at $500. One all sorts of insects, and especially the detested of “Dictator's” daughters was with him, a little “grub." But it never occured to any of us to pet, only six weeks old, and worth $125. The afford a hen facilities for fattening on our foes, second day, like the first, was rains. Friday, the by removing her to the different fields according third and last day, was a success; the attendance to their condition varying with the seasons. At was large. Some of the finest sheep where sheared. 'harvest-time we have the sense to facilitate the
toil of the reapers by conveying them in carts to and fed upon expensive grain is out of her elethe scene of their sometimes distant operations; ment. She, an insectivorous bird, never sees a but to send a hen in a portable house to live for grub or a worm, and has only the rare chance of montbs in the fields, and for the purpose of ena getting hold of a spider or a fly. Meanwhile bling her systematically to rid us of all sorts of the food provided for her in the fields is there in farm pests—This is an idea quite new; and yet abundance; the innumberable insects which ver so natural, that it is marvellous that it never occur the farmer gain the mastery, because not only red to us! Here we are, with the nineteenth cen are fowls shut up, or only accustomed to frequent tury of grace far advanced, and with the world the fields near the farm house, but all sorts of innear its end according to Dr. Cumming, and yet, sectivorous birds and animals, such as moles and till light dawned on the inquisitive mind of M. bedgehogs, are senselessly killed. And so, instead Giot, a farmer at Chevry, (Seine et Marne,) the of the proper distribution of the good things of idea of Le Poulailler Roulant"-a hen-honse on tbis life, grubs for fowls, &c., and grain for man wheels—seems never to have entered the agri- and the domesticated animals, we witness the cultural mind.
deplorable spectacle of cultivated fields ravaged Smitten with the laudable ambition of bring- by full-fed insects while men are half-starved, ing about the good time coming, when every and agricultural is about the most slenderly reFrenchman shall have a fowl in his pot, and of munerated of those arocations which demand effecting this blessed change in the physical con the possession of capital, and the assiduous apdition of his compatriots, by entering into the plication of intelligent industry. views of Providence,” M. Giot takes pen in It cannot be questioned, we believe, that the hand, and writes like a litterateur and a savant more the farmer avails himself of natural auxilliupon the novel theme of the natural connection aries in the raising of his crops, the more abunbetwixt hens and barvests.
dant these will be ; so that if his fowls be among Before they have done with our account of his the number of them, he ought to consider how sagacious and economical mode of feeding fowls they can be made to do him most service. It is in the fields, we rather think that, reflecting on notorious that he denounces them as a sort of the comparatively unprofitable lives of British necessary nuisance, which must be submitted to hens, not a few of our farming readers will con- because poultry is prized by certain classes, and fess that they have learned something new and almost everybody is fond of eggs. He holds, worth the knowing. Let them look at that old nevertheless, that "hey are bad farmers," that omnibus located in a field, and fitted up with they don't "pay, and that he would be wise to perches and nests, and however widely they may bave none of them,”' &c. open the eyes of astonishment at such a machine, But M. Giot, a farmer and a man of sense, containing a multitude of fowls sent to pick up who can weigh the pros and cons of a quesa living gratis, and be at the same time most tion affecting his calling, tells quite a different effective destroyers of insect pests, they cannot story; asserting that in the interest of agriculoppose this novelty on the score of expense. ture we ought to direct the insectivorons habits
At first M. Giot was laughed at for talking of of fowls, which naturally ramble about in search a portable hen-house costing a thousand francs, of a living, and are only mischievous at seedand needing the attendance of a watchman and time and harvest; and that the very simplicity a dog to look after it during the night. But the of his plan of managing is the reason of its discovery has been made that any rough sort of having been orerlooked, according to our cusan affair upon wheels, and capable of being shut, tom of searching in the clouds for what is under will answer the purpose, and that the system our feet. may be carried out on so small a scale that a That is putting his case very strongly, no dozen of hens conveyed to the land in a covered doubt; it is in fact saving that farmers heretofore wheelbarrow will do a great deal of good. I have had less sense than their hens. And yet Placing it in a vineyard or a field, the owner of we are hugely afraid that such is the fact. M. it may pursue his work in the assured confidence Giot "craws sae crouse"-not on his dunghill, that the hens will attend to theirs, and show no that time honored stronghold of farmers, but on desire to forsake their temporary house on the bis hen-house in the fields--that we really do wheelbarrow,
not see how to quiet him unless by chiming in But we must expound the rationale of M. Giot's with bim; on the principle of the accommodating procedure. He is a humane man and a philoso- old lady who maintained that the way to overphical. He argues that we must not denaturalize come temptation was to yield to it. the habits of hens. A hen shut up in a court Who can deny that a hen is of the nature of